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2.
Am J Med Qual ; 38(6): 294-299, 2023 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37908032

RESUMO

Oncology patients presenting for outpatient evaluation of a respiratory tract infection (RTI) are often tested for a variety of viruses with a respiratory pathogen panel (RPP) in addition to influenza and SARS-CoV-2. This triad of testing is expensive and uncomfortable because it requires 2 nasal swabs. Little evidence supports the use of an RPP in outpatient settings, but it is routinely ordered. This retrospective chart review analyzed 183 RPPs performed at Jefferson between April 2020 and November 2021 in outpatient oncology patients presenting with RTI. Data collected included patient demographics, symptoms, and exam findings at time of RPP, additional testing completed, results of RPP, antibiotic and antiviral use before and after RPP results, and patient outcomes 30 days after RPP. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Of the 183 RPPs analyzed, 16.9% (31) were positive for at least 1 respiratory virus. Fifty-two patients (28.4%) started antibiotics before results of the RPP. Of those, 2 patients (3.8%) had a change in antibiotic plan after RPP results returned. Zero patients were started on antiviral medication before results of the RPP. One patient started antiviral treatment after RPP results returned. In total, only 3 patients (1.6%) had an RPP-driven change in medication management. This study suggests limited utility in use of RPPs for oncology patients presenting to the office with RTI symptoms. Targeted testing with a single nasal swab for influenza, RSV, and SARS-CoV-2 may be more clinically relevant. The authors hope to use these data to implement a quality improvement initiative to reduce RPP utilization in this population.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Neoplasias , Infecções Respiratórias , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
3.
Microbiol Spectr ; 11(1): e0393922, 2023 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36625572

RESUMO

Antibiograms are cumulative reports of antimicrobial susceptibility results that are used to guide the selection of empirical antibiotic therapy. Although Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines recommend including only organisms that have at least 30 isolates in an antibiogram, previous studies demonstrated that adherence to this recommendation is highly variable. This paper aims to model the impact of small sample sizes on expected levels of error in cumulative antibiograms by comparing percent susceptibility results for random samples to those of the larger, entire data set. The results demonstrate relatively high error rates when utilizing low numbers of isolates in cumulative antibiograms, and provide a discussion point for considering the appropriate number of isolates that could be utilized, and the impact of increasing isolate numbers by including multiple years of data. IMPORTANCE Antibiograms are reports of local antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for common bacteria and yeast that are used to make empirical decisions for patient therapy and also to inform institution therapy guidelines. This study evaluates the impact of low isolate counts on the reliability of antibiograms, and suggests that more institutions should utilize multiple years of data to overcome this issue.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Bactérias , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Laboratórios , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
4.
IDCases ; 25: e01175, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159053

RESUMO

We present a case of a young healthy female who developed recurrent cranial wound infections after a traumatic injury, the etiologic organism finally identified as Mycoplasma hominis, an uncommon and difficult to isolate bacterium.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252591, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115801

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: During the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic, mortality associated with the disease declined in the United States. The standard of care for pharmacological interventions evolved during this period as new and repurposed treatments were used alone and in combination. Though these medications have been studied individually, data are limited regarding the relative impact of different medication combinations. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the association of COVID-19-related mortality and observed medication combinations and to determine whether changes in medication-related practice patterns and measured patient characteristics, alone, explain the decline in mortality seen early in the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a multi-hospital healthcare system exploring the association of mortality and combinations of remdesivir, corticosteroids, anticoagulants, tocilizumab, and hydroxychloroquine. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of mortality for both the overall population and the population stratified by intensive care and non-intensive care unit admissions. A separate model was created to control for the change in unmeasured variables over time. RESULTS: For all patients, four treatment combinations were associated with lower mortality: Anticoagulation Only (OR 0.24, p < 0.0001), Anticoagulation and Remdesivir (OR 0.25, p = 0.0031), Anticoagulation and Corticosteroids (OR 0.53, p = 0.0263), and Anticoagulation, Corticosteroids and Remdesivir (OR 0.42, p = 0.026). For non-intensive care unit patients, the same combinations were significantly associated with lower mortality. For patients admitted to the intensive care unit, Anticoagulation Only was the sole treatment category associated with decreased mortality. When adjusted for demographics, clinical characteristics, and all treatment combinations there was an absolute decrease in the mortality rate by 2.5% between early and late periods of the study. However, when including an additional control for changes in unmeasured variables overtime, the absolute mortality rate decreased by 5.4%. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that anticoagulation was the most significant treatment for the reduction of COVID-related mortality. Anticoagulation Only was the sole treatment category associated with a significant decrease in mortality for both intensive care and non-intensive care patients. Treatment combinations that additionally included corticosteroids and/or remdesivir were also associated with decreased mortality, though only in the non-intensive care stratum. Further, we found that factors other than measured changes in demographics, clinical characteristics or pharmacological interventions accounted for an additional decrease in the COVID-19-related mortality rate over time.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alanina/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/virologia , Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
J Clin Immunol ; 41(3): 545-551, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387157

RESUMO

We present a case of central nervous system (CNS) histoplasmosis in a previously healthy adult with hepatitis C (HCV) presenting with neurological symptoms refractory to antifungal therapy and ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting 4 months after initial diagnosis. Persistent symptoms were thought to be inflammatory rather than infectious given negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum fungal antigens. The patient promptly improved after initiation of corticosteroid therapy. Elevated CSF cytokines and regional enhancement on brain MRI resolved with corticosteroid treatment. This is the first case of Histoplasma-associated post-infectious inflammatory response syndrome (Histo-PIIRS) documented by CSF cytokine reduction in response to corticosteroid therapy.


Assuntos
Infecções Fúngicas do Sistema Nervoso Central/complicações , Histoplasmose/complicações , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias/diagnóstico , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias/etiologia , Biomarcadores , Infecções Fúngicas do Sistema Nervoso Central/microbiologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Histoplasmose/microbiologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias/terapia , Avaliação de Sintomas , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem
7.
Clin Lab Med ; 40(4): 509-520, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121619

RESUMO

Misuse of antibiotics, including unnecessary use or inappropriate selection, may result in side effects and poor outcome in individual patients, as well as contribute to the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial stewardship programs exist to reduce such misuse of antibiotics and ill effect in order to promote patient outcome. The importance of diagnostics, antibiogram data, possible interventions, and impact are reviewed. It is essential for clinical microbiologists and other health care members to understand the field and scope of antimicrobial stewardship, actively participate in, and understand the value they bring to supporting their institution's efforts.


Assuntos
Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Laboratórios , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Humanos , Prescrição Inadequada/prevenção & controle , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Autorização Prévia
9.
BMJ Case Rep ; 20152015 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26385939

RESUMO

A 7-year-old girl with an unremarkable medical history presented to a local paediatric emergency department with a 7-day history of fever, sore throat and vomiting, and a 1-day history of rash. She was admitted to the hospital, with presumed Kawasaki disease. A few hours after admission, the patient had sudden onset of two witnessed tonic-clonic seizures and subsequent decreased mental status. She was transferred to the paediatric intensive care unit and started on broad-spectrum antibiotics. On hospital day 2, cerebral spinal fluid cultures and blood cultures grew Streptococcus pyogenes, and repeat physical examination was consistent with acute streptococcal pharyngitis. On hospital day 3, the patient developed left-sided hemiparesis and had another witnessed seizure. A CT scan was obtained and revealed a subdural abscess. She was transferred to a tertiary care centre and underwent craniotomy with evacuation of her subdural abscess. Surgical cultures eventually grew S. pyogenes.


Assuntos
Empiema Subdural/microbiologia , Faringite/complicações , Infecções Estreptocócicas/complicações , Streptococcus pyogenes , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Paresia/microbiologia , Faringite/microbiologia , Convulsões/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia
10.
Phys Sportsmed ; 43(2): 161-8, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25797288

RESUMO

The large amount of scientific literature regarding vitamin D can be overwhelming and confusing. Some organizations have made specific guidelines and recommendations regarding optimal blood levels of vitamin D. In the sports medicine literature, new information about the effects of vitamin D on performance and bone health abound. Most of these articles seem to raise more questions than they answer. Are athletes at increased risk of vitamin D deficiency? Does vitamin D deficiency affect athletic performance? Should athletes be tested for deficiency? What is the optimal goal for vitamin D levels in athletes and is this different from the general population? The goal of this article is to provide clinical insight and clarity, both for those practicing in the primary care setting as well as for those taking care of athletes.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Osso e Ossos , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitaminas/sangue , Atletas , Humanos , Medicina Esportiva
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