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1.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 34(4): 682-689, oct.-dic. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-902973

RESUMO

RESUMEN La obesidad infantil representa uno de los mayores problemas de salud pública a nivel mundial. En el presente artículo se exponen las intervenciones para prevenir el sobrepeso y obesidad en niños menores de cinco años. Las intervenciones dirigidas a prevenir la obesidad en infantes fueron: promoción de la lactancia materna, vigilancia del crecimiento del niño y promoción de una adecuada alimentación complementaria, a través de la consejería nutricional con enfoque de alimentación responsiva, brindadas en distintos escenarios como el centro de salud o basados en el hogar a través de visitas domiciliarias. Las intervenciones dirigidas a prevenir obesidad en los preescolares incluyen las intervenciones con componentes de actividad física y nutrición que involucren activamente a los padres. La calidad de la evidencia de la mayoría de estudios es alta debido a que proviene de ensayos clínicos controlados, revisiones sistemáticas y metaanálisis. Todas estas intervenciones se realizan o podrían ser replicadas en nuestro país, mediante una adecuada contextualización.


ABSTRACT Childhood obesity is one of the most severe public health problems worldwide. The present study describes the interventions used to prevent overweight and obesity in children younger than 5 years. The objective of the interventions was to stimulate breastfeeding, monitor the child's growth, and promote adequate complementary feeding by means of nutritional counseling using a responsive feeding approach in different settings, including health centers and residences. The interventions included physical activity and nutritional counseling, with the active participation of the parents. The quality of evidence from most studies was high because the evidence was derived from controlled clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. All interventions were conducted or could be replicated in Peru by adequate contextualization.

3.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 34(4): 738-743, 2017 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29364412

RESUMO

This study reports the experience obtained by the National Institute of Health of Peru in the use of deliberative dialogues for the formulation of recommendations as one of the stages of the process of adaptation of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations (GRADE) system. Using a multidisciplinary approach, this study describes: 1. the public health problems addressed in the dialogues; 2. the role of the involved parties; 3. the parameters that were considered before and during the discussions; 4. the challenges for optimizing these dialogues and stimulating the interaction between scientific evidence and the added value provided by the involved parties through their experiences, perspectives, and knowledge for the development of recommendations in health.


Assuntos
Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Comunicação Interdisciplinar
4.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 34(4): 682-689, 2017 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29364422

RESUMO

Childhood obesity is one of the most severe public health problems worldwide. The present study describes the interventions used to prevent overweight and obesity in children younger than 5 years. The objective of the interventions was to stimulate breastfeeding, monitor the child's growth, and promote adequate complementary feeding by means of nutritional counseling using a responsive feeding approach in different settings, including health centers and residences. The interventions included physical activity and nutritional counseling, with the active participation of the parents. The quality of evidence from most studies was high because the evidence was derived from controlled clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. All interventions were conducted or could be replicated in Peru by adequate contextualization.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente
6.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 33(3): 574-579, 2016 Jul-Sep.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27831624

RESUMO

This article describes the concept of global health security and its development over time. It emphasizes the need to control challenges against global health such as those produced by biologic agents both natural and intentional. It presents world initiatives that have developed during the last two decades and the contribution of Peru to the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) and the Monitoring and Evaluation Framework. In order to accelerate the implementation of the International Health Regulations Peru has played an important role to accelerate the implementation of International Health Regulations (IHR), participating with a group of countries, World Health Organization (WHO), and GHSA in the creation of the Joint External Evaluation Tool (JEE).


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Saúde Global , Cooperação Internacional , Humanos , Peru , Organização Mundial da Saúde
7.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 33(3): 580-584, 2016 Jul-Sep.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27831625

RESUMO

This article analyzes some examples about how the Ministry of Health of Peru has used evidence for policy and program formulation, implementation and evaluation. It describes the process by which health budget programs are based and strengthened with scientific evidence. Provides an overview about how the development of clinical guidelines methodology is facilitating the generation of high quality evidence based clinical guidelines.It presents some examples of specific information needs of the Ministry of Health to which the Instituto Nacional de Salud has responded, and the impact of that collaboration. Finally, the article proposes future directions for the use of research methodology especially relevant for the development and evaluation of policy and programs, as well as the development of networks of health technology assessment at the national and international level.


Assuntos
Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Peru
8.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 33(2): 300-10, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27656931

RESUMO

This article reviews public health interventions for preparedness and response to natural disasters within the context of El Niño phenomenon using systematic reviews and a review of revisions with emphasis on vector-borne diseases, water-borne diseases, malnutrition, heat stress, drought, flood-associated diseases, mental health problems, vulnerability of the physical health-system infrastructure, as well as long-term policies aimed at protecting the populations of these cases. Environmental interventions were identified, including vector control, chemoprophylaxis, immunization, and intradomiciliary water treatment. While these finds are based primarily on systematic reviews, it is necessary to evaluate the benefit of these interventions within the population, according to the context of each region.


Assuntos
El Niño Oscilação Sul , Saúde Pública , Desastres , Humanos
9.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 33(3): 580-584, jul.-sep. 2016.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-798212

RESUMO

RESUMEN En el presente artículo se analizan algunos ejemplos del uso de evidencia generada por el Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) que el Ministerio de Salud del Perú ha realizado en los últimos años en la formulación, implementación y evaluación de las políticas y programas. Presenta el proceso por el cual los programas presupuestales se sustentan y fortalecen a partir de la evidencia. Describe el progreso en el desarrollo de una metodología para generar guías de calidad a partir de la mejor evidencia disponible para orientar la práctica clínica. Presenta algunos ejemplos de requerimientos de evidencia del Ministerio de Salud al Instituto Nacional de Salud y su impacto en política. Por último, propone direcciones futuras respecto a metodologías de investigación especialmente relevantes para el desarrollo y evaluación de políticas y el fortalecimiento de redes de evaluación de tecnologías en el ámbito nacional e internacional.


ABSTRACT This article analyzes some examples about how the Ministry of Health of Peru has used evidence for policy and program formulation, implementation and evaluation. It describes the process by which health budget programs are based and strengthened with scientific evidence. Provides an overview about how the development of clinical guidelines methodology is facilitating the generation of high quality evidence based clinical guidelines.It presents some examples of specific information needs of the Ministry of Health to which the Instituto Nacional de Salud has responded, and the impact of that collaboration. Finally, the article proposes future directions for the use of research methodology especially relevant for the development and evaluation of policy and programs, as well as the development of networks of health technology assessment at the national and international level.

10.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 33(3): 574-579, jul.-sep. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-798213

RESUMO

RESUMEN El artículo describe el concepto de la seguridad sanitaria mundial, su evolución en el tiempo y discute la importancia de enfrentar los problemas que amenazan la salud global producidas por agentes biológicos de manera natural, accidental o intencional. Asimismo, presenta las iniciativas surgidas en las últimas dos décadas en el mundo, y el rol del Perú en el desarrollo de la Agenda para La Seguridad Sanitaria Mundial o Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) y la Alianza para las Evaluaciones Externas. Al respecto, el Perú ha cumplido un papel importante participando con un grupo de países, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) y la GHSA en el proceso de desarrollo de un instrumento de evaluación externa conjunta denominado Joint External Evaluation Tool (JEE) con el objetivo último de acelerar la implementación del Reglamento Sanitario Internacional (RSI).


ABSTRACT This article describes the concept of global health security and its development over time. It emphasizes the need to control challenges against global health such as those produced by biologic agents both natural and intentional. It presents world initiatives that have developed during the last two decades and the contribution of Peru to the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) and the Monitoring and Evaluation Framework. In order to accelerate the implementation of the International Health Regulations Peru has played an important role to accelerate the implementation of International Health Regulations (IHR), participating with a group of countries, World Health Organization (WHO), and GHSA in the creation of the Joint External Evaluation Tool (JEE).

11.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 33(2): 300-310, abr.-jun. 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-795386

RESUMO

RESUMEN El presente artículo realiza una revisión de las intervenciones en salud pública para la preparación y respuesta ante desastres naturales en el contexto del fenómeno El Niño (FEN) a partir de revisiones sistemáticas y una revisión de revisiones con énfasis en las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores, transmitidas por el agua, malnutrición, estrés térmico, sequías, enfermedades asociadas a inundaciones, problemas de salud mental, vulnerabilidad de la infraestructura física de los servicios de salud, así como de las políticas a largo plazo orientadas a proteger a la población en estos casos. Se identificaron intervenciones ambientales, como el control de vectores, quimioprofilaxis, vacunación y tratamiento intradomiciliario de agua. Si bien estos hallazgos se basan principalmente en revisiones sistemáticas, es necesario evaluar el beneficio de estas intervenciones en la población, de acuerdo con la realidad de cada región.


ABSTRACT This article reviews public health interventions for preparedness and response to natural disasters within the context of El Niño phenomenon using systematic reviews and a review of revisions with emphasis on vector-borne diseases, water-borne diseases, malnutrition, heat stress, drought, flood-associated diseases, mental health problems, vulnerability of the physical health-system infrastructure, as well as long-term policies aimed at protecting the populations of these cases. Environmental interventions were identified, including vector control, chemoprophylaxis, immunization, and intradomiciliary water treatment. While these finds are based primarily on systematic reviews, it is necessary to evaluate the benefit of these interventions within the population, according to the context of each region.

12.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 37(1): 52-8, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25791188

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To carry out a systematic review of the literature on the effectiveness of fortified rice consumption in terms of increasing levels of iron and other micro-nutrients in children aged 6-59 months, with a view to evaluating its usefulness as a public health intervention. METHODS: A search was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, and LILACS databases. The review included randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that assessed the consumption of fortified rice, compared with a placebo or other forms of intervention, in terms of enhanced levels of iron and other micronutrients. The CONSORT® checklist was used to assess methodological quality. The risk of bias in the studies was assessed using the Cochrane® Collaboration methodology. RESULTS: Seven RCTs were included in the review. All the studies showed significant improvements in indicators of nutritional iron status in the intervention groups, without reporting adverse effects. There was no evidence of improvement in vitamin A levels or in anthropometric indicators of weight and height as a secondary result of the intervention. The included studies showed moderate methodological quality. CONCLUSIONS: Rice fortification was an effective intervention strategy to correct iron deficiency in children under age 5. For implementation as a public health measure, local studies are needed to assess its effectiveness in long-term and large-scale interventions.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/dietoterapia , Alimentos Fortificados , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Oryza , Antropometria , Criança , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Alimentos Fortificados/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lactente , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Ferro/deficiência , Masculino , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
13.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 37(1): 52-58, Jan. 2015. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-742277

RESUMO

Objetivo. Realizar una revisión sistemática de la literatura sobre la eficacia del consumo de arroz fortificado en el incremento de los niveles de hierro y otros micronutrientes en niños de 6 a 59 meses de edad, con la finalidad de evaluar su utilidad como intervención de salud pública. Métodos. La búsqueda se realizó en las bases de datos Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library y LILACS. Se incluyeron ensayos clínicos aleatorizados (ECA) que evaluaron el consumo de arroz fortificado comparado con placebo u otras formas de intervención sobre la mejora de los niveles de hierro y otros micronutrientes. Para evaluar la calidad metodológica, se utilizó la lista de verificación CONSORT®. El riesgo de sesgo de los estudios se evaluó según la metodología de la Colaboración Cochrane®. Resultados. Se incluyeron siete ECA en la revisión. Todos los estudios mostraron mejoras significativas en indicadores del estado nutricional de hierro en los grupos intervenidos, sin reportar efectos adversos. No se evidenció mejoría en los niveles de vitamina A, ni en los indicadores antropométricos de peso y talla como resultado secundario de la intervención. Los estudios incluidos mostraron calidad metodológica moderada. Conclusiones. La fortificación del arroz representó una estrategia de intervención eficaz para corregir la deficiencia de hierro en la población infantil menor de cinco años. Su implementación como medida de salud pública requiere estudios locales que evalúen su efectividad en intervenciones a largo plazo y en mayor escala.


Objective. To carry out a systematic review of the literature on the effectiveness of fortified rice consumption in terms of increasing levels of iron and other micro­nutrients in children aged 6-59 months, with a view to evaluating its usefulness as a public health intervention. Methods. A search was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, and LILACS databases. The review included randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that assessed the consumption of fortified rice, compared with a placebo or other forms of intervention, in terms of enhanced levels of iron and other micronutrients. The CONSORT® checklist was used to assess methodological quality. The risk of bias in the studies was assessed using the Cochrane® Collaboration methodology. Results. Seven RCTs were included in the review. All the studies showed significant improvements in indicators of nutritional iron status in the intervention groups, without reporting adverse effects. There was no evidence of improvement in vitamin A levels or in anthropometric indicators of weight and height as a secondary result of the intervention. The included studies showed moderate methodological quality. Conclusions. Rice fortification was an effective intervention strategy to correct iron deficiency in children under age 5. For implementation as a public health measure, local studies are needed to assess its effectiveness in long-term and large-scale interventions.


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças do Labirinto/diagnóstico , Osteíte/diagnóstico , Osso Petroso/anormalidades , Osso Petroso/lesões , Fraturas Cranianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cranianas/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Osso Petroso/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 5(1): e931, 2011 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21264349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A century after its discovery, Chagas disease still represents a major neglected tropical threat. Accurate diagnostics tools as well as surrogate markers of parasitological response to treatment are research priorities in the field. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of PCR methods in detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA by an external quality evaluation. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: An international collaborative study was launched by expert PCR laboratories from 16 countries. Currently used strategies were challenged against serial dilutions of purified DNA from stocks representing T. cruzi discrete typing units (DTU) I, IV and VI (set A), human blood spiked with parasite cells (set B) and Guanidine Hidrochloride-EDTA blood samples from 32 seropositive and 10 seronegative patients from Southern Cone countries (set C). Forty eight PCR tests were reported for set A and 44 for sets B and C; 28 targeted minicircle DNA (kDNA), 13 satellite DNA (Sat-DNA) and the remainder low copy number sequences. In set A, commercial master mixes and Sat-DNA Real Time PCR showed better specificity, but kDNA-PCR was more sensitive to detect DTU I DNA. In set B, commercial DNA extraction kits presented better specificity than solvent extraction protocols. Sat-DNA PCR tests had higher specificity, with sensitivities of 0.05-0.5 parasites/mL whereas specific kDNA tests detected 5.10(-3) par/mL. Sixteen specific and coherent methods had a Good Performance in both sets A and B (10 fg/µl of DNA from all stocks, 5 par/mL spiked blood). The median values of sensitivities, specificities and accuracies obtained in testing the Set C samples with the 16 tests determined to be good performing by analyzing Sets A and B samples varied considerably. Out of them, four methods depicted the best performing parameters in all three sets of samples, detecting at least 10 fg/µl for each DNA stock, 0.5 par/mL and a sensitivity between 83.3-94.4%, specificity of 85-95%, accuracy of 86.8-89.5% and kappa index of 0.7-0.8 compared to consensus PCR reports of the 16 good performing tests and 63-69%, 100%, 71.4-76.2% and 0.4-0.5, respectively compared to serodiagnosis. Method LbD2 used solvent extraction followed by Sybr-Green based Real time PCR targeted to Sat-DNA; method LbD3 used solvent DNA extraction followed by conventional PCR targeted to Sat-DNA. The third method (LbF1) used glass fiber column based DNA extraction followed by TaqMan Real Time PCR targeted to Sat-DNA (cruzi 1/cruzi 2 and cruzi 3 TaqMan probe) and the fourth method (LbQ) used solvent DNA extraction followed by conventional hot-start PCR targeted to kDNA (primer pairs 121/122). These four methods were further evaluated at the coordinating laboratory in a subset of human blood samples, confirming the performance obtained by the participating laboratories. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study represents a first crucial step towards international validation of PCR procedures for detection of T. cruzi in human blood samples.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , DNA de Protozoário/sangue , Parasitologia/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética
16.
Mol Biol Evol ; 28(7): 1973-86, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21109587

RESUMO

Plasmodium falciparum entered into the Peruvian Amazon in 1994, sparking an epidemic between 1995 and 1998. Since 2000, there has been sustained low P. falciparum transmission. The Malaria Immunology and Genetics in the Amazon project has longitudinally followed members of the community of Zungarococha (N = 1,945, 4 villages) with active household and health center-based visits each year since 2003. We examined parasite population structure and traced the parasite genetic diversity temporally and spatially. We genotyped infections over 5 years (2003-2007) using 14 microsatellite (MS) markers scattered across ten different chromosomes. Despite low transmission, there was considerable genetic diversity, which we compared with other geographic regions. We detected 182 different haplotypes from 302 parasites in 217 infections. Structure v2.2 identified five clusters (subpopulations) of phylogenetically related clones. To consider genetic diversity on a more detailed level, we defined haplotype families (hapfams) by grouping haplotypes with three or less loci differences. We identified 34 different hapfams identified. The F(st) statistic and heterozygosity analysis showed the five clusters were maintained in each village throughout this time. A minimum spanning network (MSN), stratified by the year of detection, showed that haplotypes within hapfams had allele differences and haplotypes within a cluster definition were more separated in the later years (2006-2007). We modeled hapfam detection and loss, accounting for sample size and stochastic fluctuations in frequencies overtime. Principle component analysis of genetic variation revealed patterns of genetic structure with time rather than village. The population structure, genetic diversity, appearance/disappearance of the different haplotypes from 2003 to 2007 provides a genome-wide "real-time" perspective of P. falciparum parasites in a low transmission region.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Doenças Endêmicas , Haplótipos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/transmissão , Repetições de Microssatélites , Peru/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Componente Principal , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
17.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 27(4): 578-585, dic. 2010. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-573938

RESUMO

Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática para identificar publicaciones sobre la seguridad ante la exposición de raticidas que contienen Salmonella para humanos y animales. Se consideraron publicaciones a texto completo que incluían descripción de su metodología y la presentación adecuada de sus resultados. De 545 publicaciones recuperadas, 47 se revisaron a texto completo de las que se seleccionaron 12. En seis se reportan casos de salmonelosis en humanos, incluso casos fatales, asociados a la exposición a versiones anteriores de estos raticidas. El único ensayo clínico encontrado reporta una mayor frecuencia de diarrea y fiebre en el grupo que ingirió Salmonella contenida en Biorat® (presentación comercial actual); sin embargo, la diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa, pero el ensayo presentó problemas metodológicos. Las cepas de Salmonella enteritidis contenidas en una versión anterior (Ratin®) y en la versión actual corresponden a la misma variedad (Danysz) y fagotipo (6a), y están cercanamente relacionadas según la técnica de electroforesis en gel de campo pulsado (PFGE). No se reporta efectos patógenos de esta Salmonella para las diferentes especies de animales ensayadas; sin embargo, se encontraron limitaciones en la metodología empleada. Se concluye que la Salmonella enteritidis contenida en versiones anteriores de raticidas produjo enfermedad en humanos por lo que fue prohibida su comercialización y que existiría un riesgo potencial de la versión actual por contener una bacteria muy similar y por no tener evidencia suficiente que garantice su seguridad. Son necesarios estudios bien diseñados por instituciones sin conflicto de interés, antes de su aplicación en salud pública o agricultura.


We conducted a systematic search of the literature to identify publications on the safety of exposure to Salmonella-based rodenticides by humans and animals. We included full-text publications that described the methods and presented their results satisfactorily. Of 545 publications retrieved, 47 were reviewed in full text and from those 12 were selected. Six reports featured cases of salmonellosis in humans, with fatal cases, associated with exposure to previous versions of this type of rodenticide. A clinical trial reported an increased frequency of diarrhea and fever in the group that ingested Biorat ® (the current commercial form) containing Salmonella, however the difference from the control group was not significant, but the trial had methodological problems. Strains of Salmonella enteritidis from an earlier version of the rat poison (Ratin®) and those in the current version correspond to the same variety (Danyzs) and phage type (6a), and were found to be closely related using the technique of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). No pathogenic effects of this Salmonella were reported in different animal species tested; however, we found limitations in the methodology. We conclude that the Salmonella enteritidis contained in earlier rat poison formulations produced illness in humans so that its commercialization was prohibited, and that there would be a potential risk with the present formulation because it contains a very similar bacteria, and because there is not sufficient evidence to guarantee its safety. Well-designed studies still need to be done by institutions that do not have a conflict of interest before it can be applied in the areas of public health and agriculture.


Assuntos
Humanos , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Rodenticidas/efeitos adversos , Salmonella , Saúde Pública
18.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 27(1): 68-79, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21072453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To revise the available evidence on the cost-effectiveness of antiviral regimens for treatment of chronic hepatitis B. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a systematic revision on MEDLINE, LILACS NICE and COCHRANE databases, searching for economic evaluations of antiviral regimens for treatment of chronic hepatitis B. We included original studies, systematic revisions and management guidelines including information on the cost-effectiveness of this treatment. We registered the characteristics and results of the retrieved documents. RESULTS: We obtained 29 original papers, 4 revision articles and 4 management guidelines. Most of these publications have been done in the last 5 years. There was conflict of interest in 73% of original articles, due to authors working for the pharmaceutical industry. 93% of articles that evaluate the cost-effectiveness of giving treatment for chronic hepatitis B against management of its complications find that it is indeed cost-effective to give antiviral treatment. 3/6 studies that evaluate lamivudine against other drugs find it as a dominant strategy, 3/5 find entecavir as the dominant strategy, 1/1 find tenofovir dominant, » find conventional interferon as dominant and none of them find adefovir or pegylated interferon as dominant strategies. CONCLUSIONS: We consider that the available evidence suggests that to give antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis B is a cost-effective intervention for many health systems, including ours. It has varying indexes of cost-effectiveness according to the evaluated regimens. Ideally , we should perform local economic evaluations in this issue.


Assuntos
Antivirais/economia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B Crônica/economia , Humanos
19.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 27(2): 222-30, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21072474

RESUMO

There is wide controversy about the mechanism of action of the levonorgestrel used for emergency oral contraception, and many organizations, both scientific as well as from the civil society, show their discrepancy with its use, due to its possible action as an abortion- inducer. In order to evaluate the scientific evidence available on the mechanisms of action of the levonorgestrel used for emergency oral contraception (EOC), a systematic revision was performed in the Medline and Cochrane library databases. We found 444 articles. After reviewing the abstracts, we selected 22 articles, whose complete texts were evaluated. We found that the main mechanism of action of the levonorgestrel, given at the doses recommended for EOC, is the inhibition or retardation of the ovulation, it doesn't affect the spermatozoa in their migration or egg-penetration capacities. No morphological or molecular alterations in the endometrium that could interfere with the implantation of the fertilized egg have been demonstrated. There is no actual scientific evidence available supporting that the use of levonorgestrel for EOC is abortive.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção Pós-Coito , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/farmacologia , Endométrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Levanogestrel/farmacologia , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 27(2): 222-230, abr.-jun. 2010. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-565456

RESUMO

Existe amplia controversia acerca del mecanismo de acción del levonorgestrel como anticonceptivo oral de emergencia; numerosas organizaciones, tanto científicas como de la sociedad civil, muestran su disconformidad con su uso, debido a su posible acción como inductor de aborto. Con el objetivo de evaluar la evidencia científica disponible sobre los mecanismos de acción del levonorgestrel utilizado como anticonceptivo oral de emergencia (AOE), se realizó una revisión sistemática en las bases de datos Medline y Cochrane Library donde se encontró 444 artículos; después de revisar los resúmenes, se seleccionó 22 artículos, los cuales fueron evaluados a texto completo. Se encontró que el principal mecanismo de acción del levonorgestrel, a las dosis recomendadas como AOE, es la inhibición o retraso de la ovulación; no afecta a los espermatozoides en su capacidad de migración ni de penetración al óvulo. No se ha demostrado alteraciones morfológicas ni moleculares en el endometrio que puedan interferir con la implantación del huevo fecundado. No existe evidencia científica actual disponible que sustente que el uso de levonorgestrel como AOE sea abortivo.


There is wide controversy about the mechanism of action of the levonorgestrel used for emergency oral contraception, and many organizations, both scientific as well as from the civil society, show their discrepancy with its use, due to its possible action as an abortion-inducer. In order to evaluate the scientific evidence available on the mechanisms of action of the levonorgestrel used for emergency oral contraception (EOC), a systematic revision was performed in the Medline and Cochrane library databases. We found 444 articles. After reviewing the abstracts, we selected 22 articles, whose complete texts were evaluated. We found that the main mechanism of action of the levonorgestrel, given at the doses recommended for EOC, is the inhibition or retardation of the ovulation, it doesn't affect the spermatozoa in their migration or egg-penetration capacities. No morphological or molecular alterations in the endometrium that could interfere with the implantation of the fertilized egg have been demonstrated. There is no actual scientific evidence available supporting that the use of levonorgestrel for EOC is abortive.


Assuntos
Humanos , Anticoncepção Pós-Coito , Anticoncepcionais Orais , Anticoncepcionais Pós-Coito , Endométrio , Levanogestrel/efeitos adversos , Ovulação , Espermatozoides
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