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1.
Sex Transm Dis ; 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Black adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in the U.S. Southeast are disproportionately burdened by HIV. Infrequent assessment of sexual health in clinical encounters may contribute to low PrEP uptake for this population. This study explores Black AGYW and providers' perspectives on engaging in discussions about sexual health, including PrEP. METHODS: In-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with Black AGYW ages 14-24 and healthcare providers (MD, DO, NP, PA) who self-reported caring for Black AGYWs in Alabama. IDIs were grounded in Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Service Utilization to explore barriers and facilitators to sexual health discussions. After separate analyses, AGYW and provider IDIs were aggregated and reanalyzed using thematic analysis to identify themes related to their views on ways to improve Black AGYW engagement in sexual health discussions while in clinical settings. RESULTS: Twelve Black AGYW and 11 providers completed IDIs. Client median age was 21, representing nine Alabama counties. Providers were predominately non-Hispanic White (82%), female (73%), and physicians (64%). Themes about ways to improve sexual health discussions included: 1) Improve sexual health education for providers and adolescents; 2) Normalize conversations in clinical settings; 3) Engage communities to continue these conversations outside of clinical settings. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual health and HIV prevention discussions with Black AGYW are not occurring. This study is one of the first to to identify and highlight Black AGYW and provider-identified shared strategies for improving these discussions. Operationalizing these strategies is crucial to facilitating these discussions.

2.
BMC Res Notes ; 17(1): 97, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Newer antiretrivirals (ART) have shifted the metabolic experiences of people with HIV (PWH) from those of wasting syndrome to increases in body mass index (BMI). This study sought to examine the relationship between BMI and ART use among youth with HIV (YWH). METHODS: Charts from YWH ages 10-24 with at least two documented BMIs at least 6 months apart between 2017 and 2020 were included (N = 44). Statistical analyses were conducted in SAS 9.4. RESULTS: Clients were predominately African American (66%) males (73%) aged 19-24 years (64%), with men having sex with men (48%) being the most common mode of transmission. YWH on non-integrase inhibitor (INSTI) regimens had greater absolute increases in BMI compared to those on INSTI regimens (p = 0.03). Fourteen percent of clients using INSTI experienced an increase in BMI class from normal to overweight or overweight to obese; no non-INSTI users changed BMI class. Time since diagnosis and BMI change due to weight gain were positively associated (p = 0.03) among behaviorally-acquired YWH. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing BMI and changing BMI classes may be more likely among YWH using INSTI. More longitudinal studies inclusive of diet and exercise profiles are needed to understand the relationship between INSTI and YWH BMI.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV , Masculino , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Aumento de Peso , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/uso terapêutico
3.
Science ; 384(6694): 458-465, 2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38662818

RESUMO

Based on an extensive model intercomparison, we assessed trends in biodiversity and ecosystem services from historical reconstructions and future scenarios of land-use and climate change. During the 20th century, biodiversity declined globally by 2 to 11%, as estimated by a range of indicators. Provisioning ecosystem services increased several fold, and regulating services decreased moderately. Going forward, policies toward sustainability have the potential to slow biodiversity loss resulting from land-use change and the demand for provisioning services while reducing or reversing declines in regulating services. However, negative impacts on biodiversity due to climate change appear poised to increase, particularly in the higher-emissions scenarios. Our assessment identifies remaining modeling uncertainties but also robustly shows that renewed policy efforts are needed to meet the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Extinção Biológica
5.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 11(3): ofae086, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38440303

RESUMO

Gaps in knowledge remain related to understanding missed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) visits and youth with HIV (YWH). This study examined data from an Alabama academic HIV clinic with clients aged 16 to 24 years old and found that non virally suppressed and older YWH were associated with missed visits among YWH.

6.
J Addict Med ; 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446860

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Smoking prevalence remains high among low-income smokers. Understanding processes (eg, withdrawal, craving, motivation) in early smoking cessation is crucially important for designing effective interventions for this population. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a novel, in-session sampling intervention (ie, In Vivo) as compared with standard care behavioral smoking cessation counseling (SC) among community-dwelling low-income smokers (n = 83). This analysis examined the effect of 5 in-session sampling interventions on cessation-related processes and perceived advantages or disadvantages of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products over time using daily diaries. RESULTS: The In Vivo treatment had an early positive impact in terms of decreasing withdrawal symptoms and cravings, and increasing perceived advantages to NRT, with moderate to large effect sizes. Results also showed that the treatment effectively reduced withdrawal symptoms and cravings in-session, with small-to-medium and medium-to-large effect sizes, respectively. In-session reduction of withdrawal symptoms and cravings did not occur for the SC group, with the exception of decreased withdrawal symptoms occurring during week 4. The In Vivo treatment did not impact quit goal, desire to quit, abstinence self-efficacy, perceived difficulty in quitting, motivational engagement, or perceived disadvantages to NRT. The In Vivo group reported less daily cigarette use relative to the SC group, in addition to reporting less cigarette use on days they reported greater combination NRT use. CONCLUSIONS: There is preliminary support for this In Vivo treatment over SC in reducing withdrawal, craving, and the number of cigarettes smoked per day, as well as promoting perceived advantages of NRT among low-income smokers.

7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 101, 2024 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38238697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alabama is one of seven priority states for the National Ending the HIV Epidemic Initiative due to a disproportionate burden of rural infections. To reverse growing infection rates, the state must increase its focus on prevention efforts, including novel strategies. One such approach is to utilize dashboards that visualize real-time data on the pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) care continuum to assist in prioritizing evidence-based preventative care for those most vulnerable for HIV infection. METHODS: We conducted a mixed methods evaluation to ascertain stakeholders' perceptions on the acceptability, feasibility, appropriateness, and usability of a PrEP care continuum dashboard, as well as gain insight on ways to improve the activities necessary to sustain it. Clinicians, administrators, and data personnel from participating sites in Alabama completed surveys (n = 9) and participated in key informant interviews (n = 10) to better understand their experiences with the prototype data dashboard and to share feedback on how it can be modified to best fit their needs. RESULTS: Surveys and interviews revealed that all participants find the pilot data dashboard to be an acceptable, feasible, and appropriate intervention for clinic use. Overall, stakeholders find the pilot dashboard to be usable and helpful in administrative efforts, such as report and grant writing; however, additional refining is needed in order to reduce burden and optimize usefulness. Participants voiced concerns about their site's abilities to sustain the dashboard, including the lack of systematized PrEP protocols and limited funds and staff time dedicated to PrEP data collection, cleaning, and upload. CONCLUSION: Study participants from clinics providing HIV prevention services, including PrEP, in Alabama voiced interest in sustaining and refining a data dashboard that tracks clients across the PrEP care continuum. Despite viewing the platform itself as an acceptable, feasible, and appropriate intervention, participants agreed that efforts need to be focused on standardizing PrEP data collection protocols in order to ensure consistent, accurate data capture and that limited funds and staff time are barriers to the sustained implementation of the dashboard in practice.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Humanos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos
8.
Int J STD AIDS ; 35(1): 11-17, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37678958

RESUMO

Background: As compared to their older peers, youth with HIV (YWH) are less likely to attain viral suppression and have higher rates of sexually transmitted infections (STI). In this exploratory study, we examine the relationship between HIV viral suppression, STI testing, and STI diagnosis among YWH receiving care at a clinic in the southern United States.Methods: Data from 933 clinical visits (2017-2020) were aggregated into singular patient records for YWH aged 10-24 years in Alabama (N = 139). Analyses included univariate generalized linear mixed models performed with the PROC GLIMMIX procedure approximating the marginal likelihood by using Laplace's method.Results: Sample median age was 22 years at the index visit. Most YWH were 20-24 years old (69.1%), male (67.6%), and identified as Black (77%); 58.3% were virally unsuppressed at index visit. YWH who identified as White or of other races had 4.79 times higher odds of being virally suppressed as compared to Black YWH (p < .01); STI testing behavior and STI positive diagnosis were associated with lower odds of being virally suppression.Conclusions: Findings suggest that among YWH, receiving STI testing and having an STI diagnosis is associated with a lack of viral suppression, suggesting that extra efforts may be necessary to support YWH who have an STI to attain suppression. Research is needed to examine individual behaviors, structural forces, and clinic features that could impact STI care engagement, specifically among unsuppressed YWH.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Masculino , Adolescente , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Carga Viral , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/complicações , Alabama/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento
9.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 94(2S): S99-S107, 2023 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37707856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Using the Asset Bundle Model, we sought to understand the social support assets and needs of underrepresented minority (URM) high school, undergraduate, and graduate students. SETTING: Study participants were or had participated in health sciences pathway programs at Birmingham City Schools and/or the University of Alabama at Birmingham. METHODS: We took a concurrent mixed methods approach to conduct an environmental scan of health science pathway programs in the Birmingham, AL area. Four focus groups were conducted between November 2022 and January 2023, and a 225-item online survey was administered between November 4, 2022, and February 4, 2023. Both tools collected data from high school, undergraduate, and graduate students to examine key components of existing health care pathways programs for URMs and identify barriers and facilitators to successful implementation of such programs. RESULTS: Twenty-two students participated in the focus groups, and 168 individuals responded to the survey. Both focus group participants and interview respondents were primarily URMs (eg, 68.2% and 65.7% identified as Black or African American, respectively). Survey responses and focus group discussions showed that, overall, undergraduate and graduate students programs develop more robust identities as future health care professionals through friendships and institutional supports, expand their networks more broadly through mentorship, and feel more supported by family members in their academic endeavors than high school students. CONCLUSIONS: Health science pathway programs for URMs should facilitate and bolster social supports for students, especially those in high school, to enhance persistence through education and into the workforce.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Alabama , Estudantes , Escolaridade , Apoio Social
10.
Res Sq ; 2023 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37645914

RESUMO

Background: Trauma-Informed Care (TIC) is an evidence-based approach for improving health outcomes by providing systematic, trauma- sensitive and -responsive care. Because TIC adoption varies by setting and population, Implementation Science (IS) is particularly well-suited to guide roll-out efforts. Process Mapping (PM) is an IS model for creating shared visual depictions of systems as they are to identify rate-limiting steps of intervention adoption, but guidance on how to apply PM to guide TIC adoption is lacking. Authors of this study aimed to develop a novel method for conducting TIC-focused PM. Methods: A real-life TIC implementation study is presented to show how TIC-focused PM was conducted in the case example of a pediatric HIV clinic in a Southern urban area with a high burden of psychological trauma among youth with HIV. A five-phase PM model was applied to evince clinic standards of care, including Preparation, planning and process identification; Data and information gathering; Map generation; Analysis; and Taking it forward. Practices and conditions from four TIC domains were assessed, including Trauma responsive services; Practices of inclusivity, safety, and wellness; Training and sustaining trauma responsiveness; and Cultural responsiveness. Results: The TIC-focused PM method indicated the case clinic provided limited and non-systematic patient trauma screening, assessment, and interventions; limited efforts to promote professional quality of life and elicit and integrate patient experiences and preferences for care; no ongoing efforts to train and prepare workforce for trauma- sensitive or -responsive care; and no clinic-specific efforts to promote diversity, equity, and inclusion for patients and personnel. Conclusion: Principles and constructs of resilience-focused TIC were synthesized with a five-phase PM model to generate a baseline depiction of TIC in a pediatric HIV clinic. Results will inform the implementation of TIC in the clinic. Future champions may follow the TIC-focused PM model to guide context-tailored TIC adoption.

11.
Ultrasound ; 31(2): 104-110, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37144229

RESUMO

Introduction: Rapid increases in the utility of vascular ultrasound combined with increasing expectations from reporting physicians have required a shift to a more defined professional role for the vascular sonographer in Australia. This has created increasing pressure on newly qualified sonographers to be more job-ready and better able to navigate the challenges of the clinical workplace early in their career. Topic Description: There is a distinct lack of structured strategies that newly qualified sonographers can utilise to assist their transition from student to employee. In our paper, we aimed to answer the question of 'What makes a sonographer a Professional?' with the view to extending understanding of how a structured framework can assist the development of a professional identity and can encourage participating in Continuing Professional Development by the newly qualified sonographer. Discussion: The authors reviewed their own clinical experiences and the current literature to source tangible and practical strategies that can be easily enacted by newly qualified sonographers to motivate their continuing growth. Through this review, the 'Domains of Professionalism in the role of the sonographer' framework was developed. In this framework, we describe the various domains of professionalism and their associated dimensions, making it specific to the discipline of sonography and to the point of view of a newly qualified sonographer. Conclusion: Our paper contributes to the discussion on Continuing Professional Development using a purposeful and targeted approach to support newly qualified sonographers across all discipline areas of ultrasound specialisation to navigate the often challenging pathway to becoming a professional.

12.
J Wrist Surg ; 12(3): 273-279, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37223375

RESUMO

Mycobacterium avium intracellulare (MAI) infections of the hand, wrist, and upper extremity are rare, but potentially devastating atypical mycobacterial infections that can affect tendon, bone, and other soft tissues of the musculoskeletal system. We present an immunocompromised patient presenting with acute swelling and pain in the dorsum of the hand and wrist that underwent a wrist extensor tenosynovectomy with intraoperative cultures revealing infection with MAI. The patient developed severe progression of the infection with osteomyelitis of the distal forearm and carpal bones, multiple subsequent extensor tendon ruptures, and dorsal skin necrosis. The infection was eradicated with a combination of surgical treatment and antibiotic therapy. The case is discussed in context of the prior scant literature of infectious tenosynovitis of the hand, wrist, and upper extremity caused by MAI. This case report and literature review outline recommendations for diagnosis and effective treatment of MAI.

13.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 22: 23259582231163125, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37009663

RESUMO

Background: Youth with HIV (YWH) aged 18-24 are overburdened by tobacco, with half also using cannabis recreationally. Increasing tobacco cessation necessitates exploring providers' approaches to cessation. Methods: Grounded in social cognitive theory, we explored cognitive, socioenvironmental, and behavioral factors impacting providers' approaches to tobacco use among recreational cannabis users. Virtual interviews were conducted among healthcare providers caring for YWH in Washington (legalized cannabis), Massachusetts (legalized cannabis), and Alabama (cannabis not legal). Interviews were transcribed and analyzed via deductive and exploratory, thematic approaches using NVivo 12 Plus. Results: Twelve providers participated; 80% were subspecialist physicians. All providers (N = 12) reported discussing tobacco use; none reported discussing tobacco use in conjunction with cannabis use. Identified themes included competing demands including cannabis co-use, prioritization of social determinants of health, and need for youth-tailored tools. Conclusions: YWH disproportionately use tobacco and recreational cannabis. Optimizing clinical visits to identify opportunities to address tobacco is crucial.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Infecções por HIV , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Adolescente , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia
14.
Pediatrics ; 151(Suppl 1)2023 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37010397

RESUMO

Racism is woven within the fabric of the United States culture, structures, and systems, including its healthcare system. There is extensive research on adults demonstrating racial discrimination's physical and mental health impacts, and the evidence showing similar disproportionate effects for adolescents of color continues to grow. Furthermore, the devastation of the coronavirus pandemic has paralleled the resurgence of white nationalism movements and adverse outcomes associated with the over-policing of Black and Brown communities. Scientific evidence continues to illustrate how sociopolitical determinants of health and experiencing vicarious racism amplify overt racism and implicit bias actions individually and within health care structures. Therefore, evidence-based strategic interventions are desperately needed to ensure the health and well-being of adolescents and young adults.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Equidade em Saúde , Racismo , Adolescente , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Atenção à Saúde , Racismo/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 12: e44908, 2023 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36943364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a highly effective biomedical prevention intervention and a major strategy for reducing the HIV burden in the United States. However, PrEP provision and uptake remain lower than estimated needs, and in ways that may exacerbate HIV disparities among Black adolescent girls and young women in the southern United States. Data suggest that gaps in provider knowledge of HIV epidemiology and PrEP and skills assessing sexual health practices are important barriers to provision and uptake, with limited evidence-based interventions to address these gaps. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the "PrEP-Pro" intervention, a multicomponent intervention to train and support family medicine (FM) trainees to promote PrEP for adolescent girls and young women in Alabama. METHODS: The PrEP-Pro intervention comprises 3 main components guided by the Capability-Opportunity-Motivation-Behavior (COM-B) model for behavioral change and the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR): (1) provider HIV epidemiology and PrEP education, (2) sexual history taking, and (3) PrEP Champions. In phase 1, we will work with community advisory boards (providers and clients) and then conduct focus groups with FM trainees to adapt content to train FM residents on HIV epidemiology and PrEP and develop implementation strategies, including provider-facing tools and client-facing educational materials. In phase 2, we will pretest and then pilot-test the initially adapted PrEP-Pro intervention with FM trainees. FM trainees will complete baseline, 3-, and 6-month questionnaires post PrEP-Pro intervention. We will also conduct in-depth interviews (IDIs) with FM pilot participants, adolescent girls and young women who accessed care after the PrEP-Pro pilot, and key stakeholders. The primary outcomes are PrEP-Pro acceptability and feasibility, which would be assessed using validated instruments at months 3 (among pretest participants) and 6 (among pilot participants). Secondary outcomes will also be assessed, including PrEP knowledge, sexual history-taking attitudes and practices, PrEP prescriptions among adolescent girls and young women encounters, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV testing among adolescent girls and young women encounters in 6 months. RESULTS: Study results will be disseminated to practices, state health officials, and other key stakeholders to solicit feedback on implementation opportunities and challenges to inform a hybrid effectiveness implementation trial. Our results will also be presented at local and national conferences and submitted to peer-reviewed journals. CONCLUSIONS: As PrEP grows, there is a pressing need to train FM providers and develop appropriate, contextually relevant tools to support PrEP implementation. The PrEP-Pro intervention is a multicomponent intervention to train FM residents across Alabama on sexual history-taking, PrEP provision for adolescent girls and young women, and supporting practice-based PrEP Champions. The PrEP-Pro intervention is anticipated to increase PrEP prescriptions for adolescent girls and young women and expand comprehensive sexual and reproductive health care for adolescent girls and young women in rural and urban Alabama. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): PRR1-10.2196/44908.

16.
J Adolesc Health ; 72(5): 746-753, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36781324

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Adolescents are disproportionately burdened with HIV. Numerous barriers limit adolescent pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use for HIV prevention. We explored adolescent-caregiver perspectives on discussing sexual health and PrEP to inform future caregiver interventions as a possible strategy to promote PrEP use. METHODS: We conducted separate in-depth interviews with adolescents aged 14-18 living in Alabama and their parent/guardian (caregiver). Interviews explored attitudes about sex, knowledge and attitudes about HIV prevention and PrEP, and attitudes about PrEP communication within adolescent-caregiver groups. Thematic analysis of adolescent and caregiver interviews was conducted independently and then triangulated to compare shared themes. RESULTS: Nine adolescents and seven caregivers contributed to five dyads and two triads. Adolescents had a median age of 16 years (range 14-18); five were girls (55%), and five were non-Hispanic Black (55%). Most caregivers were mothers (5, 71%), non-Hispanic Black (5, 71%), with a median age of 41 (36-56) years. All adolescents expressed willingness to involve their caregiver around PrEP use. Major themes included as follows: 1) caregiver efforts to overcome cultural taboos about sex and sexuality foster adolescents' willingness to talk with caregivers about sex; 2) evolving societal norms and reflections on their own upbringings motivate caregivers to discuss and support adolescents with sexual health; and 3) caregivers desire to engage in sexual health discussions with providers and support their teens with PrEP. DISCUSSION: As socio-cultural norms around sex evolve, adolescent-caregiver discussions about sexual health and PrEP may be an opportunity to increase PrEP use and reduce HIV infections among select adolescent sub-populations.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Cuidadores , Infecções por HIV , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Comportamento Sexual , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , População Negra , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Mães , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Alabama , Relações Mãe-Filho
17.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 22(1): 135, 2022 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36397002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Land-use is a major driver of changes in biodiversity worldwide, but studies have overwhelmingly focused on above-ground taxa: the effects on soil biodiversity are less well known, despite the importance of soil organisms in ecosystem functioning. We modelled data from a global biodiversity database to compare how the abundance of soil-dwelling and above-ground organisms responded to land use and soil properties. RESULTS: We found that land use affects overall abundance differently in soil and above-ground assemblages. The abundance of soil organisms was markedly lower in cropland and plantation habitats than in primary vegetation and pasture. Soil properties influenced the abundance of soil biota in ways that differed among land uses, suggesting they shape both abundance and its response to land use. CONCLUSIONS: Our results caution against assuming models or indicators derived from above-ground data can apply to soil assemblages and highlight the potential value of incorporating soil properties into biodiversity models.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Solo , Biodiversidade , Microbiologia do Solo , Biota
18.
BMC Res Notes ; 15(1): 347, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348439

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Gaps in sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing can lead to poor health outcomes due to untreated illness among youth living with HIV (YLHIV). Thus, the objective of this study is to examine STI testing behavior and outcomes among a sample of YLHIV in the southern United States. Clinical records of 139 YLHIV who received HIV care in Alabama (2017-2020) were evaluated for receipt of STI testing (gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis), prevalence of positive test results, and factors associated with testing outcomes (933 clinical visits). RESULTS: Nearly 80% of our sample identified as African American, most were 20-24 years, and about 60% reported detectable viral load at first visit during the study period. Just under 60% of cisgender male and transgender female clients reported receipt of at least one STI test, compared to less than 40% of cisgender females. Identifying as a cisgender male and having been diagnosed with HIV related to sex with men were associated with greater likelihood receiving STI testing. Cisgender males reported higher rates of positive syphilis test results than cisgender females; the highest rates of positive STI tests were among transgender females. Results underscore need for providers to promote routine STI testing to YLHIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Gonorreia , Infecções por HIV , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Sífilis , Masculino , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Alabama/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento , Homossexualidade Masculina
19.
Can J Surg ; 65(5): E675-E682, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36223936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have estimated that a large backlog of procedures was generated by emergency measures implemented in Ontario, Canada, at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, when nonessential and scheduled procedures were postponed. Understanding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the time needed to perform a procedure may help to determine the resources needed to tackle the substantial backlog caused by the deferral of cases. The purpose of this study was to examine the duration of operating room (OR) procedures before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic to inform planning around changes in required resources. METHODS: A population-based, retrospective cohort study was conducted using Ontario Health Insurance Plan claims data and other administrative health care data from Apr. 1, 2019, to Sept. 30, 2020. Statistical analysis was conducted using multivariate regression, with procedure duration as the outcome variable. RESULTS: Results showed that the average duration of nonelective procedures increased by 34 minutes during the COVID-19 period and by 19 minutes after the resumption of scheduled procedures. Controlling for physician, patient and hospital characteristics, and the procedure code submitted, procedure duration increased by 12 minutes in the nonelective COVID-19 period and by 5 minutes when scheduled procedures resumed, compared with the pre-COVID-19 period. CONCLUSION: Procedures may take longer in the COVID-19 period. This will affect wait times, which had already increased because of the deferral of procedures at the beginning of the pandemic, and will have an impact on Ontario's ability to provide patients with timely care.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Ontário/epidemiologia , Salas Cirúrgicas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 21: 23259582221127936, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36147031

RESUMO

Black adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) are disproportionately affected by HIV in the United States. HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is effective for HIV prevention, but prescription rates remain low. We conducted a survey of medical providers caring for Black AGYW in Alabama to explore PrEP prescription practices. While over half of the N = 36 providers reported minimal HIV testing of AGYW in clinic, most (N = 29, 81%) reported feeling confident discussing HIV prevention. Most reported willingness to prescribe PrEP to Black AGYW (58%-72%), but only 11 (31%) had prescribed PrEP to any female client. Low familiarity with CDC guidelines (N = 20, 56%) and PrEP options (N = 19, 53%) were barriers to prescription. Prescribing PrEP to AGYW was associated with provider training, with internal medicine providers being least likely to prescribe. These findings support the need to develop training tools to directly address unique training needs of providers who care for this population.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Adolescente , Alabama , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Prescrições , Estados Unidos
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