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Front Psychiatry ; 13: 1078479, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36910565


Background: The new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-Cov2, more commonly known as COVID-19 continues to be an ongoing cause of one of the most disruptive pandemics worldwide. UK universities comprise students who come from different backgrounds and cultures and the majority returned home or lived alone during the lockdown. This qualitative study aimed to compare the experiences of students from Black, Asian, and Minority Ethnic (BAME) backgrounds and White British students. Materials and methods: An in-depth interview was conducted with each of 35 students-18 from BAME and 17 from White backgrounds-in their homes on Zoom or Microsoft between November 2020 and May 2021. Interview transcripts were checked for accuracy and were analysed using N-Vivo coding software for themes. The pre-pandemic and pandemic experiences of students were collected in the form of a data, including perceptions of the COVID-19 virus, the physical environment in which students lived, and the effect on their general wellbeing, social interactions, online learning, teaching, and assessment. Results: Mental health issues were more prevalent among female students compared to males and this was more evident amongst BAME females who had returned to living at home, possibly due to lack of personal space. There was a reduction in personal hygiene in White females. There was an increase in the use of social media, particularly by BAME females. Students mostly disliked online learning and exams. Concerns were also raised about how universities communicated important information to the students. Conclusion: Based on the recommendations of the WHO in relation to COVID-19, universities need to effectively manage the information they provide to students and build trust through risk communication and community engagement. One important area in this regard is addressing access to mental health services. The reasons why BAME females experience more mental health issues should be explored further.

Pharmacy (Basel) ; 7(3)2019 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382691


International travel is growing and pharmacists are well placed to provide travel health services for the prevention and management of travellers' diarrhoea (TD). Legislation changes in many countries has enabled pharmacists to access prescription only medicines and vaccinations to provide advice and over the counter medicines for the prevention and management for travel health services; this makes sense since pharmacies are easily accessible to the public and are the patient's first port of call in the event of any illness. Currently, whilst many guidelines/guidance exist worldwide for the prevention and management of TD, there is no review that focuses on similarities and differences between these and between guidelines on TD and travel related and non-travel related acute diarrhoea. There is also a lack of publication on legislation and the need for evidence based training for all prescribers to provide travel health services. The aims of this work were to review guidelines/guidance for the prevention and management of TD from across the world which were compared with each other as were the TD guidelines compared to that for travel related and non-travel related acute diarrhoea for similarities and differences, with a focus on any relevant pharmacy legislation, needs assessments and training that may impact upon provision of travel health services by pharmacists focusing mainly on TD in adults. The PubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane database were used to carry out an online search for publications on TD, acute diarrhoea and the guidance pharmacists have in the prevention and management of diarrhoea. The literature reviewed in this article indicates that where no specific guidelines/guidance existed, some pharmacists used the WHO guidelines (WHO), highlighting a need for local, regional and national evidence based guidelines in these countries.

J Travel Med ; 25(suppl_1): S27-S37, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29718437


BACKGROUND: There are many recommendations on the use of antibiotics for prophylaxis and treatment of travellers' diarrhoea (TD). As pharmacists with a special interest in antimicrobial stewardship, we examine and offer our perspective on advice that is recommended to travellers in terms of prevention, treatment and management of TD with a focus on antibiotic use and resistance. METHODS: Publications on TD were identified through PubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library databases searches using search terms 'travellers diarrhoea', 'travellers diarrhoea', 'travellers' diarrhoea' 'guidelines', 'expert opinion', 'expert reviews', 'South Asia' and 'South East Asia' (S and SE Asia), 'antibiotics', 'resistance genes', 'travel advice', 'pharmacists', 'guidelines', 'prevention' and 'treatment'. References of articles were also screened for additional relevant studies. RESULTS: Whilst most guidelines and expert reviews were in agreement with the restricted use of antibiotics unless there was a clinical need, the literature review identified gaps in research into behaviours of travellers regarding non-compliance with the pre-travel advice provided and the need for in depth training and education for all healthcare professionals in providing 'tailored' advice for travellers going to high-risk destinations. CONCLUSIONS: Travellers should be made aware of the problems of antimicrobial resistance in their destination and home countries and offered alternative forms of prophylaxis for TD. Strategies for prevention of TD, other than the use of antibiotics, also need to be emphasized. All healthcare professionals involved in giving advice about TD should be familiar with the epidemiology of the condition as this will inform responsible behaviours, risk assessment and management strategies in different geographical areas.

Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos , Diarreia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina de Viagem/métodos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antidiarreicos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Sudeste Asiático , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/terapia , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Doença Relacionada a Viagens
J Anat ; 232(5): 729-738, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29417585


The Anatomical Society has developed a series of learning outcomes that 'experts' within the field would recommend as core knowledge outputs for a Master's Degree Programme in Pharmacy (MPharm) within the UK. Using the Anatomical Society core gross anatomy syllabus for medical anatomy as a foundation, a modified Delphi technique was used to develop outcomes specific to pharmacy graduates. A Delphi panel consisting of medical practitioners, pharmacists and anatomists (n = 39) was created and involved 'experts' representing 20 UK Higher Education Institutions. The output from this study was 49 pharmacy-specific learning outcomes that are applicable to all pharmacy programmes. The new MPharm anatomy syllabus offers a basic anatomical framework upon which pharmacy educators can build the necessary clinical practice and knowledge. These learning outcomes could be used to develop anatomy teaching within an integrated curriculum as per requirements of the General Pharmaceutical Council (GPhC).

Anatomia/educação , Currículo/normas , Educação em Farmácia/normas , Técnica Delphi , Humanos , Farmacêuticos