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1.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297530, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324559

RESUMO

Given the increasing prevalence of online data collection, it is important to know how behavioral data obtained online compare to samples collected in the laboratory. This study compares online and in-person measurement of speech perception in older children and adolescents. Speech perception is important for assessment and treatment planning in speech-language pathology; we focus on the American English /ɹ/ sound because of its frequency as a clinical target. Two speech perception tasks were adapted for web presentation using Gorilla: identification of items along a synthetic continuum from rake to wake, and category goodness judgment of English /ɹ/ sounds in words produced by various talkers with and without speech sound disorder. Fifty typical children aged 9-15 completed these tasks online using a standard headset. These data were compared to a previous sample of 98 typical children aged 9-15 who completed the same tasks in the lab setting. For the identification task, participants exhibited smaller boundary widths (suggestive of more acute perception) in the in-person setting relative to the online setting. For the category goodness judgment task, there was no statistically significant effect of modality. The correlation between scores on the two tasks was significant in the online setting but not in the in-person setting, but the difference in correlation strength was not statistically significant. Overall, our findings agree with previous research in suggesting that online and in-person data collection do not yield identical results, but the two contexts tend to support the same broad conclusions. In addition, these results suggest that online data collection can make it easier for researchers connect with a more representative sample of participants.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Transtorno Fonológico , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Idioma , Julgamento , Som , Fala
2.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; : 1-15, 2023 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37971542

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Limited research exists assessing speech perception in school-age children with speech sound disorder (SSD) and childhood apraxia of speech (CAS); despite early evidence that speech perception may lead to error-prone motor planning/programming. In this study, we examine speech perception performance in school-age children with and without speech production deficits. METHOD: Speech perception was assessed using the Wide Range Acoustic Accuracy Scale to determine the just-noticeable difference in discrimination for three consonant-vowel syllable contrasts (/bɑ/-/wɑ/, /dɑ/-/gɑ/, /ɹɑ/-/wɑ/), each varying along a single acoustic parameter for seven children with CAS with rhotic errors, seven children with SSD with rhotic errors, and seven typically developing (TD) children. RESULTS: Findings revealed statistically significant mean differences between perceptual performance of children with CAS when compared to TD children for discrimination of /ɹɑ/-/wɑ/ contrasts. Large effect sizes were also observed for comparisons of /ɹɑ/-/wɑ/ contrasts between children with CAS, SSD, and TD peers. Additionally, large effect sizes were observed for /dɑ/-/gɑ/ contrasts between children with CAS and SSD and TD children despite nonsignificant mean differences in group performance. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, mean outcome scores suggest that school-age children with CAS and persistent rhotic errors demonstrated less accurate speech perception skills relative to TD children for the /ɹɑ/-/wɑ/ contrasts. However, the relatively small sample sizes per group limit the extent to which these findings may be generalized to the broader population.

3.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 66(4): 1252-1273, 2023 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36930986

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study collected measures of auditory-perceptual and oral somatosensory acuity in typically developing children and adolescents aged 9-15 years. We aimed to establish reference data that can be used as a point of comparison for individuals with residual speech sound disorder (RSSD), especially for RSSD affecting American English rhotics. We examined concurrent validity between tasks and hypothesized that performance on at least some tasks would show a significant association with age, reflecting ongoing refinement of sensory function in later childhood. We also tested for an inverse relationship between performance on auditory and somatosensory tasks, which would support the hypothesis of a trade-off between sensory domains. METHOD: Ninety-eight children completed three auditory-perceptual tasks (identification and discrimination of stimuli from a "rake"-"wake" continuum and category goodness judgment for naturally produced words containing rhotics) and three oral somatosensory tasks (bite block with auditory masking, oral stereognosis, and articulatory awareness, which involved explicit judgments of relative tongue position for different speech sounds). Pairwise associations were examined between tasks within each domain and between task performance and age. Composite measures of auditory-perceptual and somatosensory functions were used to investigate the possibility of a sensory trade-off. RESULTS: Statistically significant associations were observed between the identification and discrimination tasks and the bite block and articulatory awareness tasks. In addition, significant associations with age were found for the category goodness and bite block tasks. There was no statistically significant evidence of a trade-off between auditory-perceptual and somatosensory domains. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided a multidimensional characterization of speech-related sensory function in older children/adolescents. Complete materials to administer all experimental tasks have been shared, along with measures of central tendency and dispersion for scores in two subgroups of age. Ultimately, we hope to apply this information to make customized treatment recommendations for children with RSSD based on sensory profiles.


Assuntos
Apraxias , Percepção da Fala , Adolescente , Humanos , Criança , Fala , Fonética , Estimulação Acústica , Sensação
4.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 32(1): 18-36, 2023 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623212

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This tutorial summarizes current practices using visual-acoustic biofeedback (VAB) treatment to improve speech outcomes for individuals with speech sound difficulties. Clinical strategies will focus on residual distortions of /ɹ/. METHOD: Summary evidence related to the characteristics of VAB and the populations that may benefit from this treatment are reviewed. Guidelines are provided for clinicians on how to use VAB with clients to identify and modify their productions to match an acoustic representation. The clinical application of a linear predictive coding spectrum is emphasized. RESULTS: Successful use of VAB requires several key factors including clinician and client comprehension of the acoustic representation, appropriate acoustic target and template selection, as well as appropriate selection of articulatory strategies, practice schedules, and feedback models to scaffold acquisition of new speech sounds. CONCLUSION: Integrating a VAB component in clinical practice offers additional intervention options for individuals with speech sound difficulties and often facilitates improved speech sound acquisition and generalization outcomes. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.21817722.


Assuntos
Fonética , Transtorno Fonológico , Humanos , Acústica , Biorretroalimentação Psicológica , Fala , Transtorno Fonológico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Fonológico/terapia
5.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 53(3): 768-785, 2022 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35452250

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to synthesize the methodological variability in the speech perception literature for school-age children with residual speech sound disorder (RSSD), with the primary intention of using the existing knowledge to inform clinical decisions and optimize treatment outcomes for children. METHOD: Ten electronic databases were systematically searched to identify articles examining the speech perception skills of school-age children with RSSD. A total of 11 articles met inclusion criteria, reporting of methodological characteristics was rated and compared across studies, and findings were summarized. RESULTS: The majority of studies reviewed here confirmed the presence of a perceptual deficit for a subset of children with RSSD. However, marked variability across study methodologies limits clinical interpretation and application of the findings. CONCLUSIONS: Despite limited research in children with RSSD and wide variability across study procedures, stimulus type, perception type, and task type emerged as potential key factors that provide critical insight into a child's perceptual skill. The current evidence suggests that deficits in speech perception may significantly impact acquisition of accurate phoneme production for children with RSSD. Furthermore, these findings suggest that assessment and treatment of speech perception may be a critical component of an intervention program for school-age children, although further research is needed to determine effective clinical procedures.


Assuntos
Apraxias , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Percepção da Fala , Transtorno Fonológico , Gagueira , Criança , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Transtorno Fonológico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Fonológico/terapia
6.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 150(1): 460, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340497

RESUMO

Most studies of speech perception employ highly controlled stimuli. It is not always clear how such results extend to the processing of natural speech. In a series of experiments, we progressively explored the role of voice onset time (VOT) and potential secondary cues in adult labeling of stressed syllable-initial /b d p t/ produced by typically developing two-year-old learners of American English. Taken together, the results show the following: (a) Adult listeners show phoneme boundaries in labeling functions comparable to what have been established for adult speech. (b) Adult listeners can be sensitive to distributional properties of the stimulus set, even in a study that employs highly varied naturalistic productions from multiple speakers. (c) Secondary cues are available in the speech of two-year-olds, and these may influence listener judgments. Cues may differ across places of articulation and the VOT continuum. These results can lend insight into how clinicians judge child speech during assessment and also have implications for our understanding of the role of primary and secondary acoustic cues in adult perception of child speech.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Voz , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Fonética , Fala , Acústica da Fala , Estados Unidos
7.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(4): 1819-1845, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232693

RESUMO

Purpose Research comparing different biofeedback types could lead to individualized treatments for those with residual speech errors. This study examines within-treatment response to ultrasound and visual-acoustic biofeedback, as well as generalization to untrained words, for errors affecting the American English rhotic /ɹ/. We investigated whether some children demonstrated greater improvement in /ɹ/ during ultrasound or visual-acoustic biofeedback. Each participant received both biofeedback types. Individual predictors of treatment response (i.e., age, auditory-perceptual skill, oral somatosensory skill, and growth mindset) were also explored. Method Seven children ages 9-16 years with residual rhotic errors participated in 10 treatment visits. Each visit consisted of two conditions: 45 min of ultrasound biofeedback and 45 min of visual-acoustic biofeedback. The order of biofeedback conditions was randomized within a single-case experimental design. Acquisition of /ɹ/ was evaluated through acoustic measurements (normalized F3-F2 difference) of selected nonbiofeedback productions during practice. Generalization of /ɹ/ was evaluated through acoustic measurements and perceptual ratings of pretreatment/posttreatment probes. Results Five participants demonstrated acquisition of practiced words during the combined treatment package. Three participants demonstrated a clinically significant degree of generalization to untreated words on posttreatment probes. Randomization tests indicated one participant demonstrated a significant advantage for visual-acoustic over ultrasound biofeedback. Participants' auditory-perceptual acuity on an /ɹ/-/w/ identification task was identified as a possible correlate of generalization following treatment. Conclusions Most participants did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference in acoustic productions between the ultrasound and visual-acoustic conditions, but one participant showed greater improvement in /ɹ/ during visual-acoustic biofeedback. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.14881101.


Assuntos
Transtorno Fonológico , Adolescente , Biorretroalimentação Psicológica , Criança , Humanos , Distribuição Aleatória , Fala , Fonoterapia , Estados Unidos
8.
Perspect ASHA Spec Interest Groups ; 6(1): 214-229, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493921

RESUMO

Purpose: This preliminary case series investigated the effects of biofeedback intervention for residual rhotic errors delivered within a modified challenge point framework. In the challenge point framework, practice difficulty is adaptively adjusted with the goal of enhancing generalization learning. This study more specifically evaluated the feasibility of a computer-mediated implementation of challenge point treatment for rhotic errors using a custom open-source software, the Challenge Point Program (CPP). Method: Participants were five native English speakers, ages 7;3-15;5, who had established but not generalized correct rhotic production in previous treatment; overall treatment duration was flexible. Treatment incorporated either electropalatographic or visual-acoustic biofeedback and was structured by challenge point principles implemented using the CPP software. Results: Participants were highly variable in the magnitude of generalization gains attained. However, the median overall effect size was 4.24, suggesting that participants' response in treatment tended to exceed the minimum value considered clinically significant. Conclusions: These findings provide preliminary evidence that computer-mediated implementation of the challenge point framework can be effective in producing generalization in some participants.

9.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 51(4): 966-980, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783706

RESUMO

Purpose This tutorial summarizes current best practices in treating American English /r/ distortions in children with residual speech errors. Method To enhance the effectiveness of clinicians' cueing and feedback, the phonetics of /r/ production is reviewed. Principles of acquisition, which can inform how to practice /r/ in the early stages of therapy, are explained. Elements of therapy that lack scientific support are also mentioned. Results Although there is significant variability in /r/ production, the common articulatory requirements include an oral constriction, a pharyngeal constriction, tongue body lowering, lateral bracing, and slight lip rounding. Examples of phonetic cues and shaping strategies are provided to help clinicians elicit these movements to evoke correct /r/ productions. Principles of acquisition (e.g., blocked practice, frequent knowledge of performance feedback) are reviewed to help clinicians structure the earliest stages of treatment to establish /r/. Examples of approaches that currently lack scientific support include nonspeech oral motor exercises, tactile cues along the mylohyoid muscle, and heterogeneous groupings in group therapy. Conclusion Treatment strategies informed by phonetic science and motor learning theory can be implemented by all clinicians to enhance acquisition of /r/ for children with residual errors. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.12771329.


Assuntos
Fonética , Medida da Produção da Fala/métodos , Transtorno Fonológico/terapia , Fonoterapia/métodos , Fala/fisiologia , Língua/fisiologia , Criança , Sinais (Psicologia) , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Idioma
10.
BMC Pediatr ; 20(1): 66, 2020 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Speech sound disorder in childhood poses a barrier to academic and social participation, with potentially lifelong consequences for educational and occupational outcomes. While most speech errors resolve by the late school-age years, between 2 and 5% of speakers exhibit residual speech errors (RSE) that persist through adolescence or even adulthood. Previous findings from small-scale studies suggest that interventions incorporating visual biofeedback can outperform traditional motor-based treatment approaches for children with RSE, but this question has not been investigated in a well-powered randomized controlled trial. METHODS/DESIGN: This project, Correcting Residual Errors with Spectral, ULtrasound, Traditional Speech therapy Randomized Controlled Trial (C-RESULTS RCT), aims to treat 110 children in a parallel randomized controlled clinical trial comparing biofeedback and non-biofeedback interventions for RSE affecting the North American English rhotic sound /ɹ/. Eligible children will be American English speakers, aged 9-15 years, who exhibit RSE affecting /ɹ/ but otherwise show typical cognitive-linguistic and hearing abilities. Participants will be randomized, with stratification by site (Syracuse University or Montclair State University) and pre-treatment speech production ability, to receive either a motor-based treatment consistent with current best practices in speech therapy (40% of participants) or treatment incorporating visual biofeedback (60% of participants). Within the biofeedback condition, participants will be assigned in equal numbers to receive biofeedback in the form of a real-time visual display of the acoustic signal of speech or ultrasound imaging of the tongue during speech. The primary outcome measure will assess changes in the acoustics of children's production of /ɹ/ during treatment, while a secondary outcome measure will use blinded listeners to evaluate changes in the perceived accuracy of /ɹ/ production after the completion of all treatment. These measures will allow the treatment conditions to be compared with respect to both efficacy and efficiency. DISCUSSION: By conducting the first well-powered randomized controlled trial comparing treatment with and without biofeedback, this study aims to provide high-quality evidence to guide treatment decisions for children with RSE. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT03737318, November 9, 2018.


Assuntos
Distúrbios da Fala , Fonoterapia , Fala , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Distúrbios da Fala/terapia , Ultrassonografia
11.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 63(2): 444-455, 2020 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097058

RESUMO

Purpose This study evaluated whether outcomes from treatment, which includes ultrasound visual feedback (UVF), would be more or less effective when combined with auditory perception training for children with residual /ɹ/ errors. Method Children ages 8-16 years with /ɹ/ distortions participated in speech therapy that included real-time UVF of the tongue. Thirty-eight participants were randomized to speech therapy conditions that included a primary focus on articulation using UVF or a condition that included auditory perceptual training plus UVF (incorporating category goodness judgments and self-monitoring). Generalization of /ɹ/ production accuracy to untrained words was assessed before and after 14 hr of therapy. Additionally, the role of auditory perceptual acuity was explored using a synthetic /ɹ/-/w/ continuum. Results There was no difference between the treatment groups in rate of improvement of /ɹ/ accuracy (increase of 34% for each group; p = .95, ηp2 = .00). However, pretreatment auditory acuity was associated with treatment progress in both groups, with finer perceptual acuity corresponding to greater progress (p = .015, ηp2 = .182). Conclusion Similar gains in speech sound accuracy can be made with treatment that includes UVF with or without auditory perceptual training. Fine-grained perceptual acuity may be a prognostic indicator with treatment. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.11886219.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Biorretroalimentação Psicológica/métodos , Transtorno Fonológico/terapia , Fonoterapia/métodos , Ultrassonografia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fonética , Medida da Produção da Fala , Transtorno Fonológico/fisiopatologia , Língua/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Semin Speech Lang ; 40(2): 124-137, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30795023

RESUMO

A growing body of research suggests that cases of speech sound errors that have not responded to previous intervention can sometimes be eliminated through speech therapy incorporating visual biofeedback. Aside from considerations related to the specific biofeedback type, acquisition and generalization of a motor plan may be linked to treatment intensity. Several researchers have raised the possibility that inadequate dosage levels may present a significant barrier to success. Thus, the current study aimed to assess the relationship between treatment intensity and treatment outcomes. Twenty-nine articles reporting the use of visual biofeedback intervention for speech sound disorder were identified and coded for treatment intensity using the cumulative intervention index and outcomes using mean level difference scores. Findings reveal small but significant relationships between measures of treatment intensity and efficacy, which should be interpreted with caution given the preliminary nature of this review. Further research in this area is necessary, as inconsistencies in reporting intensity and outcomes across studies underscore the need for more systematic terminology and reporting methods.


Assuntos
Biorretroalimentação Psicológica/métodos , Transtorno Fonológico/terapia , Fonoterapia/métodos , Percepção Visual , Criança , Humanos , Transtorno Fonológico/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 26(4): 1141-1158, 2017 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28834534

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to document the efficacy of electropalatography (EPG) for the treatment of rhotic errors in school-age children. Despite a growing body of literature using EPG for the treatment of speech sound errors, there is little systematic evidence about the relative efficacy of EPG for rhotic errors. METHOD: Participants were 5 English-speaking children aged 6;10 to 9;10, who produced /r/ at the word level with < 30% accuracy but otherwise showed typical speech, language, and hearing abilities. Therapy was delivered in twice-weekly 30-min sessions for 8 weeks. RESULTS: Four out of 5 participants were successful in achieving perceptually and acoustically accurate /r/ productions during within-treatment trials. Two participants demonstrated generalization of /r/ productions to nontreated targets, per blinded listener ratings. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings support the hypothesis that EPG can improve production accuracy in some children with rhotic errors. However, the utility of EPG is likely to remain variable across individuals. For rhotics, EPG training emphasizes one possible tongue configuration consistent with accurate rhotic production (lateral tongue contact). Although some speakers respond well to this cue, the narrow focus may limit lingual exploration of other acceptable tongue shapes known to facilitate rhotic productions.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Articulação/terapia , Biorretroalimentação Psicológica , Fonética , Acústica da Fala , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem/métodos , Terapia Assistida por Computador , Língua/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Articulação/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Articulação/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Articulação/psicologia , Biorretroalimentação Psicológica/instrumentação , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Atividade Motora , Percepção da Fala , Medida da Produção da Fala , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem/instrumentação , Terapia Assistida por Computador/instrumentação , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Percepção Visual
14.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 60(6): 1455-1466, 2017 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28595354

RESUMO

Purpose: Single-case experimental designs are widely used to study interventions for communication disorders. Traditionally, single-case experiments follow a response-guided approach, where design decisions during the study are based on participants' observed patterns of behavior. However, this approach has been criticized for its high rate of Type I error. In masked visual analysis (MVA), response-guided decisions are made by a researcher who is blinded to participants' identities and treatment assignments. MVA also makes it possible to conduct a hypothesis test assessing the significance of treatment effects. Method: This tutorial describes the principles of MVA, including both how experiments can be set up and how results can be used for hypothesis testing. We then report a case study showing how MVA was deployed in a multiple-baseline across-subjects study investigating treatment for residual errors affecting rhotics. Strengths and weaknesses of MVA are discussed. Conclusions: Given their important role in the evidence base that informs clinical decision making, it is critical for single-case experimental studies to be conducted in a way that allows researchers to draw valid inferences. As a method that can increase the rigor of single-case studies while preserving the benefits of a response-guided approach, MVA warrants expanded attention from researchers in communication disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Comunicação/terapia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adolescente , Criança , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Estudos Clínicos como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Clin Linguist Phon ; 29(12): 955-76, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26513374

RESUMO

Early assessment of phonetic and phonological development requires knowledge of typical versus atypical speech patterns, as well as the range of individual developmental trajectories. The nature of data reporting in previous literature on typical voicing acquisition left aspects of the developmental process unclear and limited clinical applicability. This work extends a previous four-month group study to present data for one child over 12 months. Words containing initial /b p d t/ were elicited from a monolingual English-speaking 2-year-old child biweekly for 25 sessions. Voice onset time (VOT) was measured for each stop. For each consonant and recording session, we measured range as well as accuracy, overshoot and discreteness calculated for means and individual tokens. The results underscore the value of token-by-token analyses. They further reveal that typical development may involve an extended period of fluctuating voicing patterns, suggesting that the voiced/voiceless contrast may take months or years to stabilise.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Fonética , Fala , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Medida da Produção da Fala , Voz
16.
Semin Speech Lang ; 36(4): 283-94, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26458203

RESUMO

Children with residual speech errors face an increased risk of social, emotional, and/or academic challenges relative to their peers with typical speech. Previous research has shown that the effects of speech sound disorder may persist into adulthood and span multiple domains of activity limitations and/or participation restrictions, as defined by the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model. However, the nature and extent of these influences varies widely across children. This study aimed to expand the evidence base on the social, emotional, and academic impact of residual speech errors by collecting survey data from parents of children receiving treatment for /r/ misarticulation. By examining the relationship between an overall measure of impact (weighted summed score) and responses to 11 survey items, the present study offers preliminary suggestions for factors that could be considered when making decisions pertaining to treatment allocation in this population.


Assuntos
Emoções , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/etiologia , Mudança Social , Transtorno Fonológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pessoas com Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Grupo Associado , Transtorno Fonológico/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Clin Linguist Phon ; 29(1): 59-75, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25216375

RESUMO

Biofeedback intervention can help children achieve correct production of a treatment-resistant error sound, but generalisation is often limited. This case study suggests that generalisation can be enhanced when biofeedback intervention is structured in accordance with a "challenge point" framework for speech-motor learning. The participant was an 11-year-old with residual /r/ misarticulation who had previously attained correct /r/ production through a structured course of ultrasound biofeedback treatment but did not generalise these gains beyond the word level. Treatment difficulty was adjusted in an adaptive manner following predetermined criteria for advancing, maintaining, or moving back a level in a multidimensional hierarchy of functional task complexity. The participant achieved and maintained virtually 100% accuracy in producing /r/ at both word and sentence levels. These preliminary results support the efficacy of a semi-structured implementation of the challenge point framework as a means of achieving generalisation and maintenance of treatment gains.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Articulação/terapia , Biorretroalimentação Psicológica/métodos , Generalização Psicológica , Fonética , Espectrografia do Som , Transtornos da Articulação/diagnóstico , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Articulação da Fala , Ultrassonografia
18.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 57(6): 2116-30, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25088034

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To document the efficacy of ultrasound biofeedback treatment for misarticulation of the North American English rhotic in children. Because of limited progress in the first cohort, a series of two closely related studies was conducted in place of a single study. The studies differed primarily in the nature of tongue-shape targets (e.g., retroflex, bunched) cued during treatment. METHOD: Eight participants received 8 weeks of individual ultrasound biofeedback treatment targeting rhotics. In Study 1, all 4 participants were cued to match a bunched tongue-shape target. In Study 2, participants received individualized cues aimed at eliciting the tongue shape most facilitative of perceptually correct rhotics. RESULTS: Participants in Study 1 showed only minimal treatment effects. In Study 2, all participants demonstrated improved production of rhotics in untreated words produced without biofeedback, with large to very large effect sizes. CONCLUSIONS: The results of Study 2 indicate that with proper parameters of treatment, ultrasound biofeedback can be a highly effective intervention for children with persistent rhotic errors. In addition, qualitative comparison of Studies 1 and 2 suggests that treatment for the North American English rhotic should include opportunities to explore different tongue shapes, to find the most facilitative variant for each individual speaker.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Articulação/terapia , Biorretroalimentação Psicológica/métodos , Transtorno Fonológico/terapia , Fonoterapia/métodos , Transtornos da Articulação/fisiopatologia , Criança , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , América do Norte , Transtorno Fonológico/fisiopatologia , Língua , Ultrassonografia/métodos
19.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 56(2): 441-57, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23275393

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this study, multiple measures of voicing acquisition were used to evaluate the extent to which developmental patterns based on voice onset time (VOT) mean data differed from those based on token-by-token analyses in typically developing 2-year-olds. METHOD: Multiple repetitions of words containing initial /b p d t/ were elicited from 10 English-speaking children biweekly for 4 months. VOT was measured for each stop. For each child, consonant, and recording session, means and ranges were obtained, as were measures of accuracy, discreteness, and overshoot calculated for session means and for individual tokens. RESULTS: The token-by-token analyses suggested lower accuracy and more category overlap than the session means and revealed an overshoot phase for all children. They also showed examples of both abrupt and gradual changes that were not always evident in the means. Measures of range, accuracy, discreteness, and overshoot all continued to change after statistically significant VOT differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that some aspects of voicing development may not be evident in analyses that rely on VOT mean data and patterns of statistical significance. Token-by-token measures provide a more complete picture of stages of voicing development than those based solely on mean VOT values.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Fonética , Fala , Voz , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Fatores Etários , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medida da Produção da Fala
20.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 21(3): 207-21, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22442281

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Misarticulation of /r/ is among the most challenging developmental speech errors to remediate. Case studies suggest that visual biofeedback treatment can establish perceptually accurate /r/ in clients who have not responded to traditional treatments. This investigation studied the response of children with persistent /r/ misarticulation to a course of traditional treatment and a course of biofeedback treatment. METHOD: Eleven children with /r/ misarticulation completed 10 weeks of individual treatment consisting of 4-6 weeks of traditional treatment followed by 4-6 weeks of biofeedback treatment. Progress was measured by tracking correct /r/ productions within treatment and probing /r/ in words at 3 time points. RESULTS: At the group level, there was no difference in independent judges' ratings of /r/ sounds produced by the children before and after traditional treatment. However, /r/ sounds produced after biofeedback treatment were significantly more likely to be rated by the judges as perceptually correct. Eight of the 11 children made measurable gains in the accuracy of isolated /r/ produced within treatment, with 4 showing significant generalization to untreated /r/ in words. CONCLUSION: This descriptive study shows that treatment incorporating spectral biofeedback can facilitate accurate /r/ production in children with treatment-resistant errors. A follow-up period using traditional intervention methods may be necessary to encourage generalization.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Articulação/terapia , Biorretroalimentação Psicológica/métodos , Fonação , Fonética , Fonoterapia/métodos , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Acústica da Fala
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