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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10464, 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35729245

RESUMO

Materials with insulator-metal transitions promise advanced functionalities for future information technology. Patterning on the microscale is key for miniaturized functional devices, but material properties may vary spatially across microstructures. Characterization of these miniaturized devices requires electronic structure probes with sufficient spatial resolution to understand the influence of structure size and shape on functional properties. The present study demonstrates the use of imaging soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy with a spatial resolution better than 2 [Formula: see text]m to study the insulator-metal transition in vanadium dioxide thin-film microstructures. This novel technique reveals that the transition temperature for the conversion from insulating to metallic vanadium dioxide is lowered by 1.2 K ± 0.4 K close to the structure edges compared to the center. Facilitated strain release during the phase transition is discussed as origin of the observed behavior. The experimental approach enables a detailed understanding of how the electronic properties of quantum materials depend on their patterning at the micrometer scale.

2.
Nano Lett ; 21(13): 5516-5521, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228455

RESUMO

We present the discovery of a charge density wave (CDW) ground state in heavily electron-doped molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). This is the first observation of a CDW in any d2 (column 6) transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD). The band structure of MoS2 is distinct from the d0 and d1 TMDs in which CDWs have been previously observed, facilitating new insight into CDW formation. We demonstrate a metal-insulator transition at 85 K, a 25 meV gap at the Fermi level, and two distinct CDW modulations, (2√3 × 2√3) R30° and 2 × 2, attributable to Fermi surface nesting (FSN) and electron-phonon coupling (EPC), respectively. This simultaneous exhibition of FSN and EPC CDW modulations is unique among observations of CDW ground states, and we discuss this in the context of band folding. Our observations provide a route toward the resolution of controversies surrounding the origin of CDW modulations in TMDs.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Molibdênio , Dissulfetos
3.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 28(Pt 1): 131-145, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399562

RESUMO

In this paper the back-side-illuminated Percival 2-Megapixel (P2M) detector is presented, along with its characterization by means of optical and X-ray photons. For the first time, the response of the system to soft X-rays (250 eV to 1 keV) is presented. The main performance parameters of the first detector are measured, assessing the capabilities in terms of noise, dynamic range and single-photon discrimination capability. Present limitations and coming improvements are discussed.

4.
Opt Lett ; 45(19): 5591-5594, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001954

RESUMO

Direct 2D spatial-coherence measurements are increasingly gaining importance at synchrotron beamlines, especially due to present and future upgrades of synchrotron facilities to diffraction-limited storage rings. We present a method to determine the 2D spatial coherence of synchrotron radiation in a direct and particularly simple way by using the Fourier-analysis method in conjunction with curved gratings. Direct photon-beam monitoring provided by a curved grating circumvents the otherwise necessary separate determination of the illuminating intensity distribution required for the Fourier-analysis method. Hence, combining these two methods allows for time-resolved spatial-coherence measurements. As a consequence, spatial-coherence degradation effects caused by beamline optics vibrations, which is one of the key issues of state-of-the-art X-ray imaging and scattering beamlines, can be identified and analyzed.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(22): 225001, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567918

RESUMO

For more than 40 years, most astrophysical observations and laboratory studies of two key soft x-ray diagnostic 2p-3d transitions, 3C and 3D, in Fe XVII ions found oscillator strength ratios f(3C)/f(3D) disagreeing with theory, but uncertainties had precluded definitive statements on this much studied conundrum. Here, we resonantly excite these lines using synchrotron radiation at PETRA III, and reach, at a millionfold lower photon intensities, a 10 times higher spectral resolution, and 3 times smaller uncertainty than earlier work. Our final result of f(3C)/f(3D)=3.09(8)(6) supports many of the earlier clean astrophysical and laboratory observations, while departing by five sigmas from our own newest large-scale ab initio calculations, and excluding all proposed explanations, including those invoking nonlinear effects and population transfers.

6.
Opt Express ; 28(5): 7282-7300, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32225960

RESUMO

We present a systematic 2D spatial-coherence analysis of the soft-X-ray beamline P04 at PETRA III for various beamline configurations. The influence of two different beam-defining apertures on the spatial coherence properties of the beam is discussed and optimal conditions for coherence-based experiments are found. A significant degradation of the spatial coherence in the vertical direction has been measured and sources of this degradation are identified and discussed. The Fourier-analysis method, which gives fast and simple access to the 2D spatial coherence function of the X-ray beam, is used for the experiment. Here, we exploit the charge scattering of a disordered nanodot sample allowing the use of arbitrary X-ray photon energies with this method.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3424, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366883

RESUMO

Spectroscopic detection of Dirac and Weyl fermions in real materials is vital for both, promising applications and fundamental bridge between high-energy and condensed-matter physics. While the presence of Dirac and noncentrosymmetric Weyl fermions is well established in many materials, the magnetic Weyl semimetals still escape direct experimental detection. In order to find a time-reversal symmetry breaking Weyl state we design two materials and present here experimental and theoretical evidence of realization of such a state in one of them, YbMnBi2. We model the time-reversal symmetry breaking observed by magnetization and magneto-optical microscopy measurements by canted antiferromagnetism and find a number of Weyl points. Using angle-resolved photoemission, we directly observe two pairs of Weyl points connected by the Fermi arcs. Our results not only provide a fundamental link between the two areas of physics, but also demonstrate the practical way to design novel materials with exotic properties.

8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(1): 017601, 2019 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012699

RESUMO

The charge density wave (CDW) in ZrTe_{3} is quenched in samples with a small amount of Te isoelectronically substituted by Se. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy we observe subtle changes in the electronic band dispersions and Fermi surfaces upon Se substitution. The scattering rates are substantially increased, in particular for the large three-dimensional Fermi surface sheet. The quasi-one-dimensional band is unaffected by the substitution and still shows a gap at low temperature, which starts to open from room temperature. Long-range order is, however, absent in the electronic states as in the periodic lattice distortion. The competition between superconductivity and the CDW is thus linked to the suppression of long-range order of the CDW.

9.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 26(Pt 2): 467-472, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30855257

RESUMO

This article reports on the fabrication and testing of dedicated Fresnel zone plates for use at the nano-ARPES branch of the I05-ARPES beamline of Diamond Light Source to perform angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy with sub-micrometre resolution in real space. The aim of the design was to provide high photon flux combined with sub-micrometre spot sizes. The focusing lenses were tested with respect to efficiency and spatial resolution in the extreme ultraviolet between 50 eV and 90 eV. The experimentally determined diffraction efficiencies of the zone plates are as high as 8.6% at 80 eV, and a real-space resolution of 0.4 µm was demonstrated. Using the zone-plate-based setup, monolayer flakes of the two-dimensional semiconductor WS2 were investigated. This work demonstrates that the local electronic structure can be obtained from an area of a few micrometres across a two-dimensional heterostructure.

10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(51): 12956-12960, 2018 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514820

RESUMO

The ability to modulate the collective properties of correlated electron systems at their interfaces and surfaces underpins the burgeoning field of "designer" quantum materials. Here, we show how an electronic reconstruction driven by surface polarity mediates a Stoner-like magnetic instability to itinerant ferromagnetism at the Pd-terminated surface of the nonmagnetic delafossite oxide metal PdCoO2 Combining angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and density-functional theory calculations, we show how this leads to a rich multiband surface electronic structure. We find similar surface state dispersions in PdCrO2, suggesting surface ferromagnetism persists in this sister compound despite its bulk antiferromagnetic order.

11.
ACS Nano ; 12(8): 7571-7582, 2018 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30004663

RESUMO

We investigate the electronic and vibrational properties of bottom-up synthesized aligned armchair graphene nanoribbons of N = 7 carbon atoms width periodically doped by substitutional boron atoms (B-7AGNRs). Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations, we find that the dopant-derived valence and conduction band states are notably hybridized with electronic states of Au substrate and spread in energy. The interaction with the substrate leaves the bands with pure carbon character rather unperturbed. This results in an identical effective mass of ≈0.2 m0 for the next-highest valence band compared with pristine 7AGNRs. We probe the phonons of B-7AGNRs by ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) Raman spectroscopy and reveal the existence of characteristic splitting and red shifts in Raman modes due to the presence of substitutional boron atoms. Comparing the Raman spectra for three visible lasers (red, green, and blue), we find that interaction with gold suppresses the Raman signal from B-7AGNRs and the energy of the green laser (2.33 eV) is closer to the resonant E22 transition. The hybridized electronic structure of the B-7AGNR-Au interface is expected to improve electrical characteristics of contacts between graphene nanoribbon and Au. The Raman fingerprint allows the easy identification of B-7AGNRs, which is particularly useful for device fabrication.

12.
Nat Mater ; 17(8): 676-680, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29807984

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) crystals have emerged as a class of materials with tunable carrier density1. Carrier doping to 2D semiconductors can be used to modulate many-body interactions2 and to explore novel composite particles. The Holstein polaron is a small composite particle of an electron that carries a cloud of self-induced lattice deformation (or phonons)3-5, which has been proposed to play a key role in high-temperature superconductivity6 and carrier mobility in devices7. Here we report the discovery of Holstein polarons in a surface-doped layered semiconductor, MoS2, in which a puzzling 2D superconducting dome with the critical temperature of 12 K was found recently8-11. Using a high-resolution band mapping of charge carriers, we found strong band renormalizations collectively identified as a hitherto unobserved spectral function of Holstein polarons12-18. The short-range nature of electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling in MoS2 can be explained by its valley degeneracy, which enables strong intervalley coupling mediated by acoustic phonons. The coupling strength is found to increase gradually along the superconducting dome up to the intermediate regime, which suggests a bipolaronic pairing in the 2D superconductivity.

13.
Phys Rev Lett ; 119(1): 017001, 2017 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28731743

RESUMO

We report evidence of a nonadiabatic Kohn anomaly in boron-doped diamond, using a joint theoretical and experimental analysis of the phonon dispersion relations. We demonstrate that standard calculations of phonons using density-functional perturbation theory are unable to reproduce the dispersion relations of the high-energy phonons measured by high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering. On the contrary, by taking into account nonadiabatic effects within a many-body field-theoretic framework, we obtain excellent agreement with our experimental data. This result indicates a breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation in the phonon dispersion relations of boron-doped diamond.

14.
Sci Adv ; 3(3): e1501692, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28378013

RESUMO

Engineered lattices in condensed matter physics, such as cold-atom optical lattices or photonic crystals, can have properties that are fundamentally different from those of naturally occurring electronic crystals. We report a novel type of artificial quantum matter lattice. Our lattice is a multilayer heterostructure built from alternating thin films of topological and trivial insulators. Each interface within the heterostructure hosts a set of topologically protected interface states, and by making the layers sufficiently thin, we demonstrate for the first time a hybridization of interface states across layers. In this way, our heterostructure forms an emergent atomic chain, where the interfaces act as lattice sites and the interface states act as atomic orbitals, as seen from our measurements by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. By changing the composition of the heterostructure, we can directly control hopping between lattice sites. We realize a topological and a trivial phase in our superlattice band structure. We argue that the superlattice may be characterized in a significant way by a one-dimensional topological invariant, closely related to the invariant of the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model. Our topological insulator heterostructure demonstrates a novel experimental platform where we can engineer band structures by directly controlling how electrons hop between lattice sites.

15.
Nano Lett ; 17(2): 811-820, 2017 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28032768

RESUMO

Finding ways to create and control the spin-dependent properties of two-dimensional electron states (2DESs) is a major challenge for the elaboration of novel spin-based devices. Spin-orbit and exchange-magnetic interactions (SOI and EMI) are two fundamental mechanisms that enable access to the tunability of spin-dependent properties of carriers. The silicon surface of HoRh2Si2 appears to be a unique model system, where concurrent SOI and EMI can be visualized and controlled by varying the temperature. The beauty and simplicity of this system lie in the 4f moments, which act as a multiple tuning instrument on the 2DESs, as the 4f projections parallel and perpendicular to the surface order at essentially different temperatures. Here we show that the SOI locks the spins of the 2DESs exclusively in the surface plane when the 4f moments are disordered: the Rashba-Bychkov effect. When the temperature is gradually lowered and the system experiences magnetic order, the rising EMI progressively competes with the SOI leading to a fundamental change in the spin-dependent properties of the 2DESs. The spins rotate and reorient toward the out-of-plane Ho 4f moments. Our findings show that the direction of the spins and the spin-splitting of the two-dimensional electrons at the surface can be manipulated in a controlled way by using only one parameter: the temperature.

16.
ACS Nano ; 10(1): 515-23, 2016 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26727335

RESUMO

The short coherence lengths characteristic of low-dimensional superconductors are associated with usefully high critical fields or temperatures. Unfortunately, such materials are often sensitive to disorder and suffer from phase fluctuations in the superconducting order parameter which diverge with temperature T, magnetic field H, or current I. We propose an approach to overcome synthesis and fluctuation problems: building superconductors from inhomogeneous composites of nanofilaments. Macroscopic crystals of quasi-one-dimensional Na2-δMo6Se6 featuring Na vacancy disorder (δ ≈ 0.2) are shown to behave as percolative networks of superconducting nanowires. Long-range order is established via transverse coupling between individual one-dimensional filaments, yet phase coherence remains unstable to fluctuations and localization in the zero (T,H,I) limit. However, a region of reentrant phase coherence develops upon raising (T,H,I). We attribute this phenomenon to an enhancement of the transverse coupling due to electron delocalization. Our observations of reentrant phase coherence coincide with a peak in the Josephson energy EJ at nonzero (T,H,I), which we estimate using a simple analytical model for a disordered anisotropic superconductor. Na2-δMo6Se6 is therefore a blueprint for a future generation of nanofilamentary superconductors with inbuilt resilience to phase fluctuations at elevated (T,H,I).

17.
Sci Adv ; 1(8): e1500495, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26601268

RESUMO

The Rashba effect is one of the most striking manifestations of spin-orbit coupling in solids and provides a cornerstone for the burgeoning field of semiconductor spintronics. It is typically assumed to manifest as a momentum-dependent splitting of a single initially spin-degenerate band into two branches with opposite spin polarization. Combining polarization-dependent and resonant angle-resolved photoemission measurements with density functional theory calculations, we show that the two "spin-split" branches of the model giant Rashba system BiTeI additionally develop disparate orbital textures, each of which is coupled to a distinct spin configuration. This necessitates a reinterpretation of spin splitting in Rashba-like systems and opens new possibilities for controlling spin polarization through the orbital sector.

18.
Sci Adv ; 1(9): e1500692, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26601308

RESUMO

Understanding the role of electron correlations in strong spin-orbit transition-metal oxides is key to the realization of numerous exotic phases including spin-orbit-assisted Mott insulators, correlated topological solids, and prospective new high-temperature superconductors. To date, most attention has been focused on the 5d iridium-based oxides. We instead consider the Pt-based delafossite oxide PtCoO2. Our transport measurements, performed on single-crystal samples etched to well-defined geometries using focused ion beam techniques, yield a room temperature resistivity of only 2.1 microhm·cm (µΩ-cm), establishing PtCoO2 as the most conductive oxide known. From angle-resolved photoemission and density functional theory, we show that the underlying Fermi surface is a single cylinder of nearly hexagonal cross-section, with very weak dispersion along k z . Despite being predominantly composed of d-orbital character, the conduction band is remarkably steep, with an average effective mass of only 1.14m e. Moreover, the sharp spectral features observed in photoemission remain well defined with little additional broadening for more than 500 meV below E F, pointing to suppressed electron-electron scattering. Together, our findings establish PtCoO2 as a model nearly-free-electron system in a 5d delafossite transition-metal oxide.

19.
Adv Mater ; 27(26): 3894-9, 2015 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26010071

RESUMO

The origin of the 2D electron gas (2DEG)stabilized at the bare surface of SrTiO3 (001) is investigated. Using high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission and core-level spectroscopy, it is shown conclusively that this 2DEG arises from light-induced oxygen vacancies. The dominant mechanism driving vacancy formation is identified, allowing unprecedented control over the 2DEG carrier density.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 110(20): 207204, 2013 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25167445

RESUMO

We present the results of inelastic x-ray scattering for magnetite and analyze the energies and widths of the phonon modes with different symmetries in a broad range of temperature 125 < T < 293 K. The phonon modes with X(4) and Δ(5) symmetries broaden in a nonlinear way with decreasing T when the Verwey transition is approached. It is found that the maxima of phonon widths occur away from high-symmetry points, which suggests the incommensurate character of critical fluctuations. Strong phonon anharmonicity induced by electron-phonon coupling is discovered by a combination of these experimental results with ab initio calculations which take into account local Coulomb interactions at Fe ions. It (i) explains observed anomalous phonon broadening and (ii) demonstrates that the Verwey transition is a cooperative phenomenon which involves a wide spectrum of phonons coupled to the electron charge fluctuations condensing in the low-symmetry phase.

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