Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 162
Filtrar
1.
Nat Genet ; 53(2): 147-155, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462482

RESUMO

The intestinal microbiome is implicated as an important modulating factor in multiple inflammatory1,2, neurologic3 and neoplastic diseases4. Recent genome-wide association studies yielded inconsistent, underpowered and rarely replicated results such that the role of human host genetics as a contributing factor to microbiome assembly and structure remains uncertain5-11. Nevertheless, twin studies clearly suggest host genetics as a driver of microbiome composition11. In a genome-wide association analysis of 8,956 German individuals, we identified 38 genetic loci to be associated with single bacteria and overall microbiome composition. Further analyses confirm the identified associations of ABO histo-blood groups and FUT2 secretor status with Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium spp. Mendelian randomization analysis suggests causative and protective effects of gut microbes, with clade-specific effects on inflammatory bowel disease. This holistic investigative approach of the host, its genetics and its associated microbial communities as a 'metaorganism' broaden our understanding of disease etiology, and emphasize the potential for implementing microbiota in disease treatment and management.

2.
Nat Genet ; 53(2): 156-165, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462485

RESUMO

To study the effect of host genetics on gut microbiome composition, the MiBioGen consortium curated and analyzed genome-wide genotypes and 16S fecal microbiome data from 18,340 individuals (24 cohorts). Microbial composition showed high variability across cohorts: only 9 of 410 genera were detected in more than 95% of samples. A genome-wide association study of host genetic variation regarding microbial taxa identified 31 loci affecting the microbiome at a genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10-8) threshold. One locus, the lactase (LCT) gene locus, reached study-wide significance (genome-wide association study signal: P = 1.28 × 10-20), and it showed an age-dependent association with Bifidobacterium abundance. Other associations were suggestive (1.95 × 10-10 < P < 5 × 10-8) but enriched for taxa showing high heritability and for genes expressed in the intestine and brain. A phenome-wide association study and Mendelian randomization identified enrichment of microbiome trait loci in the metabolic, nutrition and environment domains and suggested the microbiome might have causal effects in ulcerative colitis and rheumatoid arthritis.

3.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517400

RESUMO

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties with a heritability estimate of up to 61%. The circulating levels of IL-6 in blood have been associated with an increased risk of complex disease pathogenesis. We conducted a two-staged, discovery, and replication meta genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating serum IL-6 levels comprising up to 67 428 (ndiscovery = 52 654 and nreplication = 14 774) individuals of European ancestry. The inverse variance fixed-effects based discovery meta-analysis, followed by replication led to the identification of two independent loci, IL1F10/IL1RN rs6734238 on Chromosome (Chr) 2q14, (pcombined = 1.8 × 10-11), HLA-DRB1/DRB5 rs660895 on Chr6p21 (pcombined = 1.5 × 10-10) in the combined meta-analyses of all samples. We also replicated the IL6R rs4537545 locus on Chr1q21 (pcombined = 1.2 × 10-122). Our study identifies novel loci for circulating IL-6 levels uncovering new immunological and inflammatory pathways that may influence IL-6 pathobiology.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(1)2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466458

RESUMO

The thyroid gland is both a thyroid hormone (TH) generating as well as a TH responsive organ. It is hence crucial that cathepsin-mediated proteolytic cleavage of the precursor thyroglobulin is regulated and integrated with the subsequent export of TH into the blood circulation, which is enabled by TH transporters such as monocarboxylate transporters Mct8 and Mct10. Previously, we showed that cathepsin K-deficient mice exhibit the phenomenon of functional compensation through cathepsin L upregulation, which is independent of the canonical hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, thus, due to auto-regulation. Since these animals also feature enhanced Mct8 expression, we aimed to understand if TH transporters are part of the thyroid auto-regulatory mechanisms. Therefore, we analyzed phenotypic differences in thyroid function arising from combined cathepsin K and TH transporter deficiencies, i.e., in Ctsk-/-/Mct10-/-, Ctsk-/-/Mct8-/y, and Ctsk-/-/Mct8-/y/Mct10-/-. Despite the impaired TH export, thyroglobulin degradation was enhanced in the mice lacking Mct8, particularly in the triple-deficient genotype, due to increased cathepsin amounts and enhanced cysteine peptidase activities, leading to ongoing thyroglobulin proteolysis for TH liberation, eventually causing self-thyrotoxic thyroid states. The increased cathepsin amounts were a consequence of autophagy-mediated lysosomal biogenesis that is possibly triggered due to the stress accompanying intrathyroidal TH accumulation, in particular in the Ctsk-/-/Mct8-/y/Mct10-/- animals. Collectively, our data points to the notion that the absence of cathepsin K and Mct8 leads to excessive thyroglobulin degradation and TH liberation in a non-classical pathway of thyroid auto-regulation.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462612

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Exocrine pancreatic function is critically involved in regulating the gut microbiota composition. At the same time, its impairment acutely affects human metabolism. How these 2 roles are connected is unknown. We studied how the exocrine pancreas contributes to metabolism via modulation of gut microbiota. DESIGN: Fecal samples were collected in 2226 participants of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP/SHIP-TREND) to determine exocrine pancreatic function (pancreatic elastase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and intestinal microbiota profiles (16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene sequencing). Plasma metabolite levels were determined by mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Exocrine pancreatic function was associated with changes in the abundance of 28 taxa and, simultaneously, with those of 16 plasma metabolites. Mediation pathway analysis revealed that a significant component of how exocrine pancreatic function affects the blood metabolome is mediated via gut microbiota abundance changes, most prominently, circulating serotonin and lysophosphatidylcholines. CONCLUSION: These results imply that the effect of exocrine pancreatic function on intestinal microbiota composition alters the availability of microbial-derived metabolites in the blood and thus directly contributes to the host metabolic changes associated with exocrine pancreatic dysfunction.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22394, 2020 12 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372187

RESUMO

A complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors determines the individual risk of depressive disorders. Vitamin D has been shown to stimulate the expression of the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) gene, which is the rate-limiting enzyme for serotonin production in the brain. Therefore, we investigate the hypothesis that serum vitamin D levels moderate the interaction between the serotonin transporter promotor gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and childhood abuse in depressive disorders. Two independent samples from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-LEGEND: n = 1 997; SHIP-TREND-0: n = 2 939) were used. Depressive disorders were assessed using questionnaires (BDI-II, PHQ-9) and interview procedures (DSM-IV). Besides serum vitamin D levels (25(OH)D), a functional polymorphism (rs4588) of the vitamin D-binding protein is used as a proxy for 25(OH)D. S-allele carriers with childhood abuse and low 25(OH)D levels have a higher mean BDI-II score (13.25) than those with a higher 25(OH)D level (9.56), which was not observed in abused LL-carriers. This significant three-way interaction was replicated in individuals with lifetime major depressive disorders when using the rs4588 instead of 25(OH)D (p = 0.0076 in the combined sample). We conclude that vitamin D relevantly moderates the interaction between childhood abuse and the serotonergic system, thereby impacting vulnerability to depressive disorders.

7.
Gut ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168600

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The intestinal microbiome affects the prevalence and pathophysiology of a variety of diseases ranging from inflammation to cancer. A reduced taxonomic or functional diversity of the microbiome was often observed in association with poorer health outcomes or disease in general. Conversely, factors or manifest diseases that determine the long-term stability or instability of the microbiome are largely unknown. We aimed to identify disease-relevant phenotypes associated with faecal microbiota (in-)stability. DESIGN: A total of 2564 paired faecal samples from 1282 participants of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) were collected at a 5-year (median) interval and microbiota profiles determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The changes in faecal microbiota over time were associated with highly standardised and comprehensive phenotypic data to determine factors related to microbiota (in-)stability. RESULTS: The overall microbiome landscape remained remarkably stable over time. The greatest microbiome instability was associated with factors contributing to metabolic syndrome such as fatty liver disease and diabetes mellitus. These, in turn, were associated with an increase in facultative pathogens such as Enterobacteriaceae or Escherichia/Shigella. Greatest stability of the microbiome was determined by higher initial alpha diversity, female sex, high household income and preserved exocrine pancreatic function. Participants who newly developed fatty liver disease or diabetes during the 5-year follow-up already displayed significant microbiota changes at study entry when the diseases were absent. CONCLUSION: This study identifies distinct components of metabolic liver disease to be associated with instability of the intestinal microbiome, increased abundance of facultative pathogens and thus greater susceptibility toward dysbiosis-associated diseases.

8.
Mov Disord ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare neurodegenerative disease characterized by intracellular accumulations of α-synuclein and nerve cell loss in striatonigral and olivopontocerebellar structures. Epidemiological and clinical studies have reported potential involvement of autoimmune mechanisms in MSA pathogenesis. However, genetic etiology of this interaction remains unknown. We aimed to investigate genetic overlap between MSA and 7 autoimmune diseases and to identify shared genetic loci. METHODS: Genome-wide association study summary statistics of MSA and 7 autoimmune diseases were combined in cross-trait conjunctional false discovery rate analysis to explore overlapping genetic background. Expression of selected candidate genes was compared in transgenic MSA mice and wild-type mice. Genetic variability of candidate genes was further investigated using independent whole-exome genotyping data from large cohorts of MSA and autoimmune disease patients and healthy controls. RESULTS: We observed substantial polygenic overlap between MSA and inflammatory bowel disease and identified 3 shared genetic loci with leading variants upstream of the DENND1B and RSP04 genes, and in intron of the C7 gene. Further, the C7 gene showed significantly dysregulated expression in the degenerating midbrain of transgenic MSA mice compared with wild-type mice and had elevated burden of protein-coding variants in independent MSA and inflammatory bowel disease cohorts. CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence of shared genetic etiology between MSA and inflammatory bowel disease with an important role of the C7 gene in both phenotypes, with the implication of immune and gut dysfunction in MSA pathophysiology. © 2020 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

9.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 11(9): e00232, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094959

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Exocrine pancreatic function is a critical host factor in determining the intestinal microbiota composition. Diseases affecting the exocrine pancreas could therefore influence the gut microbiome. We investigated the changes in gut microbiota of patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP). METHODS: Patients with clinical and imaging evidence of CP (n = 51) were prospectively recruited and compared with twice the number of nonpancreatic disease controls matched for distribution in age, sex, body mass index, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and exocrine pancreatic function (stool elastase). From stool samples of these 153 subjects, DNA was extracted, and intestinal microbiota composition was determined by bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. RESULTS: Patients with CP exhibited severely reduced microbial diversity (Shannon diversity index and Simpson diversity number, P < 0.001) with an increased abundance of facultative pathogenic organisms (P < 0.001) such as Enterococcus (q < 0.001), Streptococcus (q < 0.001), and Escherichia.Shigella (q = 0.002). The CP-associated changes were independent of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Short-chain fatty acid producers, considered protective for epithelia such as Faecalibacterium (q < 0.001), showed reduced abundance in patients with CP. Of 4 additional patients with CP previously treated with antibiotics (ceftriaxone and metronidazole), 3 patients were characterized by distinct Enterococcus overgrowth. DISCUSSION: CP is associated with marked gut microbiota dysbiosis, greatly reduced diversity, and increased abundance of opportunistic pathogens, specifically those previously isolated from infected pancreatic necrosis. Taxa with a potentially beneficial role in intestinal barrier function are depleted. These changes can increase the probability of complications from pancreatitis such as infected fluid collections or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (see Graphical Abstract, Supplementary Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/CTG/A383).

10.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786095

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a debilitating and costly disease that causes fractures in 33% of women and 20% of men over the age of 50 years. Recent studies have shown that beta blocker (BB) users have higher bone mineral density (BMD) and decreased risk of fracture compared with non-users. The mechanism underlying this association is thought to be due to suppression of adrenergic signaling in osteoblasts, which leads to increased BMD in rodent models; however, the mechanism in humans is unknown. Also, several miRNAs are associated with adrenergic signaling and BMD in separate studies. To investigate potential miRNA mechanisms, we performed a cross-sectional analysis using clinical data, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, and miRNA and mRNA profiling of whole blood from the Framingham Study's Offspring Cohort. We found nine miRNAs associated with BB use and increased BMD. In parallel network analyses, we discovered a subnetwork associated with BMD and BB use containing two of these nine miRNAs, miR-19a-3p and miR-186-5p. To strengthen this finding, we showed that these two miRNAs had significantly higher expression in individuals without incident fracture compared with those with fracture in an external data set. We also noted a similar trend in association between these miRNA and Z-score as calculated from heel ultrasound measures in two external cohorts (SOS-Hip and SHIP-TREND). Because miR-19a directly targets the ADRB1 mRNA transcript, we propose BB use may downregulate ADRB1 expression in osteoblasts through increased miR-19a-3p expression. We used enrichment analysis of miRNA targets to find potential indirect effects through insulin and parathyroid hormone signaling. This analysis provides a starting point for delineating the role of miRNA on the association between BB use and BMD. © 2020 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).

11.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; 128(6-07): 479-487, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544978

RESUMO

Determination of the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroid hormones (fTHs) is crucial for assessing thyroid function. However, as a result of inter-individual genetic variability and different environmental factors individual set points exist for TSH and fTHs and display considerable variation. Furthermore, under specific pathophysiological conditions like central hypothyroidism, TSH secreting pituitary tumors, or thyroid hormone resistance the established markers TSH and fTH fail to reliably predict thyroid function and adequate supply of TH to peripheral organs. Even in case of overt hyper- and hypothyroidism circulating fTH concentrations do not correlate with clinical symptoms. Therefore, there is a clear need for novel, more specific biomarkers to diagnose and monitor thyroid function. OMICs screening approaches allow parallel profiling of hundreds to thousands of molecules and thus comprehensive monitoring of molecular alterations in tissues and body fluids that might be associated with changes in thyroid function. These techniques thus constitute promising tools for the identification of urgently needed novel biomarkers. This mini review summarizes the findings of OMICs studies in thyroid research with a particular focus on population-based and patient studies as well as interventional approaches investigating the effects of thyroid hormone administration.

12.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; 128(6-07): 401-413, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450582

RESUMO

Thyroid hormone metabolites (THM) with few or no iodine substituents such as 3,5-T2, the thyronamines 3-T1AM and T0AM, and their oxidation products, the thyroacetic acids (TA) formed by monoamine oxidases, have recently attracted major interest due to their metabolic actions which are in part distinct from those of the classical thyromimetic hormone T3, the major ligand of T3 receptors. This review compiles and discusses in vitro effects of 3,5-T2, TAM and TA reported for thyrocytes, pancreatic islets and hepatocytes as well as findings from in vivo studies in mouse models after single or repeated administration of pharmacological doses of these agents. Comparison of the 3,5-T2 effects on the transcriptome with not yet published proteome data in livers of obese mice on high fat diet indicate a distinct anti-steatotic effect of this THM. Furthermore, uptake, metabolism, and cellular actions via various receptors such as trace amine-associated receptors (TAAR), alpha-adrenergic, GPCR and T3 receptors are discussed. Studies on postulated pathways of biosynthesis of 3-T1AM, its effects on the HPT-axis and thyroid gland as well as insulin secretion are reviewed. 3-T1AM also acts on hepatocytes and interferes with TRPM8-dependent signaling in human cell lines related to the eye compartment. Human studies are presented which address potential biosynthesis routes of 3,5-T2 and 3-T1AM from THM precursors, especially T3. The current state of diagnostic analytics of these minor THM in human blood is portrayed comparing and critically discussing the still divergent findings based on classical immunoassay and recently developed liquid-chromatography/mass- spectrometry methods, which allow quantification of the thyronome spectrum from one single small volume serum sample. The clinical perspectives of use and potential abuse of these biologically active THM is addressed.

13.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 100, 2020 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198361

RESUMO

This review summarizes the last decade of work by the ENIGMA (Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta Analysis) Consortium, a global alliance of over 1400 scientists across 43 countries, studying the human brain in health and disease. Building on large-scale genetic studies that discovered the first robustly replicated genetic loci associated with brain metrics, ENIGMA has diversified into over 50 working groups (WGs), pooling worldwide data and expertise to answer fundamental questions in neuroscience, psychiatry, neurology, and genetics. Most ENIGMA WGs focus on specific psychiatric and neurological conditions, other WGs study normal variation due to sex and gender differences, or development and aging; still other WGs develop methodological pipelines and tools to facilitate harmonized analyses of "big data" (i.e., genetic and epigenetic data, multimodal MRI, and electroencephalography data). These international efforts have yielded the largest neuroimaging studies to date in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance use disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, epilepsy, and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. More recent ENIGMA WGs have formed to study anxiety disorders, suicidal thoughts and behavior, sleep and insomnia, eating disorders, irritability, brain injury, antisocial personality and conduct disorder, and dissociative identity disorder. Here, we summarize the first decade of ENIGMA's activities and ongoing projects, and describe the successes and challenges encountered along the way. We highlight the advantages of collaborative large-scale coordinated data analyses for testing reproducibility and robustness of findings, offering the opportunity to identify brain systems involved in clinical syndromes across diverse samples and associated genetic, environmental, demographic, cognitive, and psychosocial factors.

14.
Thyroid ; 30(6): 908-923, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183611

RESUMO

Background: Pathological conditions of the thyroid hormone (TH) system are routinely diagnosed by using serum concentrations of thyrotropin (TSH), which is sufficient in most cases. However, in certain conditions, such as resistance to TH due to mutations in THRB (RTHb) or TSH-releasing pituitary adenoma (TSHoma), TSH may be insufficient for a correct diagnosis, even in combination with serum TH concentrations. Likewise, under TH replacement therapy, these parameters can be misleading and do not always allow optimal treatment. Hence, additional biomarkers to assess challenging clinical conditions would be highly beneficial. Methods: Data from untargeted multi-omics analyses of plasma samples from experimental thyrotoxicosis in human and mouse were exploited to identify proteins that might represent possible biomarkers of TH function. Subsequent mouse studies were used to identify the tissue of origin and the involvement of the two different TH receptors (TR). For in-depth characterization of the underlying cellular mechanisms, primary mouse cells were used. Results: The analysis of the plasma proteome data sets revealed 16 plasma proteins that were concordantly differentially abundant under thyroxine treatment compared with euthyroid controls across the two species. These originated predominantly from liver, spleen, and bone. Independent studies in a clinical cohort and different mouse models identified CD5L as the most robust putative biomarker under different serum TH states and treatment periods. In vitro studies revealed that CD5L originates from proinflammatory M1 macrophages, which are similar to liver-residing Kupffer cells, and is regulated by an indirect mechanism requiring the secretion of a yet unknown factor from hepatocytes. In agreement with the role of TRα1 in immune cells and the TRß-dependent hepatocyte-derived signaling, the in vivo regulation of Cd5l expression depended on both TR isoforms. Conclusion: Our results identify several novel targets of TH action in serum, with CD5L as the most robust marker. Although further studies will be needed to validate the specificity of these targets, CD5L seems to be a promising candidate to assess TH action in hepatocyte-macrophage crosstalk.

15.
Gastroenterology ; 158(1): 253-269.e14, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Pancreatitis starts with primarily sterile local inflammation that induces systemic inflammatory response syndrome, followed by compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS). We investigated the mechanisms of these processes in mice and human serum. METHODS: We induced severe acute pancreatitis by partial duct ligation with caerulein stimulation or intraperitoneal injection of l-arginine in mice with deletion of interleukin (IL)12B, NLRP3, or IL18 and in mice given MCC950, a small molecule inhibitor of the NLRP3-inflammasome. Pancreata were collected from mice and analyzed by histology, and cytokine levels were measured in serum samples. We measured activation of adaptive immune responses in mice with pancreatitis by flow cytometry analysis of T cells (CD25 and CD69) isolated from the spleen. Differentiation of T-helper (Th1) cells, Th2 cells, and T-regulatory cells was determined by nuclear staining for TBET, GATA3, and FOXP3. We performed transcriptome analysis of mouse lymph nodes and bone marrow-derived macrophages after incubation with acini. We measured levels of cytokines in serum samples from patients with mild and severe acute pancreatitis. RESULTS: Activation of the adaptive immune response in mice was initiated by macrophage-derived, caspase 1-processed cytokines and required activation of NLRP3 (confirmed in serum samples from patients with pancreatitis). Spleen cells from mice with pancreatitis had increases in Th2 cells but not in Th1 cells. Bone marrow-derived macrophages secreted IL1B and IL18, but not IL12, after co-incubation with pancreatic acini. T-cell activation and severity of acute pancreatitis did not differ significantly between IL12B-deficient and control mice. In contrast, NLRP3- or IL18-deficient mice had reduced activation of T cells and no increase in Th2 cell-mediated responses compared with control mice. The systemic type 2 immune response was mediated by macrophage-derived cytokines of the IL1 family. Specifically, IL18 induced a Th2 cell-mediated response in the absence of IL12. MCC950 significantly reduced neutrophil infiltration, T-cell activation, and disease severity in mice. CONCLUSIONS: In mice with severe pancreatitis, we found systemic inflammatory response syndrome and compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome developed in parallel. Infiltrating macrophages promote inflammation and simultaneously induce a Th2 cell-mediated response via IL18. Inhibition of NLRP3 reduces systemic inflammatory response syndrome and compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome and might be used to treat patients with severe pancreatitis.


Assuntos
Furanos/administração & dosagem , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/imunologia , Pancreatite/imunologia , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/imunologia , Células Acinares , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Arginina/toxicidade , Células Cultivadas , Ceruletídeo/toxicidade , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis , Humanos , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Interleucina-18/imunologia , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Pâncreas/citologia , Pâncreas/imunologia , Pâncreas/patologia , Pancreatite/induzido quimicamente , Pancreatite/tratamento farmacológico , Cultura Primária de Células , Sulfonas , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/sangue , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/tratamento farmacológico , Células Th2/imunologia , Células Th2/metabolismo
16.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 145(4): 1208-1218, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fifteen percent of atopic dermatitis (AD) liability-scale heritability could be attributed to 31 susceptibility loci identified by using genome-wide association studies, with only 3 of them (IL13, IL-6 receptor [IL6R], and filaggrin [FLG]) resolved to protein-coding variants. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether a significant portion of unexplained AD heritability is further explained by low-frequency and rare variants in the gene-coding sequence. METHODS: We evaluated common, low-frequency, and rare protein-coding variants using exome chip and replication genotype data of 15,574 patients and 377,839 control subjects combined with whole-transcriptome data on lesional, nonlesional, and healthy skin samples of 27 patients and 38 control subjects. RESULTS: An additional 12.56% (SE, 0.74%) of AD heritability is explained by rare protein-coding variation. We identified docking protein 2 (DOK2) and CD200 receptor 1 (CD200R1) as novel genome-wide significant susceptibility genes. Rare coding variants associated with AD are further enriched in 5 genes (IL-4 receptor [IL4R], IL13, Janus kinase 1 [JAK1], JAK2, and tyrosine kinase 2 [TYK2]) of the IL13 pathway, all of which are targets for novel systemic AD therapeutics. Multiomics-based network and RNA sequencing analysis revealed DOK2 as a central hub interacting with, among others, CD200R1, IL6R, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Multitissue gene expression profile analysis for 53 tissue types from the Genotype-Tissue Expression project showed that disease-associated protein-coding variants exert their greatest effect in skin tissues. CONCLUSION: Our discoveries highlight a major role of rare coding variants in AD acting independently of common variants. Further extensive functional studies are required to detect all potential causal variants and to specify the contribution of the novel susceptibility genes DOK2 and CD200R1 to overall disease susceptibility.

17.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(2): 264-273, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485028

RESUMO

Gallstones Disease (GSD) is one of the most common digestive diseases requiring hospitalization and surgical procedures in the world. GSD has a high prevalence in populations with European or Amerindian ancestry (10-20%) and the influence of genetic factors is broadly acknowledged. However, known genetic variants do not entirely explain the disease heritability suggesting that additional genetic variants remain to be identified. Here, we examined the association of copy number variants (CNVs) with GSD in a sample of 4778 individuals (1929 GSD cases and 2849 controls) including two European cohorts from Germany (n = 3702) and one admixed Latin American cohort from Chile (n = 1076). We detected 2936 large and rare CNVs events (size > 100 kb, frequency < 1%). Case-control burden analysis and generalized linear regression models revealed significant association of CNVs with GSD in men, with the strongest effect observed with CNVs overlapping lipid metabolism genes (p-value = 6.54 × 10-4; OR = 2.76; CI 95% = 1.53-4.89). Our results indicate a clear link between CNVs and GSD in men and provides additional evidence that the genetic components of risk for GSD are complex, can be sex specific and include CNVs affecting genes involved in lipid metabolism.

18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 20100, 2019 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882864

RESUMO

Helicobacter (H.) pylori is the most important cause for peptic ulcer disease and a risk factor for gastric carcinoma. How colonization with H. pylori affects the intestinal microbiota composition in humans is unknown. We investigated the association of H. pylori infection with intestinal microbiota composition in the population-based cohort Study-of-Health-in-Pomerania (SHIP)-TREND. Anti-H. pylori serology and H. pylori stool antigen tests were used to determine the H. pylori infection status. The fecal microbiota composition of 212 H. pylori positive subjects and 212 matched negative control individuals was assessed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. H. pylori infection was found to be significantly associated with fecal microbiota alterations and a general increase in fecal microbial diversity. In infected individuals, the H. pylori stool antigen load determined a larger portion of the microbial variation than age or sex. The highest H. pylori stool antigen loads were associated with a putatively harmful microbiota composition. This study demonstrates profound alterations in human fecal microbiota of H. pylori infected individuals. While the increased microbiota diversity associated with H. pylori infection as well as changes in abundance of specific genera could be considered to be beneficial, others may be associated with adverse health effects, reflecting the complex relationship between H. pylori and its human host.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Infecções por Helicobacter/imunologia , Helicobacter pylori/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
19.
Thyroid ; 29(12): 1743-1754, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571530

RESUMO

Background: In numerous studies based predominantly on rodent models, administration of 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (3,5-T2), a metabolite of the thyroid hormones (TH) thyroxine (T4) and triiodo-L-thyronine (T3), was reported to cause beneficial health effects, including reversal of steatohepatosis and prevention of insulin resistance, in most instances without adverse thyrotoxic side effects. However, the empirical evidence concerning the physiological relevance of endogenously produced 3,5-T2 in humans is comparatively poor. Therefore, to improve the understanding of 3,5-T2-related metabolic processes, we performed a comprehensive metabolomic study relating serum 3,5-T2 concentrations to plasma and urine metabolite levels within a large general population sample. Methods: Serum 3,5-T2 concentrations were determined for 856 participants of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania-TREND (SHIP-TREND). Plasma and urine metabolome data were generated using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, allowing quantification of 613 and 578 metabolites in plasma and urine, respectively. To detect thyroid function-independent significant 3,5-T2-metabolite associations, linear regression analyses controlling for major confounders, including thyrotropin and free T4, were performed. The same analyses were carried out using a sample of 16 male healthy volunteers treated for 8 weeks with 250 µg/day levothyroxine to induce thyrotoxicosis. Results: The specific molecular fingerprint of 3,5-T2 comprised 15 and 73 significantly associated metabolites in plasma and urine, respectively. Serum 3,5-T2 concentrations were neither associated with classical thyroid function parameters nor altered during experimental thyrotoxicosis. Strikingly, many metabolites related to coffee metabolism, including caffeine and paraxanthine, formed the clearest positively associated molecular signature. Importantly, these associations were replicated in the experimental human thyrotoxicosis model. Conclusion: The molecular fingerprint of 3,5-T2 demonstrates a clear and strong positive association of the serum levels of this TH metabolite with plasma levels of compounds indicating coffee consumption, therefore pointing to the liver as an organ, the metabolism of which is strongly affected by coffee. Furthermore, 3,5-T2 serum concentrations were found not to be directly TH dependent. Considering the beneficial health effects of 3,5-T2 administration observed in animal models and those of coffee consumption demonstrated in large epidemiological studies, one might speculate that coffee-stimulated hepatic 3,5-T2 production or accumulation represents an important molecular link in this connection.


Assuntos
Café/metabolismo , Di-Iodotironinas/sangue , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Adulto , Cafeína/sangue , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Di-Iodotironinas/urina , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Tireotoxicose/metabolismo , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue
20.
Cell Host Microbe ; 26(2): 252-264.e10, 2019 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399369

RESUMO

Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are metabolic disorders that are linked to microbiome alterations. However, their co-occurrence poses challenges in disentangling microbial features unique to each condition. We analyzed gut microbiomes of lean non-diabetic (n = 633), obese non-diabetic (n = 494), and obese individuals with T2D (n = 153) from German population and metabolic disease cohorts. Microbial taxonomic and functional profiles were analyzed along with medical histories, serum metabolomics, biometrics, and dietary data. Obesity was associated with alterations in microbiome composition, individual taxa, and functions with notable changes in Akkermansia, Faecalibacterium, Oscillibacter, and Alistipes, as well as in serum metabolites that correlated with gut microbial patterns. However, microbiome associations were modest for T2D, with nominal increases in Escherichia/Shigella. Medications, including antihypertensives and antidiabetics, along with dietary supplements including iron, were significantly associated with microbiome variation. These results differentiate microbial components of these interrelated metabolic diseases and identify dietary and medication exposures to consider in future studies.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Ferro/metabolismo , Magnésio/metabolismo , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/complicações , Metagenômica , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Análise Multivariada , Avaliação Nutricional , Soro/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA