Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 380
Filtrar
1.
EBioMedicine ; 100: 104991, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumour-promoting inflammation is a "hallmark" of cancer and conventional epidemiological studies have reported links between various inflammatory markers and cancer risk. The causal nature of these relationships and, thus, the suitability of these markers as intervention targets for cancer prevention is unclear. METHODS: We meta-analysed 6 genome-wide association studies of circulating inflammatory markers comprising 59,969 participants of European ancestry. We then used combined cis-Mendelian randomization and colocalisation analysis to evaluate the causal role of 66 circulating inflammatory markers in risk of 30 adult cancers in 338,294 cancer cases and up to 1,238,345 controls. Genetic instruments for inflammatory markers were constructed using genome-wide significant (P < 5.0 × 10-8) cis-acting SNPs (i.e., in or ±250 kb from the gene encoding the relevant protein) in weak linkage disequilibrium (LD, r2 < 0.10). Effect estimates were generated using inverse-variance weighted random-effects models and standard errors were inflated to account for weak LD between variants with reference to the 1000 Genomes Phase 3 CEU panel. A false discovery rate (FDR)-corrected P-value ("q-value") <0.05 was used as a threshold to define "strong evidence" to support associations and 0.05 ≤ q-value < 0.20 to define "suggestive evidence". A colocalisation posterior probability (PPH4) >70% was employed to indicate support for shared causal variants across inflammatory markers and cancer outcomes. Findings were replicated in the FinnGen study and then pooled using meta-analysis. FINDINGS: We found strong evidence to support an association of genetically-proxied circulating pro-adrenomedullin concentrations with increased breast cancer risk (OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.10-1.29, q-value = 0.033, PPH4 = 84.3%) and suggestive evidence to support associations of interleukin-23 receptor concentrations with increased pancreatic cancer risk (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.20-1.69, q-value = 0.055, PPH4 = 73.9%), prothrombin concentrations with decreased basal cell carcinoma risk (OR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.53-0.81, q-value = 0.067, PPH4 = 81.8%), and interleukin-1 receptor-like 1 concentrations with decreased triple-negative breast cancer risk (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88-0.97, q-value = 0.15, PPH4 = 85.6%). These findings were replicated in pooled analyses with the FinnGen study. Though suggestive evidence was found to support an association of macrophage migration inhibitory factor concentrations with increased bladder cancer risk (OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.48-4.10, q-value = 0.072, PPH4 = 76.1%), this finding was not replicated when pooled with the FinnGen study. For 22 of 30 cancer outcomes examined, there was little evidence (q-value ≥0.20) that any of the 66 circulating inflammatory markers examined were associated with cancer risk. INTERPRETATION: Our comprehensive joint Mendelian randomization and colocalisation analysis of the role of circulating inflammatory markers in cancer risk identified potential roles for 4 circulating inflammatory markers in risk of 4 site-specific cancers. Contrary to reports from some prior conventional epidemiological studies, we found little evidence of association of circulating inflammatory markers with the majority of site-specific cancers evaluated. FUNDING: Cancer Research UK (C68933/A28534, C18281/A29019, PPRCPJT∖100005), World Cancer Research Fund (IIG_FULL_2020_022), National Institute for Health Research (NIHR202411, BRC-1215-20011), Medical Research Council (MC_UU_00011/1, MC_UU_00011/3, MC_UU_00011/6, and MC_UU_00011/4), Academy of Finland Project 326291, European Union's Horizon 2020 grant agreement no. 848158 (EarlyCause), French National Cancer Institute (INCa SHSESP20, 2020-076), Versus Arthritis (21173, 21754, 21755), National Institutes of Health (U19 CA203654), National Cancer Institute (U19CA203654).


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias , Adulto , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Risco , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Inflamação/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
2.
Bioinformatics ; 40(2)2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38290773

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: There has been substantial recent interest in developing methodology for high-dimensional mediation analysis. Yet, the majority of mediation statistical methods lean heavily on mean regression, which limits their ability to fully capture the complex mediating effects across the outcome distribution. To bridge this gap, we propose a novel approach for selecting and testing mediators throughout the full range of the outcome distribution spectrum. RESULTS: The proposed high-dimensional quantile mediation model provides a comprehensive insight into how potential mediators impact outcomes via their mediation pathways. This method's efficacy is demonstrated through extensive simulations. The study presents a real-world data application examining the mediating effects of DNA methylation on the relationship between maternal smoking and offspring birthweight. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: Our method offers a publicly available and user-friendly function qHIMA(), which can be accessed through the R package HIMA at https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=HIMA.


Assuntos
Análise de Mediação , Mães , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos de Coortes , Metilação de DNA , Fumar
3.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 193, 2024 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38229083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High HIV prevalence, and lack of organized screening for the indigent population receiving care and treatment within HIV clinics in low-resource settings increases cervical cancer incidence. We sought to determine predictors of cervical precancer in women living with HIV and receiving cervical cancer screening in Jos, Nigeria. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of women living with HIV and receiving care and treatment in adult HIV/AIDS clinics in Jos-Metropolis, Nigeria between June 2020 and April 2023. Ethical approvals were obtained from the ethics committee in Jos, Nigeria and Northwestern University IRB, USA. Informed consent was obtained from eligible participants, and data on socio-demographics, cancer risk factors, and cytology reports were collected. The outcome variables were cervical precancer lesions. The independent variables were prior Pap smear status, socio-demographics, income, educational, and other reproductive health factors. Descriptive statistics was done to obtain means ± sd, frequencies, and percentages for the variables. Univariate and bivariate analyses were done to determine predictors of cervical dysplasia. Analyses were performed using R software. RESULTS: Of 957 women screened, 570 were living with HIV and 566 women had cytology report and were included in the final analysis. The mean age was 45.08 ± 8.89 years and 81.6% had no prior evidence of Pap test (under-screened). Prevalence of cervical dysplasia was 24% (mild and severe dysplasia were 12.9% and 11.1%, respectively). Age above 45 years (aOR = 3.48, p = 0.009), postmenopausal status (aOR = 7.69, p = 0.000), and women with no history of prior IUCD use (aOR = 5.94, p = 0.0001), were predictors for severe dysplasia. Women who had history of STI (aOR = 0.17, p = 0.000), prior use of IUCD (aOR = 0.32, p = 0.004), prior use of condom (aOR = 2.50, p = 0.003) and had co-morbidities (aOR = 0.46, p = 0.009) were more likely to have had a Pap test in the past. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of indigent women receiving care at HIV clinics had their first Pap test screening, and lack of organized screening among older and post-menopausal women with HIV, puts women at a higher risk of developing severe cervical precancer lesions.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Displasia do Colo do Útero , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Esfregaço Vaginal , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Displasia do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Teste de Papanicolaou , Programas de Rastreamento
4.
JAMA Cardiol ; 9(3): 263-271, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38294787

RESUMO

Importance: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder that often results in severely high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high risk of premature coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the impact of FH variants on CHD risk among individuals with moderately elevated LDL-C is not well quantified. Objective: To assess CHD risk associated with FH variants among individuals with moderately (130-189 mg/dL) and severely (≥190 mg/dL) elevated LDL-C and to quantify excess CHD deaths attributable to FH variants in US adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 21 426 individuals without preexisting CHD from 6 US cohort studies (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study, Cardiovascular Health Study, Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort, Jackson Heart Study, and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) were included, 63 of whom had an FH variant. Data were collected from 1971 to 2018, and the median (IQR) follow-up was 18 (13-28) years. Data were analyzed from March to May 2023. Exposures: LDL-C, cumulative past LDL-C, FH variant status. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cox proportional hazards models estimated associations between FH variants and incident CHD. The Cardiovascular Disease Policy Model projected excess CHD deaths associated with FH variants in US adults. Results: Of the 21 426 individuals without preexisting CHD (mean [SD] age 52.1 [15.5] years; 12 041 [56.2%] female), an FH variant was found in 22 individuals with moderately elevated LDL-C (0.3%) and in 33 individuals with severely elevated LDL-C (2.5%). The adjusted hazard ratios for incident CHD comparing those with and without FH variants were 2.9 (95% CI, 1.4-6.0) and 2.6 (95% CI, 1.4-4.9) among individuals with moderately and severely elevated LDL-C, respectively. The association between FH variants and CHD was slightly attenuated when further adjusting for baseline LDL-C level, whereas the association was no longer statistically significant after adjusting for cumulative past LDL-C exposure. Among US adults 20 years and older with no history of CHD and LDL-C 130 mg/dL or higher, more than 417 000 carry an FH variant and were projected to experience more than 12 000 excess CHD deaths in those with moderately elevated LDL-C and 15 000 in those with severely elevated LDL-C compared with individuals without an FH variant. Conclusions and Relevance: In this pooled cohort study, the presence of FH variants was associated with a 2-fold higher CHD risk, even when LDL-C was only moderately elevated. The increased CHD risk appeared to be largely explained by the higher cumulative LDL-C exposure in individuals with an FH variant compared to those without. Further research is needed to assess the value of adding genetic testing to traditional phenotypic FH screening.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Hipercolesterolemia , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Hipercolesterolemia/complicações , LDL-Colesterol/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Coortes , Fatores de Risco , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Aterosclerose/complicações , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37956337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: GrimAge acceleration (GAA), an epigenetic marker that represents physiologic aging, is associated with age-related diseases including cancer and cardiovascular diseases. However, the associations between GAA and muscle mass and function are unknown. METHODS: We estimated measures of GAA in 1 118 Black and White participants from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study at exam years (Y) 15 (2000-2001) and 20 (2005-2006). Abdominal muscle composition was measured using CT scans at the Y25 (2010-2011) visit. We used multivariate regression models to examine associations of GAA estimates with muscle imaging measurements. RESULTS: In the CARDIA study, each 1-year higher GAA was associated with an average 1.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.6%, 1.5%) higher intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) volume for abdominal muscles. Each 1-year higher GAA was associated with an average -0.089 Hounsfield unit (HU; 95% CI: -0.146, -0.032) lower lean muscle attenuation and an average -0.049 HU (95% CI: -0.092, -0.007) lower IMAT attenuation for abdominal muscles. Stratified analyses showed that GAA was more strongly associated with higher abdominal muscle IMAT volume in females and significantly associated with lower lean muscle attenuation for White participants only. CONCLUSIONS: Higher GAA is associated with higher abdominal muscle IMAT volume and lower lean muscle attenuation in a midlife population.


Assuntos
Gordura Abdominal , Vasos Coronários , Feminino , Humanos , Músculos , Envelhecimento/genética , Epigênese Genética , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem
6.
Am J Prev Med ; 66(2): 216-225, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37751803

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Clinical cardiovascular health is a construct that includes 4 health factors-systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, and body mass index-which together provide an evidence-based, more holistic view of cardiovascular health risk in adults than each component separately. Currently, no pediatric version of this construct exists. This study sought to develop sex-specific charts of clinical cardiovascular health for age to describe current patterns of clinical cardiovascular health throughout childhood. METHODS: Data were used from children and adolescents aged 8-19 years in six pooled childhood cohorts (19,261 participants, collected between 1972 and 2010) to create reference standards for fasting glucose and total cholesterol. Using the models for glucose and cholesterol as well as previously published reference standards for body mass index and blood pressure, clinical cardiovascular health charts were developed. All models were estimated using sex-specific random-effects linear regression, and modeling was performed during 2020-2022. RESULTS: Models were created to generate charts with smoothed means, percentiles, and standard deviations of clinical cardiovascular health for each year of childhood. For example, a 10-year-old girl with a body mass index of 16 kg/m2 (30th percentile), blood pressure of 100/60 mm Hg (46th/50th), glucose of 80 mg/dL (31st), and total cholesterol of 160 mg/dL (46th) (lower implies better) would have a clinical cardiovascular health percentile of 62 (higher implies better). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical cardiovascular health charts based on pediatric data offer a standardized approach to express clinical cardiovascular health as an age- and sex-standardized percentile for clinicians to assess cardiovascular health in childhood to consider preventive approaches at early ages and proactively optimize lifetime trajectories of cardiovascular health.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Colesterol , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Glucose , Padrões de Referência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
7.
HGG Adv ; 5(1): 100245, 2024 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37817410

RESUMO

Mendelian randomization has been widely used to assess the causal effect of a heritable exposure variable on an outcome of interest, using genetic variants as instrumental variables. In practice, data on the exposure variable can be incomplete due to high cost of measurement and technical limits of detection. In this paper, we propose a valid and efficient method to handle both unmeasured and undetectable values of the exposure variable in one-sample Mendelian randomization analysis with individual-level data. We estimate the causal effect of the exposure variable on the outcome using maximum likelihood estimation and develop an expectation maximization algorithm for the computation of the estimator. Simulation studies show that the proposed method performs well in making inference on the causal effect. We apply our method to the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, a community-based prospective cohort study, and estimate the causal effect of several metabolites on phenotypes of interest.


Assuntos
Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Causalidade , Hispânico ou Latino/genética
8.
Infect Agent Cancer ; 18(1): 68, 2023 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37915091

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is an HIV-associated cancer that is preventable and precancerous stages including early ICC stages could be detected through screening offering opportunities for treatment and cure. The high incidence in women living with HIV and late presentation often at advanced stages of ICC with limited treatment facilities often result in early mortality. We sought to compare the epidemiologic characteristics and survival differences in HIV status of ICC patients in Nigeria. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study at two federal academic hospital-based research sites in Jos University Teaching Hospital, and Lagos University Teaching Hospital Nigeria, between March 2018 and September 2022. We enrolled women with histologically confirmed ICC with known HIV status, and FIGO staging as part of the United States of America's National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute funded project titled 'Epigenomic Biomarkers of HIV-Associated Cancers in Nigeria'. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality with assessment of overall survival (OS) and time to death after ICC diagnosis. OS distribution was estimated using the method of Kaplan-Meier and compared between groups using the log-rank test. RESULTS: A total of 239 women with confirmed ICC were enrolled and included in this analysis, of whom 192 (80.3%) were HIV-negative (HIV-/ICC +), and 47 (19.7%) were HIV-positive (HIV +/ICC +). The HIV +/ICC + patients were younger with median age 46 (IQR: 40-51) years compared to 57 (IQR: 45-66) among HIV-/ICC + (P < 0.001). Squamous cell carcinoma was the commonest histopathologic variant in 80.4% of ICC diagnosis, moderately differentiated tumor grade in 68.1% in both groups. HIV +/ICC + diagnosis was at FIGO advanced stages in 64.9% compared to 47.9% in HIV-/ICC +. The HIV-/ICC + women had better OS compared to HIV +/ICC + participants (p = 0.018), with 12-month OS 84.1% (95%CI 75-90%) and 67.6% (95%CI 42-84%) respectively. CONCLUSION: ICC is diagnosed at a relatively young age in women living with HIV, with a significantly lower overall survival probability compared to women without HIV. The trend of presentation and diagnosis at advanced stages in women living with HIV could partly explain the differences in overall survival.

9.
bioRxiv ; 2023 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37961350

RESUMO

Large-scale whole-genome sequencing (WGS) studies have improved our understanding of the contributions of coding and noncoding rare variants to complex human traits. Leveraging association effect sizes across multiple traits in WGS rare variant association analysis can improve statistical power over single-trait analysis, and also detect pleiotropic genes and regions. Existing multi-trait methods have limited ability to perform rare variant analysis of large-scale WGS data. We propose MultiSTAAR, a statistical framework and computationally-scalable analytical pipeline for functionally-informed multi-trait rare variant analysis in large-scale WGS studies. MultiSTAAR accounts for relatedness, population structure and correlation among phenotypes by jointly analyzing multiple traits, and further empowers rare variant association analysis by incorporating multiple functional annotations. We applied MultiSTAAR to jointly analyze three lipid traits (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides) in 61,861 multi-ethnic samples from the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Program. We discovered new associations with lipid traits missed by single-trait analysis, including rare variants within an enhancer of NIPSNAP3A and an intergenic region on chromosome 1.

10.
Am J Prev Med ; 2023 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37995949

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Considerable research has linked many risk factors to Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias (ADRD). Without a clear etiology of ADRD, it is advantageous to rank the known risk factors by their importance and determine if disparities exist. Statistical-based ranking can provide insight into which risk factors should be further evaluated. METHODS: This observational, population-based study assessed 50 county-level measures and estimates related to ADRD in 3,155 counties in the U.S. using data from 2010 to 2021. Statistical analysis was performed in 2022-2023. The machine learning method, eXtreme Gradient Boosting, was utilized to rank the importance of these variables by their relative contribution to the model performance. Stratified ranking was also performed based on a county's level of disadvantage. Shapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) provided marginal contributions for each variable. RESULTS: The top three ranked predictors at the county level were insufficient sleep, consuming less than one serving of fruits/vegetables per day among adults, and having less than a high school diploma. In both disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged counties, demographic variables such as sex and race were important in predicting ADRD. Lifestyle factors ranked highly in non-disadvantaged counties compared to more environmental factors in disadvantaged counties. CONCLUSIONS: This ranked list of factors can provide a guided approach to ADRD primary prevention strategies in the U.S., as the effects of sleep, diet, and education on ADRD can be further developed. While sleep, diet, and education are important nationally, differing prevention strategies could be employed based on a county's level of disadvantage.

11.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 10(11): ofad555, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38033986

RESUMO

Background: Whether treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with antiretroviral therapy (ART) is associated with lower risk of mental health disorders (MHDs) among people with HIV (PWH) remains unknown. We aim to determine the association between HIV and MHDs and whether ART alters the risk of MHDs among PWH in the US adult population. Methods: We conducted a real-world study using the Merative MarketScan claims database (2016-2020), identifying individuals with HIV (diagnosed using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification codes) and those without HIV. A multivariable stratified Cox proportional hazard regression model was conducted to examine the association of HIV treatment status with MHDs, adjusting for potential confounders. Additionally, we sought to determine the effect modification of ART on the relationship between living with HIV and MHDs. Results: A total of 313 539 individuals, with a mean age of 44.2 (standard deviation, 11.4) years, predominantly males (81.2%), residing in the South region of the US (50.9%) were included in the present analysis. During 671 880 person-years of follow-up, 46 235 incident MHD cases occurred. In the multivariable Cox proportional hazard model, living with HIV was associated with higher risk of incident MHDs. Relative to those without HIV, the adjusted hazard ratio was 1.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.79-1.92; P < .001) for those with HIV on treatment, and 2.70 (95% CI, 2.59-2.82; P < .001) for those with HIV without any treatment. Stronger associations between HIV and MHDs were observed in men relative to women, among those aged 18-34 years relative to those aged 55-63 years, and among those with no overweight/obesity relative to obese individuals (Pinteraction < .001 for all). Conclusions: HIV was associated with an increased risk of developing MHDs. However, HIV treatment mitigated the risk.

12.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 15(20): 10938-10971, 2023 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37889500

RESUMO

The alcohol-associated biological aging remains to be studied across adulthood. We conducted linear regression analyses to investigate the associations between alcohol consumption and two DNA methylation-based biological age acceleration metrics in 3823 Framingham Heart Study participants (24-92 years and 53.8% women) adjusting for covariates. We also investigated whether the two epigenetic aging metrics mediated the association of alcohol consumption with hypertension. We found that higher long-term average alcohol consumption was significantly associated with biological age acceleration assessed by GrimAge acceleration (GAA) and PhenoAge acceleration (PAA) in middle-aged (45-64 years, n = 1866) and older (65-92 years, n = 1267) participants while not in young participants (24-44 years, n = 690). For example, one additional standard drink of alcohol (~14 grams of ethanol per day) was associated with a 0.71 ± 0.15-year (p = 2.1e-6) and 0.60 ± 0.18-year (p = 7.5e-4) increase in PAA in middle-aged and older participants, respectively, but the association was not significant in young participants (p = 0.23). One additional standard serving of liquor (~14 grams of ethanol) was associated with a greater increase in GAA (0.82-year, p = 4.8e-4) and PAA (1.45-year, p = 7.4e-5) than beer (GAA: 0.45-year, p = 5.2e-4; PAA: 0.48-year, p = 0.02) and wine (GAA: 0.51-year, p = 0.02; PAA: 0.91-year, p = 0.008) in middle-aged participant group. We observed that up to 28% of the association between alcohol consumption and hypertension was mediated by GAA or PAA in the pooled sample. Our findings suggest that alcohol consumption is associated with greater biological aging quantified by epigenetic aging metrics, which may mediate the association of alcohol consumption with quantitative traits, such as hypertension.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Hipertensão , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Envelhecimento/genética , Hipertensão/genética , Metilação de DNA , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Epigênese Genética
13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 110(10): 1704-1717, 2023 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37802043

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to perform important regulatory functions in lipid metabolism. Large-scale whole-genome sequencing (WGS) studies and new statistical methods for variant set tests now provide an opportunity to assess more associations between rare variants in lncRNA genes and complex traits across the genome. In this study, we used high-coverage WGS from 66,329 participants of diverse ancestries with measurement of blood lipids and lipoproteins (LDL-C, HDL-C, TC, and TG) in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program to investigate the role of lncRNAs in lipid variability. We aggregated rare variants for 165,375 lncRNA genes based on their genomic locations and conducted rare-variant aggregate association tests using the STAAR (variant-set test for association using annotation information) framework. We performed STAAR conditional analysis adjusting for common variants in known lipid GWAS loci and rare-coding variants in nearby protein-coding genes. Our analyses revealed 83 rare lncRNA variant sets significantly associated with blood lipid levels, all of which were located in known lipid GWAS loci (in a ±500-kb window of a Global Lipids Genetics Consortium index variant). Notably, 61 out of 83 signals (73%) were conditionally independent of common regulatory variation and rare protein-coding variation at the same loci. We replicated 34 out of 61 (56%) conditionally independent associations using the independent UK Biobank WGS data. Our results expand the genetic architecture of blood lipids to rare variants in lncRNAs.


Assuntos
RNA Longo não Codificante , Humanos , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Medicina de Precisão , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Lipídeos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 12(20): e029090, 2023 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37804200

RESUMO

Background The relationship between mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA CN) and cardiovascular disease remains elusive. Methods and Results We performed cross-sectional and prospective association analyses of blood-derived mtDNA CN and cardiovascular disease outcomes in 27 316 participants in 8 cohorts of multiple racial and ethnic groups with whole-genome sequencing. We also performed Mendelian randomization to explore causal relationships of mtDNA CN with coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiometabolic risk factors (obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia). P<0.01 was used for significance. We validated most of the previously reported associations between mtDNA CN and cardiovascular disease outcomes. For example, 1-SD unit lower level of mtDNA CN was associated with 1.08 (95% CI, 1.04-1.12; P<0.001) times the hazard for developing incident CHD, adjusting for covariates. Mendelian randomization analyses showed no causal effect from a lower level of mtDNA CN to a higher CHD risk (ß=0.091; P=0.11) or in the reverse direction (ß=-0.012; P=0.076). Additional bidirectional Mendelian randomization analyses revealed that low-density lipoprotein cholesterol had a causal effect on mtDNA CN (ß=-0.084; P<0.001), but the reverse direction was not significant (P=0.059). No causal associations were observed between mtDNA CN and obesity, diabetes, and hypertension, in either direction. Multivariable Mendelian randomization analyses showed no causal effect of CHD on mtDNA CN, controlling for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (P=0.52), whereas there was a strong direct causal effect of higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol on lower mtDNA CN, adjusting for CHD status (ß=-0.092; P<0.001). Conclusions Our findings indicate that high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol may underlie the complex relationships between mtDNA CN and vascular atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doença das Coronárias , Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão , Humanos , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , LDL-Colesterol , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Estudos Transversais , Doença das Coronárias/genética , HDL-Colesterol , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/genética , Obesidade
15.
Epigenomics ; 15(13): 693-703, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37694401

RESUMO

Background: The objective of this research was to determine whether pulmonary function is associated with epigenetic aging (GrimAge) and whether GrimAge predicts emphysema. Methods: This prospective study examined 1042 participants enrolled as part of a community-based longitudinal cohort. The cross-sectional associations between pulmonary function and GrimAge, measured at study year (Y) 20 (participant ages 40-45 years), and prospective associations with emphysema at Y25 were examined. Results: At Y20, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) were negatively associated with GrimAge; for Y0-Y10 cumulative measures, only the FEV1/FVC ratio was associated with GrimAge at Y15 and Y20. Emphysema at Y25 was associated with GrimAge at Y15 and Y20. Conclusion: Pulmonary function was associated with GrimAge during early and mid-life; GrimAge partially mediated the association between pulmonary function and emphysema.


Assuntos
Vasos Coronários , Enfisema , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Prospectivos , Aceleração
16.
bioRxiv ; 2023 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37745480

RESUMO

Inflammation biomarkers can provide valuable insight into the role of inflammatory processes in many diseases and conditions. Sequencing based analyses of such biomarkers can also serve as an exemplar of the genetic architecture of quantitative traits. To evaluate the biological insight, which can be provided by a multi-ancestry, whole-genome based association study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of 21 inflammation biomarkers from up to 38,465 individuals with whole-genome sequencing from the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program. We identified 22 distinct single-variant associations across 6 traits - E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, interleukin-6, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity and mass, and P-selectin - that remained significant after conditioning on previously identified associations for these inflammatory biomarkers. We further expanded upon known biomarker associations by pairing the single-variant analysis with a rare variant set-based analysis that further identified 19 significant rare variant set-based associations with 5 traits. These signals were distinct from both significant single variant association signals within TOPMed and genetic signals observed in prior studies, demonstrating the complementary value of performing both single and rare variant analyses when analyzing quantitative traits. We also confirm several previously reported signals from semi-quantitative proteomics platforms. Many of these signals demonstrate the extensive allelic heterogeneity and ancestry-differentiated variant-trait associations common for inflammation biomarkers, a characteristic we hypothesize will be increasingly observed with well-powered, large-scale analyses of complex traits.

17.
BMC Cancer ; 23(1): 890, 2023 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37735371

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART) eligibility could lead to earlier initiation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) treatment and consequently reduce the risk of HIV-associated Kaposi Sarcoma (KS). We investigated the impact of changes in the Nigerian HIV treatment guidelines on KS incidence among adults enrolled in HIV care in Nigeria. METHODS: We analyzed data of adults who enrolled for HIV care from January 2006 to December 2016 at one of Nigeria's largest HIV treatment centers. Based on changes in HIV treatment guidelines, we classified 2006-2009 as the pre-expansion period and 2010-2016 as the post-expansion period. We used Kaplan Meier curves to compare the incidence of KS in the pre-expansion to the post-expansion period. We used Cox regression models to assess the hazard for incident KS between the two periods after adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Among 14,479 patients with HIV, the overall KS incidence was 2.35; 95% CI 2.01-2.74/1,000 person-years. The incidence of KS decreased from 2.53 to 1.58 per 1,000 person-years from 2006 to 2009 to 2010-2016. In models adjusting for age, sex, CD4-T cell count, and ART use, the risk for KS remained lower in 2010-2016 compared to 2006-2009. In analyses restricted to time on ART, there was no significant difference in KS incidence between HIV patients who enrolled in 2006-2009 and 2010-2016 after adjusting for age, sex, and CD4 T-cell count. CONCLUSION: The expansion of ART eligibility was associated with a reduced incidence of HIV-associated KS among adults initiating HIV care in Jos, Nigeria. The reduction was likely driven by earlier enrollment for HIV care and ART initiation.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Sarcoma de Kaposi , Adulto , Humanos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcoma de Kaposi/epidemiologia , População Negra
18.
Transl Med Aging ; 7: 66-74, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37576443

RESUMO

Psychological stress remains an important risk factor for morbidity and mortality throughout the life course. However, there have been counterintuitive findings reported in previous studies of older persons that examine the relationships of perceived psychological stress with DNA methylation-based markers of aging, which also serve as predictors of morbidity and mortality (epigenetic age/clocks). We aimed to replicate and expand findings from existing work by examining relationships of self-reported stress with nine epigenetic clocks: Hannum, Horvath, Intrinsic, Extrinsic, SkinBloodClock, PhenoAge, GrimAge, DNAm Telomere Length, and Pace of Aging. We analyzed data from 607 male participants (mean age 73.2 years) of the VA Normative Aging Study with one to two study visits from 1999 to 2007 (observations = 956). Stress was assessed via the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Epigenetic age was calculated from DNA methylation measured in leukocytes with the HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. In linear mixed effects models adjusted for demographic/lifestyle/health factors, a standard deviation (sd) increase in PSS was associated with Horvath (ß = -0.35-years, 95%CI: -0.61, -0.09, P=0.008) and Intrinsic (ß = -0.40-years, 95%CI: -0.67, -0.13, P=0.004) epigenetic age deceleration. However, in models limited to participants with the highest levels of stress (≥ 75th-percentile), Horvath (ß = 2.29-years, 95%CI: 0.16, 4.41, P=0.04) and Intrinsic (ß = 2.06-years, 95%CI: -0.17, 4.28, P=0.07) age acceleration associations were observed. Our results reinforce the complexity of psychological stress and epigenetic aging relationships and lay a foundation for future studies that explore longitudinal relationships with other adult stress metrics and factors that can influence stress such as resilience measures.

19.
medRxiv ; 2023 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37609183

RESUMO

Introduction: Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is an HIV-associated cancer that is preventable and precancerous stages including early ICC stages could be detected through screening offering opportunities for treatment and cure. The high incidence in women living with HIV and late presentation often at advanced stages of ICC with limited treatment facilities often result in early mortality. We sought to compare the epidemiologic characteristics and survival differences in HIV status of ICC patients in Nigeria. Methods: We conducted a cohort study at two federal academic hospital-based research sites in Jos University Teaching Hospital, and Lagos University Teaching Hospital Nigeria, between March 2018 and September 2022. We enrolled women with histologically confirmed ICC with known HIV status, and FIGO staging as part of the United States of America's National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute funded project titled 'Epigenomic Biomarkers of HIV-Associated Cancers in Nigeria'. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality with assessment of overall survival (OS) and time to death after ICC diagnosis. OS distribution was estimated using the method of Kaplan-Meier and compared between groups using the log-rank test. Results: A total of 239 women with confirmed ICC were enrolled and included in this analysis, of whom 192 (80.3%) were HIV-negative (HIV-/ICC+), and 47 (19.7%) were HIV-positive (HIV+/ICC+). The HIV+/ICC) patients were younger with median age 46 (IQR: 40-51) years compared to 57 (IQR: 45-66) among HIV-/ICC+) (P<0.001. Squamous cell carcinoma was the commonest histopathologic variant in 80.4% of ICC diagnosis, moderately differentiated tumor grade in 68.1% in both groups. HIV+/ICC+ diagnosis was at FIGO advanced stages in 64.9% compared to 47.9% in HIV-/ICC+. The HIV-/ICC+ women had better OS compared to HIV+/ICC+ participants (p=0.018), with 12-month OS 84.1% (95%CI: 75% - 90%) and 67.6% (95%CI: 42%-84%) respectively. Conclusion: ICC is diagnosed at a relatively young age in women living with HIV, with a significantly lower overall survival probability compared to women without HIV. The trend of presentation and diagnosis at advanced stages in women living with HIV could partly explain the differences in overall survival.

20.
Res Sq ; 2023 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37609282

RESUMO

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) infection is known to lead to the unbalance of the gut microbiota and act synergistically on the decline of the host immune response, when untreated. Moreover, previous work has found a correlation between dysbiosis in the gut microbiota composition and the use of antibiotics. However, there is a need for an in-depth understanding of the metabolic and immune consequences of antibiotic-related microbiome alterations during first-line TB treatment. Methods: In a longitudinal cohort study, which included TB-infected cohorts and healthy individuals (control group), we studied the anti-TB-related changes in the gut microbiota composition and related functional consequences. Sputum, whole blood and stool samples were collected from participants at four time-points including before (Month-0), during (Month-2), at the end of drug treatment (Month-6) and 9 months after treatment (Month-15). Controls were sampled at inclusion and Month-6. We analyzed the microbiota composition and microbial functional pathways with shotgun metagenomics, analyzed the blood metabolomics using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and measured the levels of metabolites and cytokines with cytometric bead array. Results: We found that the gut microbiota of patients infected with TB was different from that of the healthy controls. The gut microbiota became similar to healthy controls after treatment but was still significantly different after 6 months treatment and at the follow up 9 months after treatment. Our data also showed disturbance in the plasma metabolites such as tryptophan and tricarboxylic acids components of patients during TB treatment. Levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-γ decreased during treatment and levels were maintained after treatment completion, while IL-17A known to have a strong link with the gut microbiota was highly expressed during treatment period and longer than the 9-month post treatment completion. We found that some fatty acids were negatively correlated with the abundance of taxa. For example, Roseburia, Megasphaera, and alpha proteobacterium HIMB5 species were negatively correlated (rho = -0.6) with the quinolinate production. Conclusion: Changes in the composition and function of gut microbiota was observed in TB patients before and after treatment compared to healthy controls. The differences persisted at nine months after treatment completion. Alterations in some bacterial taxa were correlated to the changes in metabolite levels in peripheral blood, thus the altered microbial community might lead to changes in immune status that influence the disease outcome and future resistance to infections.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...