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1.
Death Stud ; 48(1): 9-15, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36906516

RESUMO

Previous research showed that suicide risk was associated with the anger trait and the facial expression of anger when advising on life dilemmas. We investigated if suicide risk was associated with the facial expression of anger during rest, a state when individuals often reflect upon their lives. Participants took a 1-min rest before being assessed for suicide risk. We measured 147 participants' frontal-view facial expressions during their rest 1475-3694 times using automated facial expression analysis technology. Participants' suicide risk was significantly positively correlated with their anger and disgust during the rest, which may be related to psychological pain and death-related thoughts among individuals with suicide risk. Therefore, rest for clinical patients should not be seen simply as a "rest" for the mind. Rather, for counselors, rest may open a window to look into patients' inner thoughts that may be important to their lives.


Assuntos
Asco , Suicídio , Humanos , Emoções , Ira , Expressão Facial
2.
Arch Suicide Res ; : 1-14, 2023 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37970867

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Suicide ideation (SI) is prevalent among college students, and suicide disclosure (SD) is critical for crisis intervention. However, students with SI may worry about stigmatizing responses to their disclosure. To better understand the mechanism of stigmatizing responses to SD, we investigated the effects of a hypothetical classmate's SD on college students' emotions and reasoning when providing advice to a distressed classmate. METHOD: In a randomized controlled experiment, students wrote advice to a hypothetical classmate who recently failed in his pursuit of a romantic relationship with a peer. The experimental/control group also learned he wanted to either commit suicide/quit school. When typing the advice, participants' facial expressions were recorded and analyzed by Facereader7.1. After advising, participants reported their sadness, joy, fear, anger, surprise, and disgust when advising. Finally, trained coders coded the common themes of their advice and rated the wise reasoning involved. Additionally, two experts in suicide prevention rated the helpfulness of their advice for the classmate. RESULTS: The experimental group showed significantly fewer facial expressions of happiness, reported higher sadness and fear, provided less helpful advice, and mentioned "confronting reality" less during advising. The difference in disgust and wise reasoning was nonsignificant. CONCLUSION: Learning of a classmate's SI may increase fear and sadness among recipients and reduce the helpfulness of their advice. Increased psychoeducation for students that focuses on improving emotional regulation (especially facial expressions) during SI may reduce the stigma surrounding SI and prevent perceived burdensomeness among individuals with SI after SD.


Hearing a peer's SI reduced listeners' happiness and increased sadness and fear.Listeners' disgust did not change significantly after learning of a classmate's SI.Learning of a classmate's SI reduced the helpfulness of listeners' advice.

3.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 14239, 2023 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37648782

RESUMO

Default mode network (DMN) may be associated with wisdom (i.e., mature understanding of life featured by perspectival metacognition) when advising from a self-referential perspective due to the involvement of the DMN in reflecting on personal life experiences. After a resting-state functional MRI scan, 52 adults advised some youths going through life dilemmas, half from a second-person perspective and half from a third. After advising each youth, participants indicated the psychological distance they felt between themselves and the youth. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) was measured in the DMN during resting states. Moreover, trained raters rated the participants' advice on wisdom criteria (i.e., metacognitive humility (MH), meta-level flexibility, and perspective-taking). The results showed that participants felt a significantly smaller psychological distance from the youth when advising from the second- than the third-person perspective. Moreover, only when advising from the second-person perspective was MH associated with ALFF in regions within the DMN (i.e., right rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex). The right rostral ACC showed a significantly greater association with MH from the second- than the third-person perspective. Therefore, resting-state DMN activities may be important for self-involved wisdom performance (e.g., giving advice directly to others).


Assuntos
Rede de Modo Padrão , Metacognição , Adulto , Adolescente , Humanos , Emoções , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida
4.
J Pers ; 2023 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37650297

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Across three experiments (N = 622), we investigated the effect of the future temporal perspective on wise reasoning within the context of interpersonal conflicts. METHOD: Studies 1 and 2 applied two heterogeneous measurements of wise reasoning: self-report and open-ended measurements. Participants reasoned about their recent interpersonal conflicts from a future (i.e., 1 year from now) or a present perspective. Similarly, Study 3 tested the relationship between various future temporal distances (i.e., 1 week, 1 year, 10 years, 30 years from now) and wise reasoning. RESULTS: The future temporal perspective significantly promoted wise reasoning compared to the present perspective, especially when the focus was 30 years in the future. Moreover, reasoning about a conflict event from a future perspective first might cause a carry-over effect on reasoning from the present perspective later. CONCLUSION: Future-oriented temporal perspective significantly improves wise reasoning.

5.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 62(2): 725-742, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36266767

RESUMO

Previous research suggests that receiving a charity donation could induce gratitude but threaten self-esteem. We investigated if peer charity donations from typical children benefit or harm the mental health of their left-behind children (LBC) classmates. We recruited children at a school (i.e., intervened school) that organized peer charity donations every semester and three typical schools (i.e., non-intervened school) without such intervention in China. Participants completed the gratitude, self-esteem, depression, and social anxiety scales. A statistical toolbox, "Matchit", randomly selected 420 children aged 9-13 (220 females, 200 males, 213 LBC, 207 non-LBC); there was no significant difference in left-behind status, age, gender, or family economic status (all p > .10) between the intervened and non-intervened groups (210 per group). Structural equation model analyses revealed that gratitude was associated with higher self-esteem, lower social anxiety, and lower depression. Moreover, the intervention effect on self-esteem was significantly positive among the LBC recipients and non-LBC donors. The interaction between intervention and left-behind status was significant on gratitude and depression. Specifically, the intervention effect was not significant on gratitude or depression among the LBC but was significantly negative on gratitude and depression among the non-LBC. Peer charity donation may increase self-esteem among children (recipients or donors) via increased social connection or satisfaction of basic needs, yet decreased gratitude among the donors due to the "moral licensing effect".


Assuntos
Instituições de Caridade , Estudantes , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Autoimagem , China
7.
Psych J ; 11(3): 370-375, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193167

RESUMO

Research has demonstrated a relationship between anger and suicidality, while real-time authentic emotions behind facial expressions could be detected during advising hypothetical protagonists in life dilemmas. This study aimed to investigate the predictive validity of anger expressions during advising for suicide risk. Besides advising on life dilemmas (a friend's betrayal, a friend's suicide attempt), 130 adults completed the suicidal scale of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Participants' anger during advice-giving was measured 29 times/s by artificial intelligence (AI)-based software FaceReader 7.1. The results showed that anger was a significant predictor of suicide risk. Increased anger during advising was associated with higher suicide risk. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between suicide risk and duration or length of advising. Therefore, measuring micro expressions of anger with AI-based software may help detect suicide risk among clinical patients in both traditional and online counseling contexts and help prevent suicide.


Assuntos
Ira , Inteligência Artificial , Adulto , Humanos , Estudantes , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia
8.
Crisis ; 42(3): 202-209, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781897

RESUMO

Background: High school and university teachers need to advise students against attempting suicide, the second leading cause of death among 15-29-year-olds. Aims: To investigate the role of reasoning and emotion in advising against suicide. Method: We conducted a study with 130 students at a university that specializes in teachers' education. Participants sat in front of a camera, videotaping their advising against suicide. Three raters scored their transcribed advice on "wise reasoning" (i.e., expert forms of reasoning: considering a variety of conditions, awareness of the limitation of one's knowledge, taking others' perspectives). Four registered psychologists experienced in suicide prevention techniques rated the transcripts on the potential for suicide prevention. Finally, using the software Facereader 7.1, we analyzed participants' micro-facial expressions during advice-giving. Results: Wiser reasoning and less disgust predicted higher potential for suicide prevention. Moreover, higher potential for suicide prevention was associated with more surprise. Limitations: The actual efficacy of suicide prevention was not assessed. Conclusion: Wise reasoning and counter-stereotypic ideas that trigger surprise probably contribute to the potential for suicide prevention. This advising paradigm may help train teachers in advising students against suicide, measuring wise reasoning, and monitoring a harmful emotional reaction, that is, disgust.


Assuntos
Asco , Prevenção ao Suicídio , Emoções , Humanos , Estudantes , Tentativa de Suicídio
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12677, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728108

RESUMO

This is the first electroencephalogram study exploring the personal perspective effect on wise advising. Participants advised hypothetical protagonists in life dilemmas from both the 2nd- and 3rd-person perspective. Their advice for each dilemma was rated by two independent raters on wisdom criteria, i.e., metacognitive humility, metacognitive flexibility, and perspective taking. The results revealed that participants felt a significantly shorter psychological distance from protagonists when advising from the 2nd- (vs. the 3rd-) person perspective, p < 0.001. However, there was no significant effect of perspective condition on the wisdom score. Nevertheless, stronger resting-state absolute EEG powers in the frontal lobe were associated with wiser advising from the 2nd-, but not the 3rd-person perspective. Moreover, Z tests revealed that the correlations between the resting-state absolute EEG powers and wisdom scores were significantly stronger during advising from the 2nd- than the 3rd-person perspective. These results suggest that advising from the 2nd-person perspective was more self-related, and mental activities during rest contributed to advising from the 2nd- but not the 3rd-person perspective.


Assuntos
Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Metacognição/fisiologia , Descanso/psicologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Descanso/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Psychol ; 54(6): 791-799, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30288744

RESUMO

Scholars within the Berlin paradigm have analysed participants' responses to a hypothetical vignette about a friend's suicide ideation. However, no study has yet focused on participants' emotional reactions to this scenario, an important aspect of wisdom performance. We conducted a Thin-Slice Wisdom study where participants were asked to give advice to a hypothetical friend contemplating suicide. We analysed their emotional profiles using facial expression analysis software (FACET2.1 and FACEREADER7.1). Participants' verbal responses were also transcribed and then scored by 10 raters using the Berlin criteria. Results revealed that the sadder the participants felt, the wiser their performance. Wiser participants may have been better at exploring this sad, but true, existential human dilemma.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Ideação Suicida , Prevenção ao Suicídio , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 73(8): 1416-1424, 2018 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27927747

RESUMO

Objectives: This is the first study on the Mainland Chinese implicit theory of wisdom. To understand the role of culture and social changes in the implicit theory of wisdom, cultural and generational differences were explored. Method: Two generations of Mainland Chinese, 50 older adults (age 60-80 years) and 50 younger adults (age 20-30 years), were interviewed individually. Participants first nominated personal acquaintances and historical figures as wisdom exemplars and then gave their own definition of wisdom. Results: Compared with the older generation, the younger generation nominated both acquaintance scholars and historical scholars more frequently, but acquaintance classmates & colleagues and historical leaders less frequently. Common themes of all participants' definition of wisdom partially resembled those of Western studies, yet with components that related to Chinese traditions: "Spirituality of disengagement" and "Positive mindset." Moreover, older generation emphasized "Cognitive engagement" more, but "Positive mindset" and "Spirituality of disengagement" less, than the younger generation. Discussion: Wisdom aspects of cognitive, practical, and social engagement may be more universal and intergenerational, whereas wisdom aspects of "spirituality" and "mindset" may be more culturally specific and sensitive to social change.


Assuntos
Cultura , Conhecimento , Teoria Psicológica , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Espiritualidade , Adulto Jovem
12.
Front Psychol ; 8: 1378, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28861016

RESUMO

Objective Measurement of Wisdom within a short period of time is vital for both the public interest (e.g., understanding a presidential election) and research (e.g., testing factors that facilitate wisdom development). A measurement of emotion associated with wisdom would be especially informative; therefore, a novel Thin-Slice measurement of wisdom was developed based on the Berlin Paradigm. For about 2 min, participants imagined the lens of a camera as the eyes of their friend/teacher whom they advised about a life dilemma. Verbal response and facial expression were both recorded by a camera: verbal responses were then rated on both the Berlin Wisdom criteria and newly developed Chinese wisdom criteria; facial expressions were analyzed by the software iMotion FACET module. Results showed acceptable inter-rater and inter-item reliability for this novel paradigm. Moreover, both wisdom ratings were not significantly correlated with Social desirability, and the Berlin wisdom rating was significantly negatively correlated with Neuroticism; feeling of surprise was significantly positively correlated with both wisdom criteria ratings. Our results provide the first evidence of this Thin-slice Wisdom Paradigm's reliability, its immunity to social desirability, and its validity for assessing candidates' wisdom within a short timeframe. Although still awaiting further development, this novel Paradigm contributes to an emerging Universal Wisdom Paradigm applicable across cultures.

13.
Cogn Emot ; 31(2): 360-368, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26465265

RESUMO

Past research has demonstrated differential recognition of emotion on faces of different races. This paper reports the first study to explore differential emotion attribution to neutral faces of different races. Chinese and Caucasian adults viewed a series of Chinese and Caucasian neutral faces and judged their outward facial expression: neutral, positive, or negative. The results showed that both Chinese and Caucasian viewers perceived more Chinese faces than Caucasian faces as neutral. Nevertheless, Chinese viewers attributed positive emotion to Caucasian faces more than to Chinese faces, whereas Caucasian viewers attributed negative emotion to Caucasian faces more than to Chinese faces. Moreover, Chinese viewers attributed negative and neutral emotion to the faces of both races without significant difference in frequency, whereas Caucasian viewers mostly attributed neutral emotion to the faces. These differences between Chinese and Caucasian viewers may be due to differential visual experience, culture, racial stereotype, or expectation of the experiment. We also used eye tracking among the Chinese participants to explore the relationship between face-processing strategy and emotion attribution to neutral faces. The results showed that the interaction between emotion attribution and face race was significant on face-processing strategy, such as fixation proportion on eyes and saccade amplitude. Additionally, pupil size during processing Caucasian faces was larger than during processing Chinese faces.


Assuntos
Povo Asiático/psicologia , Comparação Transcultural , Emoções/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , População Branca/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Movimentos Sacádicos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Vision Res ; 107: 67-75, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25497461

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that participants use different eye movement strategies when scanning own- and other-race faces. However, it is unclear (1) whether this effect is related to face recognition performance, and (2) to what extent this effect is influenced by top-down or bottom-up facial information. In the present study, Chinese participants performed a face recognition task with Chinese, Caucasian, and racially ambiguous faces. For the racially ambiguous faces, we led participants to believe that they were viewing either own-race Chinese faces or other-race Caucasian faces. Results showed that (1) Chinese participants scanned the nose of the true Chinese faces more than that of the true Caucasian faces, whereas they scanned the eyes of the Caucasian faces more than those of the Chinese faces; (2) they scanned the eyes, nose, and mouth equally for the ambiguous faces in the Chinese condition compared with those in the Caucasian condition; (3) when recognizing the true Chinese target faces, but not the true target Caucasian faces, the greater the fixation proportion on the nose, the faster the participants correctly recognized these faces. The same was true when racially ambiguous face stimuli were thought to be Chinese faces. These results provide the first evidence to show that (1) visual scanning patterns of faces are related to own-race face recognition response time, and (2) it is bottom-up facial physiognomic information that mainly contributes to face scanning. However, top-down knowledge of racial categories can influence the relationship between face scanning patterns and recognition response time.


Assuntos
Povo Asiático , Face , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , População Branca , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Olho , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Boca , Nariz , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 9(8): e105946, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25153836

RESUMO

An ability to accurately perceive and evaluate out-group members' emotions plays a critical role in intergroup interactions. Here we showed that Chinese participants' implicit attitudes toward White people bias their perception and judgment of emotional intensity of White people's facial expressions such as anger, fear and sadness. We found that Chinese participants held pro-Chinese/anti-White implicit biases that were assessed in an evaluative implicit association test (IAT). Moreover, their implicit biases positively predicted the perceived intensity of White people's angry, fearful and sad facial expressions but not for happy expressions. This study demonstrates that implicit racial attitudes can influence perception and judgment of a range of emotional expressions. Implications for intergroup interactions were discussed.


Assuntos
Atitude , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Preconceito/psicologia , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino , Grupos Raciais , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 7(6): e37688, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22675486

RESUMO

It is well established that individuals show an other-race effect (ORE) in face recognition: they recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. The present study tested the hypothesis that individuals would also scan own- and other-race faces differently. We asked Chinese participants to remember Chinese and Caucasian faces and we tested their memory of the faces over five testing blocks. The participants' eye movements were recorded with the use of an eye tracker. The data were analyzed with an Area of Interest approach using the key AOIs of a face (eyes, nose, and mouth). Also, we used the iMap toolbox to analyze the raw data of participants' fixation on each pixel of the entire face. Results from both types of analyses strongly supported the hypothesis. When viewing target Chinese or Caucasian faces, Chinese participants spent a significantly greater proportion of fixation time on the eyes of other-race Caucasian faces than the eyes of own-race Chinese faces. In contrast, they spent a significantly greater proportion of fixation time on the nose and mouth of Chinese faces than the nose and mouth of Caucasian faces. This pattern of differential fixation, for own- and other-race eyes and nose in particular, was consistent even as participants became increasingly familiar with the target faces of both races. The results could not be explained by the perceptual salience of the Chinese nose or Caucasian eyes because these features were not differentially salient across the races. Our results are discussed in terms of the facial morphological differences between Chinese and Caucasian faces and the enculturation of mutual gaze norms in East Asian cultures.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Face , Grupos Raciais , Adulto , Povo Asiático , Discriminação Psicológica/fisiologia , Feminino , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Física , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , População Branca , Adulto Jovem
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