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1.
Neurosci Lett ; : 134528, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585212

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Visual spatial neglect (VSN) is a disorder of spatial-temporal attention, often as a result of traumatic brain injury, including stroke. Accumulating evidence suggests that the recovery from VSN follows a very predictable pattern. In this study, we aimed to determine the specific electrophysiology readout that might have predictive value for recovery from VSN in the typical early events, including the recovery rate of visual processing, within the first four weeks of recovery. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 18 right ischemic stroke patients with VSN who performed a visual cue-target task within 3 days after stroke. The patients were divided into two groups according to their outcome. We compared the amplitudes; latencies of P1, N1, and P300; and behavioral data between patients with persistent-VSN (P-VSN) and those with rapid recovery-VSN (R-VSN). RESULTS: The amplitudes and latencies of the P1 and N1 components were not significantly influenced by the validity of the cue-based expectancy (all p > 0.05). However, a longer mean P300 latency evoked an effective cue (p < 0.001), and there was a significant difference between the P-VSN and R-VSN groups when using the left target (left hemisphere, p = 0.014; right hemisphere, p = 0.027). The recovery rate found in our study (18.75% at four weeks after stroke) was lower than that of previously reported studies. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the use of the event-related potential as a tool for investigating rapid recovery from VSN after stroke and suggest that other factors, such as an asymmetrical omission toward the contralateral side or impairment in the temporal processing capacity, might also be potential biomarkers of recovery.

2.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(10): 107001, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor that affects fetal growth in experimental studies. Bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS), which have been substituted for BPA in some consumer products, have also shown endocrine-disrupting effects in experimental models. However, the effects of BPF and BPS on fetal growth in humans are unknown. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to investigate trimester-specific associations of urinary concentrations of BPA, BPF, and BPS with size at birth. METHODS: The present study included 845 pregnant women from Wuhan, China (2013-2015), who provided one urine sample in each of the first, second, and third trimesters. Linear regressions with generalized estimating equations were applied to estimate trimester-specific associations of urinary bisphenol concentrations with birth weight, birth length, and ponderal index. Linear mixed-effects models were used to identify potential critical windows of susceptibility to bisphenols by comparing the exposure patterns of newborns in the 10th percentile of each birth anthropometric measurement to that of those in the 90th percentile. RESULTS: Medians (25th-75th percentiles) of urinary concentrations of BPA, BPF, and BPS were 1.40 (0.19-3.85), 0.65 (0.34-1.39), and 0.38 (0.13-1.11) ng/mL, respectively. Urinary BPA concentrations in different trimesters were inversely, but not significantly, associated with birth weight and ponderal index. Urinary concentrations of BPF and BPS during some trimesters were associated with significantly lower birth weight, birth length, or ponderal index, with significant trend p-values (ptrend<0.05) across quartiles of BPF and BPS concentrations. The observed associations were unchanged after additionally adjusting for other bisphenols. In addition, newborns in the 10th percentile of each birth anthropometry measure had higher BPF and BPS exposures during pregnancy than newborns in the 90th percentile of each outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal exposure to BPF and BPS was inversely associated with size at birth in this cohort. Replication in other populations is needed. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4664.

3.
Cancer Res ; 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575549

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Cytological examination is the current "gold standard" for lung cancer diagnosis, however this has low sensitivity. Here, we identified a typical methylation signature of histone genes in lung cancer by whole-genome DNA methylation analysis, which was validated by a TCGA lung cancer cohort (n=907) and was further confirmed in 265 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples with specificity and sensitivity of 96.7% and 87.0%, respectively. More importantly, HIST1H4F was universally hypermethylated in all seventeen tumor types from TCGA datasets (n=7344), which was further validated in nine different types of cancer (n=243). These results demonstrate that HIST1H4F can function as a Universal-Cancer-Only Methylation (UCOM) marker, which may aid in understanding general tumorigenesis and improve screening for early cancer diagnosis.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574957

RESUMO

Adolescents engage in health risk behaviors (HRBs) that influence their current and future health status. Health literacy (HL) is defined as how well a person can get and understand the health information and services, and use them to make good health decisions. HL can be used to participate in everyday activities actively and apply new information to the changing circumstances. HRBs commonly co-occur in adolescence, and few researchers have examined how HL predicts multiple HRBs in adolescence. In this study we examined the subgroups of HRBs, and investigated heterogeneity in the effects of HL on the subgroups. In total, 22,628 middle school students (10,990 males and 11,638 females) in six cities were enrolled by multistage stratified cluster sampling from November 2015 to January 2016. The measurement of HL was based on the Chinese Adolescent Interactive Health Literacy Questionnaire (CAIHLQ). Analyses were conducted with regression mixture modeling approach (RMM) by Mplus. By this study we found four latent classes among Chinese adolescents: Low-risk class, moderate-risk class 1 (smoking/alcohol use (AU)/screen time (ST)), moderate-risk class 2 (non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI)/suicidal behaviors (SB)/unintentional injury (UI)), and high-risk class (smoking/AU/ST/NSSI/SB/UI) which were 64.0%, 4.5%, 28.8% and 2.7% of involved students, respectively. Negative correlations were found between HL and HRBs: higher HL accompanied decreased HBRs. Compared to the low-risk class, moderate-risk class 1 (smoking/AU/ST), moderate-risk class 2 (NSSI/SB/UI), and high-risk class (smoking/AU/ST/NSSI/SB/UI) showed OR (95%CI) values of 0.990 (0.982-0.998), 0.981 (0.979-0.983) and 0.965 (0.959-0.970), respectively. Moreover, there was heterogeneity in the profiles of HRBs and HL in different classes. It is important for practitioners to examine HRBs in multiple domains concurrently rather than individually in isolation. Interventions and research should not only target adolescents engaging in high levels of risky behavior but also adolescents who are engaging in lower levels of risky behavior.

5.
Cell Res ; 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628434

RESUMO

We report the generation of human ESC-derived, expandable hepatic organoids (hEHOs) using our newly established method with wholly defined (serum-free, feeder free) media. The hEHOs stably maintain phenotypic features of bipotential liver stem/progenitor cells that can differentiate into functional hepatocytes or cholangiocytes. The hEHOs can expand for 20 passages enabling large scale expansion to cell numbers requisite for industry or clinical programs. The cells from hEHOs display remarkable repopulation capacity in injured livers of FRG mice following transplantation, and they differentiate in vivo into mature hepatocytes. If implanted into the epididymal fat pads of immune-deficient mice, they do not generate non-hepatic lineages and have no tendency to form teratomas. We further develop a derivative model by incorporating human fetal liver mesenchymal cells (hFLMCs) into the hEHOs, referred to as hFLMC/hEHO, which can model alcoholic liver disease-associated pathophysiologic changes, including oxidative stress generation, steatosis, inflammatory mediators release and fibrosis, under ethanol treatment. Our work demonstrates that the hEHOs have considerable potential to be a novel, ex vivo pathophysiological model for studying alcoholic liver disease as well as a promising cellular source for treating human liver diseases.

7.
Health Psychol ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Using baseline data from a community-based weight-gain prevention intervention study, the authors examined whether coping self-efficacy moderated the associations between chaotic home environment and psychosocial health (perceived psychosocial stress, depressive symptoms, and positive and negative affect) in low-income women who are overweight or obese. METHOD: Participants (N = 740; Mage = 28.06 ± 5.12) completed validated self-report measures of coping self-efficacy, chaotic home environment, perceived psychosocial stress, depressive symptoms, and positive and negative affect. Composite indicator structural equation modeling was used to test the moderation effects. Effect size was calculated using proportion of maximum possible (POMP) scores in the endogenous variables per unit change in the exogenous variable. RESULTS: Coping self-efficacy significantly moderated the associations between chaotic home environment and depressive symptoms (p < .001, POMP = -0.62%) and between chaotic home environment and negative affect (p < .01, POMP = -0.36%). However, coping self-efficacy did not moderate the association between chaotic home environment and perceived psychosocial stress or positive affect. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that coping self-efficacy could explain some individual differences in responses to home chaos or to interventions aimed at alleviating depressive symptoms and negative affect in low-income women who are overweight or obese and who experience chaos at home. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

8.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631531

RESUMO

Multiple microRNAs (miRs) have also been implicated in ischemic brain injury. This research intended to probe the regulatory function and the mechanism of miR-15a on the ischemic brain injury induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) in neurons of rats. The OGD/R model was established with the cortical neurons separated from rats. After transfection with miR-15a mimic negative control (NC), miR-15a mimic, miR-15a inhibitor NC and miR-15a inhibitor, the OGD/R-induced apoptosis were detected. Using bioinformatic softwares including TargetScan, miRanda, and miRWalk to predict the underlying targets of miR-15a, and the binding of miR-15a with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were validated with double-fluorescein reporter assay system. The expression levels of BDNF mRNA and protein were detected with qRT-PCR and western blot. The effect of miR-15a on PI3K/AKT pathway in neurons submitted to OGD/R was also investigated. The findings showed that miR-15a may mediate the apoptosis of neurons submitted to OGD/R, and lower expression of Bcl-2 and higher expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 were observed. BDNF was screened as the candidate target, and the direct binding of miR-15a with 3'-UTR of BDNF were verified. Further research showed that miR-15a downregulated the expression of BDNF mRNA and protein, thus exerted negative regulatory effect on the OGD/R injury. PI3K/AKT pathway may be related to the regulatory effect of miR-15a. Our findings contribute to uncovering novel pathogenesis for ischemic brain injury.

9.
Theranostics ; 9(19): 5532-5541, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534501

RESUMO

Pleural effusion (PE) is commonly observed in advanced lung cancer and was suggested to contain both cell-free tumor DNA and tumor cells. Molecular profiling of PE represents a minimally invasive approach of detecting tumor driver mutations for clinical decision making, especially when tumor tissues are not available. The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy and precision of detecting gene alterations in PE samples to address the feasibility in clinical use. Methods: Sixty-three metastatic lung cancer patients with (n=30, cohort 1) or without (n=33, cohort 2) matched tumor tissues were enrolled in this study. PE and plasma samples of each patient were collected simultaneously. Supernatant and cell precipitate of PE were processed separately to extract cfDNA (PE-cfDNA) and sediment DNA (sDNA). All samples were subjected to targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 416 cancer-related genes. Results: PE supernatants contain more abundant tumor DNA than PE sediments and plasma samples, suggested by higher mutant allele frequencies (MAF) and elevated mutation detection rate in PE-cfDNA (98.4% vs. 90.5% in PE sDNA vs. 87% in plasma cfDNA). In Cohort 1 with matched tumor tissue, tumor mutational burden (TMB) of PE-cfDNA was similar as tumor tissues (6.4 vs. 5.6), but significantly higher than PE sDNA (median TMB: 3.3) and plasma cfDNA (median TMB: 3.4). Ninety-three percent (27 out of 29) of tissue-determined driver mutations were detected in PE-cfDNA, including alterations in ALK, BRAF, EGFR, ERBB2, KRAS, NF1, PIK3CA, and RET, while only 62% were captured in plasma cfDNA. PE-cfDNA also has the highest detection rate of EGFR driver mutations in the full cohort (71% vs. 68% in PE sDNA vs. 59% in plasma cfDNA). Mutation detection from cytological negative and hemorrhagic PE is challenging. Comparatively, PE-cfDNA demonstrated absolute superiority than PE sDNA in such a scenario, suggesting that it is an independent source of tumor DNA and therefore less influenced by the abundance of tumor cells. Conclusion: Genomic profiling of PE-cfDNA offers an alternative, and potentially more meticulous approach in assessing tumor genomics in advanced lung cancer when tumor tissue is not available. Our data further demonstrate that in hemorrhagic or cytologically negative PE samples, PE-cfDNA has higher mutation detection sensitivity than sDNA and plasma cfDNA, and therefore is a more reliable source for genetic testing.

10.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 183: 110485, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499453

RESUMO

Stiffness and anisotropy of culture substrates are important factors influencing the cell behavior and their responses to external stimuli. Herein, we report a fabrication method of oblique polymer pillars which allow modulating both stiffness and anisotropy of the substrate for spreading and elongation studies of Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells (RMSCs). Poly (Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid) (PLGA) has been chosen to produce micro-pillars of different heights and different pitches using a combined method of soft-lithography and hot embossing. The stiffness of such pillar substrates varies over a large range so that RMSCs show effectively different spreading behaviors which are also sensitive to the inclining angle of the pillars. Our results showed that with the increase of the pillar height the area of cell spreading decreases but the cell elongation aspect ratio increases. Moreover, cells preferentially elongate along the direction perpendicular to that of the pillars' inclining, which is in agreement with the calculated anisotropy of the pillar substrate stiffness.

11.
Int J Audiol ; : 1-8, 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522578

RESUMO

Objective: This study was to investigate whether there is impairment of auditory function in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Study sample: A total of 85 patients were allocated into either the CRS group (n = 65) or a simple deviated nasal septum group (n = 20). Both groups without other risk factors for sensorineural hearing loss exhibited normal thresholds at standard audiometric frequencies. Another group (n = 30) of healthy subjects without CRS or a deviated nasal septum were gender and age matched. Design: Analyse the results of audiology test including pure tone audiometry, an acoustic impedance test, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) and the auditory brainstem response (ABR) for each subject analyse the test results of for each object. Results: The group differences were statistically significant for each high-frequency pure tone (p < 0.05). The ABR showed a difference between groups in amplitude. The DPOAE pass rate of the CRS group was lower than that of the control group. Conclusions: This study showed a significant correlation between CRS and auditory impairment. CRS might impair cochlear functions by damaging inner ear hair cells and/or, outer hair cells (OHCs), consequently altering the activity of the entire auditory pathway originating in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) to the inferior colliculus.

12.
Biomaterials ; 223: 119465, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518842

RESUMO

Drug nanovehicles owning tumor microenvironment responsive and modulating capacities are highly demanding for effective tumor chemotherapy but still lack of exploration. Here, a kind of core-releasable satellite nanovehicles was rational constructed, which is composed of polydopamine (PDA) cores as photothermal agents and the carrier for small satellite nanoparticles (NPs) and drugs, G5Au NPs as the drug-loading satellites for deep tumor drug delivery and as catalase-like agents for relieving tumor hypoxia, doxorubicin (DOX) as the model chemotherapeutic drug loaded by both PDA and G5Au NPs, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) shells to improve biosafety. The developed drug-loaded nanovehicles (denoted as PDA-G5Au-PEG@DOX) can release G5Au satellites and DOX in stimuli-responsive manners. Thorough drug delivery in solid tumor can be realized via transporting DOX to the near-by area of and remote area from blood vessels by PDA and G5Au, respectively. Monitored by photoacoustic imaging and near-infrared fluorescence imaging, these PDA-G5Au-PEG@DOX NPs could accumulate in 4T1 tumor effectively. Under this guidance, significant tumor growth suppression could be achieved by the treatment of PDA-G5Au-PEG@DOX NPs plus laser without detectable side effects during the treatment period. The developed drug-loaded core-satellite nanovehicles with tumor microenvironment responsive/modulating capacities are of great potential in precise tumor treatments.

13.
J Phys Chem A ; 123(40): 8536-8541, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484476

RESUMO

Three-dimensional ion momentum imaging is developed in a combination of ion velocity map imaging technique and delay-line anode ion detection, and it is applied for the ion-molecule charge exchange reaction between Ar+ and CO2. In a center-of-mass collision energy range of 7.23-15.96 eV, CO2+ products are primarily populated at the ground state X2Πg and the single-electron excited states A2Πu, B2Σu+, and C2Σg+; the multielectron excited states of CO2+ are also found at the higher collision energies. The production efficiency profiles of CO2+ are distinctly different from the photoionization electron spectrum of CO2, implying that the charge transfer from Ar+ would be not fast as expected. The strong electron correlations in the short-lived intermediate (Ar-CO2)+ should be responsible for the CO2+ yields at the multielectron excited states.

14.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(81): 12243-12246, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555785

RESUMO

A novel (5+1) annulation reaction of functionalized 2-isocyanophenyloxyacrylate and aromatic, aliphatic isocyanides has been disclosed. This domino reaction involves the unusual heterodimerization of two different isocyanides and allows for a quick access to many 2H-benzo[b][1,4]oxazin-2-one derivatives.

15.
J Hematol Oncol ; 12(1): 93, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492199

RESUMO

Tumor neoantigen is the truly foreign protein and entirely absent from normal human organs/tissues. It could be specifically recognized by neoantigen-specific T cell receptors (TCRs) in the context of major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs) molecules. Emerging evidence has suggested that neoantigens play a critical role in tumor-specific T cell-mediated antitumor immune response and successful cancer immunotherapies. From a theoretical perspective, neoantigen is an ideal immunotherapy target because they are distinguished from germline and could be recognized as non-self by the host immune system. Neoantigen-based therapeutic personalized vaccines and adoptive T cell transfer have shown promising preliminary results. Furthermore, recent studies suggested the significant role of neoantigen in immune escape, immunoediting, and sensitivity to immune checkpoint inhibitors. In this review, we systematically summarize the recent advances of understanding and identification of tumor-specific neoantigens and its role on current cancer immunotherapies. We also discuss the ongoing development of strategies based on neoantigens and its future clinical applications.

16.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 2019 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472096

RESUMO

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are functionally immunosuppressive cells that are persistently increased in abundance and associated with adverse clinical outcomes in sepsis. Here, we investigated the therapeutic potential of an anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor, LDK378, in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced polymicrobial sepsis and examined its effects on the recruitment of MDSCs. LDK378 significantly improved the survival of CLP-induced polymicrobial septic mice, which was paralleled by reduced organ injury, decreased release of inflammatory cytokines and decreased recruitment of MDSCs to the spleen. Importantly, LDK378 inhibited the migration of MDSCs to the spleen by blocking the CLP-mediated upregulation of CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2), a chemokine receptor critical for the recruitment of MDSCs. Mechanistically, LDK378 treatment blocked the CLP-induced CCR2 upregulation of MDSCs via partially inhibiting the phosphorylation of p38 and G-protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2) in bone marrow MDSCs of septic mice. Furthermore, in vitro experiments also showed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced migration of MDSCs was similarly owing to the activation of GRK2 and upregulation of CCR2 by LPS, whereas the treatment with LDK378 partially blocked the LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 and GRK2 and decreased the expression of CCR2 on the cell surface, therefore leading to the suppression of MDSC migration. Together, these findings unravel a novel function of LDK378 in the host response to infection and suggest that LDK378 could be a potential therapeutic agent for sepsis.

17.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(77): 11642, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512684

RESUMO

Correction for 'Synthesis of hydrophobic and hydrophilic TiO2 nanofluids for transformable surface wettability and photoactive coating' by Jie Hu et al., Chem. Commun., 2019, 55, 9275-9278.

18.
Int J Pharm ; : 118637, 2019 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550511

RESUMO

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) still lacks an effective targeted treatment. In this study, hyaluronic acid (HA)-mediated tumor targeting and pH-sensitive amphiphilic polymeric nanoparticles were designed and prepared to co-deliver the anticancer drug embelin (EMB) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) plasmid (pTRAIL) (EMB/TRAIL-HA/PBAE-PEI) for synergistic anti-breast cancer efficacy. These pH-sensitive amphiphilic polymeric nanoparticles were formed using the amphiphilic polymers polyethyleneimine (PEI)-poly[(1,6-hexanediol)-diacrylate-ß-5-hydroxyamylamine] (PBAE), which was synthesized via Michael addition polymerization. Taking advantage of the specific binding between HA and CD44, which is highly expressed in MDA-MB-231 TNBC cells, the HA-coated nanoparticles increased drug uptake in MDA-MB-231 TNBC cells compared with MCF-7 non-TNBC cells with lower CD44 expression. Moreover, EMB/TRAIL-HA/PBAE-PEI exhibited enhanced cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects against MDA-MB-231 cells compared with free EMB and EMB- or pTRAIL-loaded nanoparticles via activation of caspase 3/7, an increase in reactive oxygen species levels, and inhibition of the expressions of apoptosis-related proteins. These results demonstrated that EMB/TRAIL-HA/PBAE-PEI exerted enhanced cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects against MDA-MB-231 cells and showed great potential for TNBC treatment.

19.
Plant Signal Behav ; : 1672512, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559897

RESUMO

Regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) protein, the best-characterized accelerating GTPase protein in plants, regulates G-protein signaling and plays important role in abiotic stress tolerance. However, the detailed molecular mechanism of RGS involved in G-protein signaling mediated abiotic stress responses remains unclear. In this study, a mulberry (Morus alba L.) RGS gene (MaRGS) was transformed into tobacco, and the ectopic expression of MaRGS in tobacco decreased the tolerance to salt stress. The transgenic tobacco plants had lower proline content, higher malonaldehyde and H2O2 contents than wild type plants under salt stress condition. Meanwhile, MaRGS overexpression in mulberry seedlings enhances the sensitivity to salt stress and RNAi-silenced expression of MaRGS improves the salt stress response and tolerance. These results suggested that MaRGS negatively regulates salt stress tolerance. Further analysis suggested that D-glucose and autophagy may involve in the response of RGS to salt stress. This study revealed the role of MaRGS in salt stress tolerance and provides a proposed model for RGS regulates G-protein signaling in response to salt stress.

20.
Appl Opt ; 58(19): 5148-5158, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503608

RESUMO

Confocal fluorescence microscopy has become a cardinal workhorse instrument in biological research due to its high imaging speed and tissue penetration depth. Unfortunately, the sampled fluorescence signals are intrinsically distorted by optical blurs and photon-counting noise, and the deconvolution method has been introduced to attenuate these degradations. In this paper, we focus mainly on scenarios suffering from severe noise due to low exposure time in a fast-imaging system. To begin with, a Hessian penalty was adopted to depress the artificial staircase effects that were caused by the first-order model (e.g., total variation). Then, to compensate for the weak ability to remove blurring and the produced white-point artifacts of the second-order penalty, we additionally proposed a consistent constraint along the temporal axis based on structural continuity. A remarkable merit of the spatiotemporal fused regularization is retaining the ability of the Hessian matrix to keep details smooth while effectively removing blurring. We employed an alternating-direction-method-of-multipliers algorithm for the corresponding optimization problem. Finally, we conducted experimental comparisons of both the simulated and practical confocal platform, and the excellent performance of the proposed approach reflects the efficiency of the confocal deconvolution work.

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