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1.
Adv Mater ; : e1903665, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566267

RESUMO

Planar optical elements that can manipulate the multidimensional physical parameters of light efficiently and compactly are highly sought after in modern optics and nanophotonics. In recent years, the geometric phase, induced by the photonic spin-orbit interaction, has attracted extensive attention for planar optics due to its powerful beam shaping capability. The geometric phase can usually be generated via inhomogeneous anisotropic materials, among which liquid crystals (LCs) have been a focus. Their pronounced optical properties and controllable and stimuli-responsive self-assembly behavior introduce new possibilities for LCs beyond traditional panel displays. Recent advances in LC-mediated geometric phase planar optics are briefly reviewed. First, several recently developed photopatterning techniques are presented, enabling the accurate fabrication of complicated LC microstructures. Subsequently, nematic LC-based transmissive planar optical elements and chiral LC-based broadband reflective elements are reviewed systematically. Versatile functionalities are revealed, from conventional beam steering and focusing, to advanced structuring. Combining the geometric phase with structured LC materials offers a satisfactory platform for planar optics with desired functionalities and drastically extends exceptional applications of ordered soft matter. Some prospects on this rapidly advancing field are also provided.

2.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 6026-6031, 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538788

RESUMO

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a powerful technique that can capture the electronic-vibrational "fingerprint" of molecules on surfaces. Ab initio prediction of Raman response is a long-standing challenge because of the diversified interfacial structures. Here we show that a cost-effective machine learning (ML) random forest method can predict SERS signals of a trans-1,2-bis (4-pyridyl) ethylene (BPE) molecule adsorbed on a gold substrate. Using geometric descriptors extracted from quantum chemistry simulations of thousands of ab initio molecular dynamics conformations, the ML protocol predicts vibrational frequencies and Raman intensities. The resulting spectra agree with density functional theory calculations and experiment. Predicted SERS responses of the molecule on different surfaces, or under external fields of electric fields and solvent environment, demonstrate the good transferability of the protocol.

3.
Dalton Trans ; 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538636

RESUMO

Several energetic materials, which are composed of furoxan and 1,2,4-oxadiazole backbones, were synthesized by nitrating 3,3'-bis(5-amino-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)-4,4'-azofuroxan (2) under 100 wt% HNO3 or 100 wt% HNO3/Ac2O followed by a cation metathesis. All synthesized compounds were fully characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis, while 3,3'-bis(1,2,4-oxadiazol-5(4H)-one-3-yl)-4,4'-azofuroxan (3) and diammonium 3,3'-bis(5-nitramino-1,2,4-oxadiazole-3-yl)-4,4'-azofuroxan (4a) were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The physicochemical and energetic properties of these compounds including density, thermal stability and sensitivity were investigated. Compounds 3 and 4 have high densities (3: 1.90 g cm-3, 4: 1.92 g cm-3), which are comparable to that of HMX (1.91 g cm-3). All energetic compounds show relatively high calculated heat of formation in the range from 504.79 kJ mol-1 to 1405.62 kJ mol-1. Their detonation properties were evaluated by EXPLO5 code using the measured density and calculated heat of formation. Among them, compounds 3 and 4 have good detonation performance (3: D = 8891 m s-1, P = 34.7 GPa, 4: D = 9505 m s-1, P = 41.3 GPa) and acceptable sensitivities (3: IS = 10 J, 4: IS = 4 J), which indicate their potential applications as high-performance energetic materials.

4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(9): e1911970, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539079

RESUMO

Importance: Chinese women have the highest rate of lung cancer among female never-smokers in the world, and the etiology is poorly understood. Objective: To assess the association between metabolomics and lung cancer risk among never-smoking women. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nested case-control study included 275 never-smoking female patients with lung cancer and 289 never-smoking cancer-free control participants from the prospective Shanghai Women's Health Study recruited from December 28, 1996, to May 23, 2000. Validated food frequency questionnaires were used for the collection of dietary information. Metabolomic analysis was conducted from November 13, 2015, to January 6, 2016. Data analysis was conducted from January 6, 2016, to November 29, 2018. Exposures: Untargeted ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomic profiles were characterized using prediagnosis urine samples. A total of 39 416 metabolites were measured. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident lung cancer. Results: Among the 564 women, those who developed lung cancer (275 participants; median [interquartile range] age, 61.0 [52-65] years) and those who did not develop lung cancer (289 participants; median [interquartile range] age, 62.0 [53-66] years) at follow-up (median [interquartile range] follow-up, 10.9 [9.0-11.7] years) were similar in terms of their secondhand smoke exposure, history of respiratory diseases, and body mass index. A peak metabolite, identified as 5-methyl-2-furoic acid, was significantly associated with lower lung cancer risk (odds ratio, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.46-0.72]; P < .001; false discovery rate = 0.039). Furthermore, this peak was weakly correlated with self-reported dietary soy intake (ρ = 0.21; P < .001). Increasing tertiles of this metabolite were associated with lower lung cancer risk (in comparison with first tertile, odds ratio for second tertile, 0.52 [95% CI, 0.34-0.80]; and odds ratio for third tertile, 0.46 [95% CI, 0.30-0.70]), and the association was consistent across different histological subtypes and follow-up times. Additionally, metabolic pathway analysis found several systemic biological alterations that were associated with lung cancer risk, including 1-carbon metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Conclusions and Relevance: This prospective study of the untargeted urinary metabolome and lung cancer among never-smoking women in China provides support for the hypothesis that soy-based metabolites are associated with lower lung cancer risk in never-smoking women and suggests that biological processes linked to air pollution may be associated with higher lung cancer risk in this population.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559412

RESUMO

Tumor necrosis factor α-induced protein 8-like-1 (TIPE1) functions as an activator or a repressor in a tumor cell type-specific manner. However, the role of TIPE1 in breast cancer, especially regarding metastasis, is unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the TIPE1 expression in breast cancer tissues, the biological functions, and the underlying mechanisms of TIPE1 regarding the metastatic properties of breast cancer cells. The results of immunohistochemical staining and western blot analysis indicated that TIPE1 expression was associated with tumor size and lymph node metastasis, and the expression of TIPE1 was downregulated in the tissues of patients with lymph node metastasis. Transwell and wound healing assay results showed that TIPE1 inhibited the invasive and migratory capacities of breast cancer cells. Moreover, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was suppressed in TIPE1-overexpressing cells, as demonstrated by western blot analysis. In addition, western blot analysis also showed that TIPE1 reduced the expression levels of MMP2 and MMP9 and decreased the phosphorylation level of ERK. These results suggested that TIPE1 might suppress the invasion and migration of breast cancer cells and inhibit EMT primarily via the ERK signaling pathway. Our findings revealed the anti-tumor metastasis role of TIPE1 in breast cancer and TIPE1 might be a new candidate prognostic indicator and a potential molecular target for the treatment of breast cancer.

6.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 118: 109333, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545280

RESUMO

T cells edited by chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) have shown great potential in the treatment of tumors, especially malignant blood tumors. However, there remain many obstacles in the CAR-T therapy against solid tumors, such as the expansion of CAR-T cells ex vivo and the exhaustion of CAR-T cells in vivo. In order to solve these problems, we described a novel CAR which is targeting GPC3 by expressing CD28 co-stimulation domain and CD3z ITAM (G328z), meanwhile co-expressing ICOSL extracellular and transmembrane region fused with 41BB cytoplasmic domain (G328z-ICOSL-41BB). Compared with G328z, G328z-ICOSL-41BB fusion protein significantly reinforced the expansion ability of CAR-T cells ex vivo, and prolonged the survival time of mice with hepatocellular carcinoma. We now demonstrate that the enhancement of CAR-T cell activity is dependent on the enhanced PI3K signaling pathway and up-regulated expression of Bcl2 to inhibit apoptosis and promote proliferation of CAR-T cells. Besides, the CAR with ICOSL-41BB fusion protein have been strengthened significantly in comparison with fusing ICOSL protein only, which might be caused by the fact that ICOSL-41BB not only supplies ICOS signal for other cells, but also provides 41BB signal for itself. Consequently, CARs with ICOSL-41BB fusion protein could increase the therapeutic efficacy against solid tumors in vivo compared with the G328z CAR, which might further assist the development of potent and durable T cell therapeutics.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533209

RESUMO

Since the onset of reform and opening up in China, large cities in the nation have been experiencing problems related to limited medical resources. These resource limitations are due to rapid population growth and urban expansion. As the country's fastest growing city, Shenzhen has experienced a substantial misalignment between the supply and the demand of healthcare services. Numerous researchers have analyzed spatial inequity in healthcare services by focusing on the spatial accessibility of medical facilities, such as hospitals, clinics, and community health service centers (CHSCs). However, the issue of inequity in healthcare services for vulnerable groups has largely been ignored. We chose general hospitals (GHs) and CHSCs, which provide direct healthcare services to residents, as the study objects. By performing spatial accessibility analysis using the gravity model and the two-step floating catchment area method, we investigated healthcare services inequity for vulnerable groups based on four dimensions: residential type, age, education level, and occupation. We found that the services provided by GHs cannot meet the demand in Shenzhen. This inadequacy is characterized by spatial centralization and neglect of those who reside in urban villages, who have low education levels, and who are employed in the manufacturing industry. In contrast, CHSCs generally serve a relatively broad population. This phenomenon is related to differences in the land and capital needs between GHs and CHSCs. Our study reveals that an appropriate adjustment of GH location could significantly improve healthcare services inequity. Therefore, to alleviate this inequity, it is particularly necessary to increase the number of GHs in the peripheral circle and in areas with large vulnerable populations, accelerate the implementation of the hierarchical medical system, and promote the transfer of medical resources to grassroot institutes through CHSCs. This study helps improve our understanding of healthcare services inequity in rapid expanding cities, which is of substantial significance for improving the planning and construction of medical facilities, facilitating scientific decision-making, and promoting social equity.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549623

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of two emtricitabine (FTC)/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) tablets: a newly developed generic formulation (test) and a branded formulation (reference) in healthy Chinese subjects under fasting and fed states. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized, open-label, two-way crossover study was conducted in 64 healthy Chinese subjects. Subjects were randomized to receive a single oral dose of FTC 200 mg/TDF 300 mg of test or reference tablets according to an open crossover design under fasting and fed states. Plasma canagliflozin levels of FTC/TDF were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and the pharmacokinetic parameters of maximum concentration (Cmax) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-t and AUC0-∞) were used to evaluate bioequivalence. RESULTS: The geometric mean ratio 90% confidence intervals for fasting Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ were 89.03 - 101.98%, 94.90 - 101.36%, and 94.94 - 101.56%, respectively, and fed Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ were 94.12 - 108.87%, 96.89 - 104.05%, and 96.69 - 104.28%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The two types of FTC/TDF tablets were bioequivalent under both fasting and fed condition, and both were generally well tolerated.
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9.
J Mater Chem B ; 7(38): 5789-5796, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483429

RESUMO

Near-infrared (NIR) irradiation responsive drug delivery systems have many advantages, which have attracted extensive interest from researchers. In this study, a NIR-triggered drug release system was established by grafting upper critical solution temperature (UCST) polymers on the surface of hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) followed by treatment with the photothermal conversion agent indocyanine green (ICG). The as-prepared UCST polymers showed the clearing temperature of 45 °C, which were advantageous to serve as gatekeepers in the physiological environment (37 °C). Under NIR irradiation, the temperature of the solution was elevated above the clearing point due to the presence of ICG; consequently, the collapsed UCST polymer chains became more hydrophilic; this resulted in the exposure of the mesoporous channels of the HMSNs and achievement of a burst drug release. Moreover, this NIR-responsive delivery system showed good biocompatibility and high anticancer efficiency towards the MCF-7 cancer cells upon exposure to NIR irradiation. In addition, a synergistic effect of thermal and chemo treatment has been achieved by the application of NIR irradiation since cancer cells are more vulnerable to high temperatures than normal cells.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538477

RESUMO

Methyl glycolate (MG) is a versatile platform molecule to produce numerous important chemicals and materials, especially new-generation biocompatible and biodegradable poly(glycolic acid). In principle, it can be massively produced from syngas (CO + H2) via gas-phase hydrogenation of CO-derived dimethyl oxalate (DMO), but the groundbreaking catalyst represents a grand challenge. Here, we report the discovery of a Ni-foam-structured nanoporous Ni3P catalyst, evolutionarily transformed from a Ni2P/Ni-foam engineered from nano- to macro-scale, being capable of nearly fully converting DMO into MG at >95% selectivity and stable for at least 1000 h without any sign of deactivation. As revealed by kinetic experiments and theoretical calculations, in comparison with Ni2P, Ni3P achieves a higher surface electron density that is favorable for MG adsorption in a molecular manner rather than in a dissociative manner and has much higher activation energy for MG hydrogenation to ethylene glycol (EG), thereby markedly suppressing its overhydrogenation to EG.

11.
BMC Urol ; 19(1): 82, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the prevalence, relative risk factors, and the impact on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of benign prostatic obstruction (BPO) with coexisting overactive bladder (OAB) in men aged over 50 and living in Shanghai Pudong New Area. METHODS: Using a multi-stage sampling and descriptive epidemiological method, 1632 men were selected from among the general population. Participants completed an evaluation of lower urinary tracts symptoms (LUTS), including international prostate symptom score (IPSS) and quality of life (QoL) questionnaires. Erectile function was assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire. In addition, the Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS) and King's health questionnaire (KHQ) were used to assess the impact of BPO with coexisting OAB on the HRQoL. Maximum flow rate (Qmax), postvoid residual urine volume (PVR) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were also recorded. RESULTS: A total of 1476 men with complete data were analyzed. The overall prevalence of BPO with coexisting OAB was 39.6%. Age and prostate volume were associated risk factors for BPO with coexisting OAB. In addition, BPO with coexisting OAB negatively impacted the HRQoL, with increased IPSS, QoL, OABSS, and KHQ scores and decreased IIEF-5 scores compared to that in patients with BPO without OAB. CONCLUSIONS: Qmax, PVR and serum PSA did not predict whether the patients had a combined BPO + OAB or not. The prostate volume and age were associated risk factors for BPO with coexisting OAB. BPO is a progressive disease and may be one of the risk factors for OAB.

12.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508906

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic autoimmune disease that eventually leads to joint deformities and loss of joint function. Previous studies have demonstrated a close relationship between autophagy and the development of RA. Although autophagy and apoptosis are two different forms of programmed death, the relationship between them in relation to RA remains unclear. In this study, we explored the effect of autophagy on apoptosis of articular chondrocytes in vivo and in vitro. Adjuvant arthritis (AA) and acid-induced primary articular chondrocyte apoptosis were used as in vivo and in vitro models, respectively. Articular chondrocyte autophagy and apoptosis were both observed dynamically in AA rat articular cartilage at different stages (15 days, 25 days and 35 days). Moreover, chondrocyte apoptosis and articular cartilage injury in AA rats were increased by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and decreased by the autophagy activator rapamycin. In addition, pre-treatment with 3-MA increased acid-induced chondrocyte apoptosis, while pre-treatment with rapamycin reduced acid-induced chondrocyte apoptosis in vitro. These results suggest that autophagy might be a potential target for the treatment of RA.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498928

RESUMO

Graphene-based materials still exhibit poor electrocatalytic activities for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) although they are considered to be the most promising electrocatalysts. Herein, we first fabricated a graphene analogous material displaying exceptional activity toward HER in acidic conditions with an overpotential (57 mV at 10 mA cm-2) and Tafel slope (44.6 mV dec-1) superior among the reported graphene-based materials, even comparable to the state-of-the art Pt/C catalyst. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and solid state NMR studies reveal the feature of its structure is dual graphitic N doping in a six-member carbon ring. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that the unique doping structure is beneficial for enhancing C-H bonds so as to make the carbon atom bonded with two graphitic N atoms an active site for HER.

14.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499051

RESUMO

AIMS: Many studies have indicated that microRNAs are closely related to the process of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Previously, we found that microRNA-125a-3p (miR-125a-3p) in restenotic arteries after interventional therapy of lower extremity vessels was notably decreased compared with that of normal control arteries. However, its role in the development of vascular stenosis is not yet clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression, regulatory mechanism and function of miR-125a-3p in the process of vascular stenosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays indicated that miR-125a-3p in restenotic arteries after interventional therapy was significantly lower than that in normal control arteries. Immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization co-staining assays in arterial sections demonstrated that miR-125a-3p was mainly expressed in the medial smooth muscle layer. Transfection of miR-125a-3p mimics into cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) effectively inhibited cell proliferation and migration. Then, western blot and luciferase activity assays showed that recombinant human mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) was a functional target of miR-125a-3p and was involved in miR-125a-3p-mediated cell effects. Finally, the lentiviral infection of miR-125a-3p in balloon-injured rat carotid vascular walls showed that miR-125a-3p overexpression significantly reduced the probability of neointimal membrane production. CONCLUSIONS: miR-125a-3p can effectively inhibit the function of VSMCs and the occurrence of vascular stenosis by targeting MAPK1. This study introduces a new molecular mechanism of PAD. We show that regulation of the miR-125a-3p level has the potential to provide a new treatment for PAD and other proliferative vascular diseases.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502467

RESUMO

Despite the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV persists and viremia rebounds if ART is interrupted. Characterizing proviruses in infected cells that persist on ART is critical to developing strategies to eliminate them. To facilitate our understanding of the genetic structure and dynamics of the HIV reservoir, we developed the Proviral Sequence Database (PSD), https://psd.cancer.gov, for the storage and meta-analyses of HIV sequences prior to ART, that persist on ART, or that rebounded after ART was interrupted.

16.
Opt Express ; 27(15): 20785-20786, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510167

RESUMO

The editors introduce the feature issue on liquid crystal beyond displays.

17.
Opt Express ; 27(15): 21667-21676, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510239

RESUMO

A continuously deformative space possesses trivial or nontrivial topological characteristics depending on the associated homotopy groups associated with spaces describing the physical processes. Moreover, the interaction of spatial warping and structural symmetry always presents fantastic phenomena, especially in the systems with unique symmetrical properties such as quasicrystals. Here, we propose a quasi-periodic structure (QPS) with topological defects. The analytical expression of the corresponding Fourier spectrum is derived, which reflects the combined effects of topological structure and quasi-translational symmetry. Light-matter interaction therein brings unusual diffraction characteristics with exotic evolution of orbital angular momentum (OAM). Long-range correlation of QPS resulted in multi-fractal and pairwise distribution of optical singularities. A general conservation law of OAM is revealed. A liquid crystal photopatterned QPS is fabricated to demonstrate the above characteristics. Dynamic reconfigurable manipulation of optical singularities is achieved. Our approach offers the opportunity to manipulate OAM with multiple degrees of freedom, which has promising applications in multi-channel quantum information processing and high-dimensional quantum state generation.

18.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(9): 97001, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer rates among never-smoking women in Xuanwei and Fuyuan in China are among the highest in the world and have been attributed to the domestic use of smoky (bituminous) coal for heating and cooking. However, the key components of coal that drive lung cancer risk have not been identified. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the relationship between lifelong exposure to the constituents of smoky coal (and other fuel types) and lung cancer. METHODS: Using a population-based case-control study of lung cancer among 1,015 never-smoking female cases and 485 controls, we examined the association between exposure to 43 household air pollutants and lung cancer. Pollutant predictions were derived from a comprehensive exposure assessment study, which included methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which have never been directly evaluated in an epidemiological study of any cancer. Hierarchical clustering and penalized regression were applied in order to address high colinearity in exposure variables. RESULTS: The strongest association with lung cancer was for a cluster of 25 PAHs [odds ratio (OR): 2.21; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.67, 2.87 per 1 standard deviation (SD) change], within which 5-methylchrysene (5-MC), a mutagenic and carcinogenic PAH, had the highest individual observed OR (5.42; 95% CI: 0.94, 27.5). A positive association with nitrogen dioxide ([Formula: see text]) was also observed (OR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.19, 3.49). By contrast, neither benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) nor fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) were associated with lung cancer in the multipollutant models. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study to comprehensively evaluate the association between lung cancer and household air pollution (HAP) constituents estimated over the entire life course. Given the global ubiquity of coal use domestically for indoor cooking and heating and commercially for electric power generation, our study suggests that more extensive monitoring of coal combustion products, including methylated PAHs, may be warranted to more accurately assess health risks and develop prevention strategies from this exposure. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4913.

19.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; : 1-12, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Stress-induced cell senescence, which contributes to cell cycle arrest and is independent of age, plays an important role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. DcR2, as a senescent marker, exclusively expressed in senescent tubular epithelia. The objective of this study was to examine whether urinary DcR2 (uDcR2) could be a potential biomarker for tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) in patients with immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). METHODS: This study included 210 IgAN patients and 80 healthy volunteers, with uDcR2 levels measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We examined the relationship among uDcR2/Cr levels, renal function, and pathological parameters, using regression analysis to identify risk factors for TIF and the area under the curve (AUC) approach to predict TIF. Renal DcR2 expression was quantified by immunohistochemistry. Co-expression of DcR2 with fibrotic markers (α-smooth muscle actin [α-SMA], collagen III) was analyzed by confocal microscopy. RESULTS: Levels of uDcR2/Cr were significantly higher in IgAN patients and in those with more severe TIF, compared with healthy controls. Serum DcR2 levels were similar across groups. The proportion of IgAN patients with stages 1-2 CKD and T0 was highest among those with uDcR2/Cr <130 ng/g. In contrast, the majority of those with uDcR2/Cr >201 ng/g had stages 4-5 CKD and T2. Levels of uDcR2/Cr were positively associated with urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR), urinary N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase (uNAG)/Cr, and TIF scores and negatively associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). uDcR2/Cr, uNAG, ACR, and eGFR were independent predictors for TIF, with AUC of 0.907 for uDcR2/Cr. This AUC value was higher than that observed for eGFR, uNAG/Cr, or ACR. The sensitivity and specificity of uDcR2/Cr in predicting TIF were 87.0 and 80.5%, respectively. Moreover, uDcR2/Cr levels were positively associated with the percentage of renal DcR2 expression. Renal DcR2 co-localized with α-SMA and collagen III in the kidneys of IgAN patients. CONCLUSIONS: Levels of uDcR2/Cr were closely associated with the severity of TIF and renal function parameters. uDcR2/Cr represents a potential biomarker for predicting TIF in IgAN patients.

20.
ANZ J Surg ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The treatment of senile distal radius fractures had not been clearly defined. The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with the decision for operative treatment of displaced distal radius fractures in patients aged over 55 years. METHODS: Data of 318 patients with displaced distal radius fractures were collected on patient-, fracture- and surgeon-related characteristics that were plausibly related to the decision for operation. Mean comparisons or chi-squared test were used for univariate analysis of the above-mentioned factors, and then multiple logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with the decision for operation. RESULTS: Univariate analysis showed that age, osteoporosis, Charlson score, associated orthopaedic injuries requiring surgery, Orthopaedic Trauma Association (AO) and Fernandez classification, radial height, volar tilt, volar/dorsal comminution, ulnar variance, intra-articular displacement/step-off, associated distal radioulnar joint instability or radiocarpal joint dislocation and subspecialty of treating surgeons had statistically significant association with operative intervention. In the multivariate analysis, the predictors of operative intervention were younger patient age (P = 0.028), associated orthopaedic injuries requiring surgery (P = 0.020), higher AO classification (P = 0.037), higher Fernandez classification (P = 0.041), radial shortening >5 mm (P = 0.020), volar tilt > -10° (P = 0.020), volar/dorsal comminution (P = 0.020), ulnar variance >5 mm (P = 0.023), intra-articular displacement/step-off >2 mm (P = 0.004), associated distal radioulnar joint instability or radiocarpal joint dislocation (P = 0.047) and treatment by an upper extremity specialist (P = 0.038). CONCLUSION: The decision for surgery was predominantly influenced by the characteristics and severity of the fracture. Patients' age and treatment by an upper extremity specialist were also significant factors associated with a higher likelihood of operative intervention.

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