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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 401: 123376, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652424

RESUMO

Imidazolium based ionic liquids (ILs) have been extensively used in the various industrial fields, however, the dependence of their structure on toxicity and bioavailability by plants is not clear. Thus, in this study, uptake of imidazolium based ILs with different alkyl chain lengths (e.g., [C2mim]+ and [C8mim]+) by ryegrass and their toxicity to plant growth were investigated. Results show that the two ILs could be removed by ryegrass with high efficiencies, and a higher uptake efficiency and accumulation was observed for [C2mim]+ with shorter chain length compared with that for [C8mim]+. A higher growth inhibition of ryegrass by [C8mim]+ was observed compared with that by [C2mim]+, indicating the long alkyl chain length of ILs had a negative effect on the plant growth. ILs taken up by ryegrass was retained in the roots and their translocation from roots to shoots was restricted. The IL concentration in roots was 0.68 mg/g-fresh weight for [C2mim]+ and 0.08 mg/g- fresh weight for [C8mim]+ when the ryegrass was exposed to 10 mg/L ILs. This study proved that plant assimilation of ILs depended on their alky chain lengths, which would be useful for understanding the fate of ILs with various structures in phytoremediation for ILs-contaminated water.

2.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 682, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bos taurus and Bos indicus are two main sub-species of cattle. However, the differential copy number variations (CNVs) between them are not yet well studied. RESULTS: Based on the new high-quality cattle reference genome ARS-UCD1.2, we identified 13,234 non-redundant CNV regions (CNVRs) from 73 animals of 10 cattle breeds (4 Bos taurus and 6 Bos indicus), by integrating three detection strategies. While 6990 CNVRs (52.82%) were shared by Bos taurus and Bos indicus, large CNV differences were discovered between them and these differences could be used to successfully separate animals into two subspecies. We found that 2212 and 538 genes uniquely overlapped with either indicine-specific CNVRs and or taurine-specific CNVRs, respectively. Based on FST, we detected 16 candidate lineage-differential CNV segments (top 0.1%) under selection, which overlapped with eight genes (CTNNA1, ENSBTAG00000004415, PKN2, BMPER, PDE1C, DNAJC18, MUSK, and PLCXD3). Moreover, we obtained 1.74 Mbp indicine-specific sequences, which could only be mapped on the Bos indicus reference genome UOA_Brahman_1. We found these sequences and their associated genes were related to heat resistance, lipid and ATP metabolic process, and muscle development under selection. We further analyzed and validated the top significant lineage-differential CNV. This CNV overlapped genes related to muscle cell differentiation, which might be generated from a retropseudogene of CTH but was deleted along Bos indicus lineage. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents a genome wide CNV comparison between Bos taurus and Bos indicus. It supplied essential genome diversity information for understanding of adaptation and phenotype differences between the Bos taurus and Bos indicus populations.

3.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e037829, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067281

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite the increase in the survival rate of high-risk infants (HRIs) worldwide, the prevalence of motor and neurodevelopmental sequelae in such newborns has not shown concomitant improvement. Meanwhile, there are few cohorts that explore factors related to the development of HRIs in China. Therefore, the Guangzhou High-Risk Infant Cohort (GHRIC) has been designed to examine the complex relationships among a myriad of factors influencing growth and development in such children. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The GHRIC study is a prospective cohort study that by the year 2023 will enrol an estimated total of 3000 HRIs from Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center (GWCMC) in Guangzhou, China. This study is designed to assess the growth and cognitive characteristics of HRIs and the risk factors affecting their development and prognoses. Data on risk factors, neurodevelopmental and cognitive-function evaluations, laboratory results, and specimens will be collected and analysed. Information on perinatal and clinical interventions for these infants will also be recorded during regular follow-up visits until age 6. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol for this study has been approved by the Research Ethics Committee of GWCMC, which accepted responsibility for supervising all of the aspects of the study (No. 2017102712). Study outcomes will be disseminated through conference presentations, peer-reviewed publications, the Internet and social media. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR-EOC-17013236.

4.
J Gene Med ; : e3281, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer seriously threatens women's health and life. We aimed to investigate whether RNA interference of lncRNA DCST1-AS1 could promote miR-874-3p expression to affect the proliferation, migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells. METHODS: DCST1-AS1 expression levels in cervical cancer cells and transfection effects were detected by RT-qPCR analysis. Proliferation, invasion and migration of cells were separately shown by CCK-8 assay, wound healing assay and transwell assay, and relative protein expression was determined by Western blot analysis. Dual-luciferase reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation assay verified the interaction of DCST1-AS1 and miR-874-3p. RESULTS: DCST1-AS1 expression was increased in cervical cancer tissues and cells. The DCST1-AS1 expression in Hela and SiHa cells was the highest, so the cells were selected for the next experiment. Inhibition of DCST1-AS1 suppressed the proliferation, invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells and decreased the expression of KI67, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). miR-874-3p expression was increased when cells were transfected with miR-874-3p mimic or shRNA-DCST1-AS1-1, and DCST1-AS1 expression was down-regulated when cells were transfected with miR-874-3p mimic. DCST1-AS1 can directly target miR-874-3p. Furthermore, inhibition of miR-874-3p could effectively alleviate the effect of inhibition of DCST1-AS1 on proliferation, invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of DCST1-AS1 suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells by increasing miR-874-3p expression, which could be alleviated by the inhibition of miR-874-3p.

5.
J Clin Pathol ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020176

RESUMO

AIMS: A growing research demonstrated that YAP1 played important roles in gliomagenesis. We explored the expression of YAP1 and STAT3, the relationship between them and the effect of YAP1, STAT3 on prognosis in glioma. METHODS: Expression of YAP1, p-YAP1, STAT3, pSTAT3-S727 and pSTAT3-Y705 in 141 cases of low-grade gliomas (LGG) and 74 cases of high-grade gliomas (HGG) of surgical specimens were measured by immunohistochemistry. Pearson's X2 test was used to determine the correlation between immunohistochemical expressions and clinicopathological parameters. Pearson's or Spearman correlation test was used to determine the association between these proteins expression. Survival analysis was used to investigate the effect of these proteins on prognosis. RESULTS: High expressions of YAP1, STAT3, pSTAT3-S727 and pSTAT3-Y705 were found in HGG compared with LGG (p=0.000). High expressions of YAP1, STAT3, pSTAT3-S727 and pSTAT3-Y705 were found in 63.5%, 59.5%, 66.2% and 31.1% cases of HGG, respectively. YAP1 expression was associated to tumour location, Ki-67 and P53, STAT3 expression was related with Ki-67 and P53, and the expression of pSTAT3-S727 was associated with Ki-67. There was a significantly positive correlation between YAP1 and pSTAT3-S727 (p<0.0001; r=0.5663). Survival analysis revealed that patients with YAP1 and pSTAT3-S727 coexpression had worse overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) (p<0.0001). Tumour grade, age, Ki-67 and YAP1 expression were independent prognostic factors for OS. In LGG group, both YAP1 and pSTAT3-S727 expressions were negative correlation with IDH1 mutation, YAP1 and pSTAT3-S727 coexpression showed worse OS and PFS of glioma patients. CONCLUSION: Our research showed that YAP1 and STAT3 were significantly activated in HGG compared with LGG. YAP1 significantly correlated with pSTAT3-S727 in glioma, YAP1 and pSTAT3-S727 coexpression may serve as a reliable prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for glioma.

6.
Cancer Nurs ; 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is a common adverse effect among patients undergoing chemotherapy. Patients experiencing CIA suffer psychological distress and even refuse or discontinue chemotherapy. A variety of interventions have been applied to prevent CIA. However, the best intervention option remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and determine the comparative effects of all available interventions for preventing CIA. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of four English and 3 Chinese electronic databases was performed to identify potential studies from database inception to August 2018. Two reviewers conducted data selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment independently. The consistency model was used to conduct a network meta-analysis based on a frequentist framework to evaluate the relative effects of different interventions. Rankings of interventions were evaluated by the surface under the cumulative ranking curve values. RESULTS: Seventeen eligible trials including 1378 patients were included. Scalp cooling (odds ratio, 0.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-0.25) and scalp compression (odds ratio, 0.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.52) had significant effects relative to usual care. Ranking of efficacy indicated that scalp cooling was the most effective, followed by scalp compression with tourniquets, topical Chinese medicinal herbs, oral Chinese medicinal herbs, minoxidil, and usual care. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that scalp cooling is the most effective method to prevent CIA during chemotherapy. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Our results could provide a reference to prevent CIA. Updated studies with high quality, sufficient sample sizes, and direct comparison between interventions are needed in the future.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059922

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is a chronic vascular inflammatory disease that initially starts from an arterial intima lesion and endothelial barrier dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of TM4SF19, a recently identified member of the transmembrane 4L six superfamily, in vascular endothelial cell adherens junctions. We found TM4SF19 expression was significantly increased in atherosclerotic plaques and sera of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) compared with healthy people by immunohistochemistry and ELISA. In vitro, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were stimulated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). TM4SF19 and VE-cadherin expression as well as cell adherens junctions were assessed. Additionally, LPS could upregulate TM4SF19 expression and downregulate VE-cadherin expression in HUVECs in a concentration dependent manner. Overexpression of TM4SF19 substantially aggravated LPS-induced reduction of VE-cadherin expression and attenuation of vascular endothelial cell adherens junctions. However, both the decreased VE-cadherin expression and weakened cell adherens junctions induced by LPS could be dramatically reversed when the expression of TM4SF19 was depressed. This study is the first to reveal the effect of TM4SF19 on endothelial cell adherens junctions. Meanwhile, our results also provide novel therapeutic strategies for atherosclerotic diseases.

8.
Cell ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098772

RESUMO

Cell differentiation and function are regulated across multiple layers of gene regulation, including modulation of gene expression by changes in chromatin accessibility. However, differentiation is an asynchronous process precluding a temporal understanding of regulatory events leading to cell fate commitment. Here we developed simultaneous high-throughput ATAC and RNA expression with sequencing (SHARE-seq), a highly scalable approach for measurement of chromatin accessibility and gene expression in the same single cell, applicable to different tissues. Using 34,774 joint profiles from mouse skin, we develop a computational strategy to identify cis-regulatory interactions and define domains of regulatory chromatin (DORCs) that significantly overlap with super-enhancers. During lineage commitment, chromatin accessibility at DORCs precedes gene expression, suggesting that changes in chromatin accessibility may prime cells for lineage commitment. We computationally infer chromatin potential as a quantitative measure of chromatin lineage-priming and use it to predict cell fate outcomes. SHARE-seq is an extensible platform to study regulatory circuitry across diverse cells in tissues.

9.
Anal Chem ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076659

RESUMO

Spectral similarity comparison through tandem mass spectrometry (MS2) is a powerful approach to annotate known and unknown metabolic features in mass spectrometry (MS)-based untargeted metabolomics. In this work, we proposed the concept of hypothetical neutral loss (HNL), which is the mass difference between a pair of fragment ions in a MS2 spectrum. We demonstrated that HNL values contain core structural information that can be used to accurately assess the structural similarity between two MS2 spectra. We then developed the Core Structure-based Search (CSS) algorithm based on HNL values. CSS was validated with sets of hundreds of randomly selected metabolites and their reference MS2 spectra, showing significantly improved correlation between spectral and structural similarities. Compared to state-of-the-art spectral similarity algorithms, CSS generates better ranking of structurally relevant chemicals among false positives. Combining CSS, HNL library, and biotransformation database, we further developed Metabolite core structure-based Search (McSearch), a novel computational solution to facilitate the annotation of unknown metabolites using the reference MS2 spectra of their structural analogs. McSearch generates better results in the Critical Assessment of Small Molecule Identification (CASMI) 2017 data set than conventional unknown feature annotation programs. McSearch was also tested in experimental MS2 data of xenobiotic metabolite derivatives belonging to three different metabolic pathways. Our results confirmed that McSearch can better capture the underlying structural similarity between MS2 spectra. Overall, this work provides a novel direction for metabolite annotation via HNL values, paving the way for annotating metabolites using their structurally similar compounds.

10.
Pharmacotherapy ; 2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070357

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Vancomycin is a primary antibiotic for treatment of severe infections in children with malignant hematological disease. However, precise dosing of vancomycin is difficult in children due to high inter-individual variability and limited data of pharmacokinetic profiles. The present study aims to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model for vancomycin in Chinese pediatric patients with hematological malignancies. DESIGN: Retrospective pharmacokinetic study. SETTING: Tertiary-care children's hospital. PATIENTS: 92 pediatric patients with hematological malignancies who received vancomycin and experienced therapeutic drug monitoring from February 2017 to December 2018 were included. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A PPK model was generated with a nonlinear mixed-effects model (NONMEM). In addition, required doses to achieve target therapeutic concentrations were simulated based on the final model. A one-compartment model with first-order elimination fit the concentration data best. Actual body weight (BW) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were the significant influential factors on the clearance (CL) of vancomycin. The final PPK model for CL was CL (L/h) = 4.18 ×(GFR/145)0.741 ×(BW/25)K , K =(BW-0.856 )/BW-0.856 + 6.53-0.856 ), and the volume of distribution was 22.3L. The model was proved to be robust and reliable. Reference dosing regimens were proposed based on the final model. CONCLUSIONS: A PPK model of vancomycin was established for Chinese pediatric patients with hematological malignancies using a NONMEM, which provided a reference for the clinical application of vancomycin.

11.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1360-1363, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018241

RESUMO

Registration of multimodal retinal images is of great importance in facilitating the diagnosis and treatment of many eye diseases, such as the registration between color fundus images and optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. However, it is difficult to obtain ground truth, and most existing algorithms are for rigid registration without considering the optical distortion. In this paper, we present an unsupervised learning method for deformable registration between the two images. To solve the registration problem, the structure achieves a multi-level receptive field and takes contour and local detail into account. To measure the edge difference caused by different distortions in the optics center and edge, an edge similarity (ES) loss term is proposed, so loss function is composed by local cross-correlation, edge similarity and diffusion regularizer on the spatial gradients of the deformation matrix. Thus, we propose a multi-scale input layer, U-net with dilated convolution structure, squeeze excitation (SE) block and spatial transformer layers. Quantitative experiments prove the proposed framework is best compared with several conventional and deep learningbased methods, and our ES loss and structure combined with Unet and multi-scale layers achieve competitive results for normal and abnormal images.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Retina , Fundo de Olho , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926308

RESUMO

The objective was to dynamically monitor the progression of atherosclerotic plaques in ApoE-/- mice with 18F-NaF PET imaging. The ApoE-/- mice were used to develop atherosclerosis models, and the C57BL/6 J mice were used as control. 18F-NaF PET was performed when the mice were 12, 20, and 30 weeks of age. Serum lipids and lipoproteins profiles, inflammatory cytokines, and calcification factors were tested by ELISA. The lipid distribution, morphology, and calcification of plaque were evaluated by Oil Red O, HE, and alizarin red staining. The correlation between imaging and the extent of calcification was analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis. The uptake of 18F-NaF in the aorta was gradually increased with each weekly extension. Compared with the ApoE-/- mice at the age of 12 weeks and 20 weeks, the levels of lipoprotein, inflammatory cytokines, and calcification factors were higher at 30 weeks. In Oil Red O, HE, and alizarin red staining, the extent of the lipid area and calcification increased with time. The correlation analysis showed that the uptake of 18F-NaF in the aorta was related to the extent of calcification. 18F-NaF may dynamically monitor the progression of atherosclerotic plaques and ongoing microcalcification formation.

13.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(8): 865-7, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869596

RESUMO

To introduce professor ZHANG Ren's experience that different stages of refractory facial paralysis should be treated with different acupuncture methods.In early stage of facial paralysis,identifcation is important. Electroacupuncture is applied to connect Qianzheng (Extra) with Cuanzhu (BL 2), Sibai (ST 2) and Jiachengjiang (Extra), by observing the twitches of facial muscles, it is determined whether it is easy to develop into refractory facial paralysis, in order to actively take preventive treatment. In the recovery stage of refractory facial paralysis, comprehensive therapy including acupuncture, acupoint injection, quick cupping and auricular point pressure are adopted, and penetration needling is applied at three points of mouth, three points of cheek and three points of forehead.In the sequelae stage of refractory facial paralysis,on the basis of comprehensive therapy, targeted treatment is adopted according to different sequelae.

14.
Clin Exp Med ; 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880779

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of intra-tumor metabolic heterogeneity on 2-[18F] Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for patients with gastric cancer. Fifty-five patients with advanced gastric cancer that had received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical surgery were included. Clinicopathological information, 18F-FDG PET/CT before chemotherapy, pathological response, recurrence or metastasis, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) of the patients were collected. The maximum, peak, and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmax, SUVpeak, and SUVmean), tumor-to-liver ratio (TLR), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) on PET/CT were measured. Heterogeneity index-1 (HI-1) was calculated as SUVmean divided by the standard deviation, and heterogeneity index-2 (HI-2) was evaluated through linear regressions of MTVs according to different SUV thresholds. Associations between these parameters and patient survival outcomes were analyzed. None of the parameters on PET were associated with tumor recurrence. Pathological responders had significantly smaller TLR, MTV and HI-2 values than non-responders (P = 0.017, 0.017 and 0.013, respectively). In multivariate analysis of PFS, only HI-2 was an independent factor (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.693, P = 0.005) after adjusting for clinical tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage. In multivariate analysis of OS, HI-2 was also an independent predictive factor (HR = 2.281, P = 0.009) after adjusting for tumor recurrence. Thus, HI-2 generated from baseline 18F-FDG PET/CT is significantly associated with survival of patients with gastric cancer. Preoperative assessment of HI-2 by 18F-FDG PET/CT might be promising to identify patients with poor prognosis.

15.
Ren Fail ; 42(1): 890-901, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862739

RESUMO

Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an important renal replacement therapy for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. However, its complications, such as peritoneal fibrosis (PF) and angiogenesis can cause ultrafiltration failure and PD termination. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) has been demonstrated to be involved in PF. However, its underlying role in peritoneal angiogenesis is still unknown and clinical value needs to be explored. In this study, we analyzed the expression of HDAC6 in the peritoneum from patients with non-PD and PD-related peritonitis and dialysis effluent from stable PD patients. Our study revealed that HDAC6 expressed highly in the peritoneum with peritonitis and co-stained with α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a biomarker of the myofibroblast. And the level of HDAC6 in the dialysate increased with time and positively correlated with transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and negatively with cancer antigen 125 (CA125). In vitro, blockading HDAC6 with a selective inhibitor tubastatin A (TA) or silencing HDAC6 with a small interfering RNA (siRNA) prominently decreased IL-6-stimulated VEGF expression in cultured human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs), and inhibited proliferation and vasoformation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). TA or HDAC6 siRNA also suppressed the expression of Wnt1, ß-catenin, and the phosphorylation of STAT3 in IL-6-treated HPMCs. In summary, HDAC6 inhibition protects against PD-induced angiogenesis through suppression of IL-6/STAT3 and Wnt1/ß-catenin signaling pathway, subsequently reducing the VEGF production and angiogenesis. It could become a new therapeutic target or forecast biomarker for PF, inflammation, and angiogenesis in the future.

16.
Theranostics ; 10(23): 10680-10696, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929374

RESUMO

Background: Oxidative stress has emerged as an essential factor in the pathogenesis of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The adaptor protein p66Shc is a key regulator of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and a mediator of I/R damage in the intestine, but the upstream mechanisms that directly regulate p66Shc expression during intestinal I/R remain largely unknown. Recent studies have suggested that noncoding RNAs, such as circular RNAs (circRNAs), are important players in physiological and pathological processes based on their versatile regulatory roles in gene expression. The aim of this study was to elucidate the contribution of p66Shc to oxidative damage in intestinal I/R and to investigate the regulation of p66Shc by circRNA sponges. Methods: Intestinal I/R was induced in mice via superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion. A miR-339-5p agomir or circ-protein kinase C beta (PRKCB) siRNA was injected intravenously before I/R challenge. In addition, Caco-2 cells were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) in vitro to simulate an in vivo I/R model. Results: In vitro, p66Shc deficiency significantly reduced H/R-induced ROS overproduction by attenuating mitochondrial superoxide anion (O2 -) levels, suppressing NADPH oxidase activity and enhancing antioxidant enzyme expression. Moreover, miR-339-5p was identified to directly regulate p66Shc expression in the intestine. Furthermore, we found that a circRNA transcribed from the PRKCB gene, named circ-PRKCB, acted as an endogenous miR-339-5p sponge to regulate p66Shc expression. circ-PRKCB silencing or miR-339-5p overexpression significantly downregulated p66Shc expression and attenuated oxidative stress levels and I/R injury in vivo and in vitro. Notably, the increased circ-PRKCB levels and decreased miR-339-5p levels associated with murine intestinal I/R were consistent with those in patients with intestinal infarction. Conclusions: Our findings reveal a crucial role for the circ-PRKCB/miR-339-5p/p66Shc signaling pathway in regulating oxidative stress in the I/R intestine. This pathway may be a potential therapeutic target for intestinal I/R injury.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931435

RESUMO

The choroid provides oxygen and nourishment to the outer retina thus is related to the pathology of various ocular diseases. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is advantageous in visualizing and quantifying the choroid in vivo, because it does not suffer from the information contamination of the inner retina in fundus photography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, and the resolution deficiency in ocular ultrasound. However, its application in the study of the choroid is still limited for two reasons. (1) The lower boundary of the choroid (choroid-sclera interface) in OCT is fuzzy, which makes the automatic segmentation difficult and inaccurate. (2) The visualization of the choroid is hindered by the vessel shadows from the superficial layers of the inner retina. In this paper, we propose to incorporate medical and imaging prior knowledge with deep learning to address these two problems. We propose a biomarker infused global-to-local network, for the choroid segmentation. It leverages the thickness of the choroid layer, which is a primary biomarker in clinic, as a constraint to improve the segmentation accuracy. We also design a global-to-local strategy in the choroid segmentation: a global module is used to segment all the retinal and choroidal layers simultaneously for suppressing overfitting and providing global structure information, then a local module is used to refine the segmentation with the biomarker infusion. For eliminating the retinal vessel shadows, we propose a deep learning pipeline, which firstly use anatomical and OCT imaging knowledge to locate the shadows using their projection on the retinal pigment epthelium layer, then the contents of the choroidal vasculature at the shadow locations are predicted with an edge-to-texture two-stage generative adversarial inpainting network. The experiments shows the proposed method outperforms the existing methods on both the segmentation and shadow elimination tasks. We further apply the proposed method in a clinical prospective study for understanding the pathology of glaucoma, which demonstrates its capacity in detecting the structure and vascular changes of the choroid related to the elevation of intra-ocular pressure.

18.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 247, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNSTs) of the trachea are extremely uncommon neoplasms with unknown genetic and clinical profiles. Only individual cases have been reported in the literature to date. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we present a rare case of a 61-year-old female patient with a primary MPNST of the trachea who complained of irritating cough and progressively increasing breathlessness for 4 weeks. This patient initially underwent intraluminal resection of the mass and was misdiagnosed with clear cell sarcoma. Less than a year later, the mass relapsed, and the obstructive symptoms reappeared and gradually worsened. Debulking of the endotracheal tumour mass was performed once again, and an MPNST was definitively diagnosed. Open sleeve tracheal resection and tracheoplasty were later performed with curative intent. This patient was alive without recurrence at her six-month postoperative follow-up. We also compared the clinical outcomes of previously reported cases of MPNSTs and our case. CONCLUSIONS: This paper emphasizes that thoracic surgeons should be aware that malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours of the trachea can be misdiagnosed in clinical practice and must be included in the differential diagnosis of tracheal neoplasms.

19.
Mol Med Rep ; 22(4): 3453-3463, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945471

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of electroacupuncture (EA) on ovariectomy­induced osteoporotic rats to elucidate potential mechanisms by which EA regulates acetylation of histones in caput femoris. A total of 40 female Sprague­Dawley rats were randomly allocated into four groups: Sham operation, ovariectomy­induced osteoporosis (OVX), EA and 17ß­estradiol (E2) treatments. After 8 weeks of intervention, the trabecular morphology of each group was measured by micro­computed tomography. Biomarkers of bone metabolism in serum were detected. The protein expression of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2), histone H3, Ac­histone H3 and downstream cytokines involved in osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation were detected. The results showed that EA and E2 both prevented bone loss and improved trabecular morphology in OVX rats. EA was found to suppress the protein expression of HDAC2 and promoted the acetylation of histone H3 compared with the OVX model group. The results indicated that EA promoted the differentiation of osteoblasts, and suppressed that of osteoclasts, thereby improving the trabecular morphology. E2 was shown to regulate the expression of runt­related transcription factor 2 and receptor activator of nuclear factor­κB ligand without modulating the expression of HDAC2, and therefore diverged mechanistically from EA. Overall, the results of the present study suggested that the mechanisms through which EA improved bone mineral density and trabecular morphology may involve the modulation of histone H3 acetylation and regulation of osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation.

20.
J Affect Disord ; 277: 640-648, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chinese persons living with HIV (PLWH) suffer from prevalent mental health issues. We aimed to develop a tailored cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), test its feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effects (depression, anxiety, and medication adherence) for Chinese PLWH. METHODS: Twenty PLWH were assigned randomly. Intervention participants learned skills in CBT and relaxation training in a tailored group-based weekly 10-session project. Each session lasted for two hours and was delivered by nurses and volunteers. Control participants only received laboratory tests and free antiretroviral therapy (ART) medication. Feasibility and acceptability were descriptively summarized. Depression, anxiety, and ART medication adherence data were collected at the baseline (T0), after the intervention (T1) and after 6 months of follow-up (T2). RESULTS: The average CBT attendance rate for all sessions was 60%. No participants in the intervention group dropped out of the study. All participants in the intervention group agreed that they could benefit from the CBT. Participants in the intervention group showed a greater improvement in anxiety and self-reported ART medication adherence than those in the control group at T1. However, no preliminary intervention effect was found at T2. LIMITATIONS: The small sample size leads to a lack of representativeness in the study sample. We excluded participants with severe comorbidities, which may lead to an underestimate of the intervention effect of CBT among Chinese PLWH. CONCLUSIONS: CBT is feasible and acceptable, demonstrating promising preliminary effects on anxiety and ART medication adherence among Chinese PLWH. Additional research is needed to test the effectiveness of this approach.

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