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1.
Arch Suicide Res ; : 1-14, 2023 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37970867

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Suicide ideation (SI) is prevalent among college students, and suicide disclosure (SD) is critical for crisis intervention. However, students with SI may worry about stigmatizing responses to their disclosure. To better understand the mechanism of stigmatizing responses to SD, we investigated the effects of a hypothetical classmate's SD on college students' emotions and reasoning when providing advice to a distressed classmate. METHOD: In a randomized controlled experiment, students wrote advice to a hypothetical classmate who recently failed in his pursuit of a romantic relationship with a peer. The experimental/control group also learned he wanted to either commit suicide/quit school. When typing the advice, participants' facial expressions were recorded and analyzed by Facereader7.1. After advising, participants reported their sadness, joy, fear, anger, surprise, and disgust when advising. Finally, trained coders coded the common themes of their advice and rated the wise reasoning involved. Additionally, two experts in suicide prevention rated the helpfulness of their advice for the classmate. RESULTS: The experimental group showed significantly fewer facial expressions of happiness, reported higher sadness and fear, provided less helpful advice, and mentioned "confronting reality" less during advising. The difference in disgust and wise reasoning was nonsignificant. CONCLUSION: Learning of a classmate's SI may increase fear and sadness among recipients and reduce the helpfulness of their advice. Increased psychoeducation for students that focuses on improving emotional regulation (especially facial expressions) during SI may reduce the stigma surrounding SI and prevent perceived burdensomeness among individuals with SI after SD.


Hearing a peer's SI reduced listeners' happiness and increased sadness and fear.Listeners' disgust did not change significantly after learning of a classmate's SI.Learning of a classmate's SI reduced the helpfulness of listeners' advice.

2.
J Pers ; 2023 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37650297

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Across three experiments (N = 622), we investigated the effect of the future temporal perspective on wise reasoning within the context of interpersonal conflicts. METHOD: Studies 1 and 2 applied two heterogeneous measurements of wise reasoning: self-report and open-ended measurements. Participants reasoned about their recent interpersonal conflicts from a future (i.e., 1 year from now) or a present perspective. Similarly, Study 3 tested the relationship between various future temporal distances (i.e., 1 week, 1 year, 10 years, 30 years from now) and wise reasoning. RESULTS: The future temporal perspective significantly promoted wise reasoning compared to the present perspective, especially when the focus was 30 years in the future. Moreover, reasoning about a conflict event from a future perspective first might cause a carry-over effect on reasoning from the present perspective later. CONCLUSION: Future-oriented temporal perspective significantly improves wise reasoning.

3.
J Pers ; 2023 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37577862

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: What are the motivational underpinnings of solitude? We know from self-report studies that increases in solitude are associated with drops in approach motivation and rises in avoidance motivation, but only when solitude is experienced as non-self-determined (i.e., non-autonomous). However, the extent to which individual differences in solitude relate to neurophysiological markers of approach-avoidance motivation derived from resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG) is unknown. These markers are Frontal Alpha Asymmetry, beta suppression, and midline Posterior versus Frontal EEG Theta Activity. METHOD: We assessed the relation among individual differences in the reasons for solitude (i.e., preference for solitude, motivation for solitude), approach-avoidance motivation, and resting-state EEG markers of approach-avoidance motivation (N = 115). RESULTS: General preference for solitude was negatively related to approach motivation, observed in both self-reported measures and EEG markers of approach motivation. Self-determined solitude was positively related to both self-reported approach motivation and avoidance motivation in the social domain (i.e., friendship). Non-self-determined solitude was negatively associated with self-reported avoidance motivation. CONCLUSION: This research was a preliminary attempt to address the neurophysiological underpinnings of solitude in the context of motivation.

4.
Vet Microbiol ; 280: 109708, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36857805

RESUMO

Rabies, caused by rabies virus (RABV), is an ancient zoonotic disease that severely threatens the public health throughout the world. Previous study indicated that interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) plays an important role in RABV infection. However, the mechanism how IL-1ß affects RABV pathogenicity is still unknown yet. In this study, we confirmed that IL-1ß was able to reduce viral titers of RABV in different cells, and the recombinant RABV expressing IL-1ß, designated as rCVS-IL1ß, could be suppressed in different cells due to the expression of IL-1ß. Furthermore, the survival rates of mice infected with rCVS-IL1ß by intramuscular route was significantly higher than those of mice infected with parent virus rCVS, which is associated with the less viral loads for entry into the central nervous system (CNS). We further characterized that the cGAS-STING pathway was activated in rCVS-IL1ß infected bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC), which could contribute to the decreased viral loads of RABV after intramuscular infection. Moreover, we also observed that the expression of IL-1ß by rCVS-IL1ß could compromise the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity by degrading the tight junction proteins, which allowing peripheral inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and CD4+T cells to enter into the brain for the clearance of RABV in the CNS. Together, our study suggests that IL-1ß could attenuate RABV pathogenicity through activating cGAS-STING pathway in to decrease the viral entry into the CNS and enhance the BBB permeability to promote RABV clearance in the CNS as well, which provides new insight into developing effective therapeutics for rabies.


Assuntos
Vírus da Raiva , Raiva , Animais , Camundongos , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Encéfalo , Fatores Imunológicos , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Raiva/veterinária , Vírus da Raiva/genética
5.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 62(2): 725-742, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36266767

RESUMO

Previous research suggests that receiving a charity donation could induce gratitude but threaten self-esteem. We investigated if peer charity donations from typical children benefit or harm the mental health of their left-behind children (LBC) classmates. We recruited children at a school (i.e., intervened school) that organized peer charity donations every semester and three typical schools (i.e., non-intervened school) without such intervention in China. Participants completed the gratitude, self-esteem, depression, and social anxiety scales. A statistical toolbox, "Matchit", randomly selected 420 children aged 9-13 (220 females, 200 males, 213 LBC, 207 non-LBC); there was no significant difference in left-behind status, age, gender, or family economic status (all p > .10) between the intervened and non-intervened groups (210 per group). Structural equation model analyses revealed that gratitude was associated with higher self-esteem, lower social anxiety, and lower depression. Moreover, the intervention effect on self-esteem was significantly positive among the LBC recipients and non-LBC donors. The interaction between intervention and left-behind status was significant on gratitude and depression. Specifically, the intervention effect was not significant on gratitude or depression among the LBC but was significantly negative on gratitude and depression among the non-LBC. Peer charity donation may increase self-esteem among children (recipients or donors) via increased social connection or satisfaction of basic needs, yet decreased gratitude among the donors due to the "moral licensing effect".


Assuntos
Instituições de Caridade , Estudantes , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Autoimagem , China
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35639595

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, motile, aerobic bacterium (strain C21T) was isolated from coral and identified using polyphasic identification approach. Global alignment of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain C21T shares 95.7 % sequence identity to its closest neighbour, Marinibactrum halimedae NBRC 110095T, followed by other type strains with identities of lower than 95 %. The average nucleotide identity and average amino acid identity values between strain C21T and M. halimedae NBRC 110095T were 69.6 and 64.8 %, respectively, indicating that strain C21T may represent a new species in a new genus. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene and phylogenomic results indicated that strain C21T forms a distinct branch in the family Cellvibrionaceae. Cellular fatty acids and polar lipids could also readily distinguish strain C21T from closely related type strains. Therefore, strain C21T is suggested to represent a new species in a new genus, for which the name Sessilibacter corallicola gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is C21T (=MCCC 1K03260T=KCTC 62317T).


Assuntos
Antozoários , Animais , Antozoários/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Imidazóis , Fosfolipídeos/química , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sulfonamidas , Tiofenos
7.
Psych J ; 11(3): 370-375, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193167

RESUMO

Research has demonstrated a relationship between anger and suicidality, while real-time authentic emotions behind facial expressions could be detected during advising hypothetical protagonists in life dilemmas. This study aimed to investigate the predictive validity of anger expressions during advising for suicide risk. Besides advising on life dilemmas (a friend's betrayal, a friend's suicide attempt), 130 adults completed the suicidal scale of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Participants' anger during advice-giving was measured 29 times/s by artificial intelligence (AI)-based software FaceReader 7.1. The results showed that anger was a significant predictor of suicide risk. Increased anger during advising was associated with higher suicide risk. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between suicide risk and duration or length of advising. Therefore, measuring micro expressions of anger with AI-based software may help detect suicide risk among clinical patients in both traditional and online counseling contexts and help prevent suicide.


Assuntos
Ira , Inteligência Artificial , Adulto , Humanos , Estudantes , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12677, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728108

RESUMO

This is the first electroencephalogram study exploring the personal perspective effect on wise advising. Participants advised hypothetical protagonists in life dilemmas from both the 2nd- and 3rd-person perspective. Their advice for each dilemma was rated by two independent raters on wisdom criteria, i.e., metacognitive humility, metacognitive flexibility, and perspective taking. The results revealed that participants felt a significantly shorter psychological distance from protagonists when advising from the 2nd- (vs. the 3rd-) person perspective, p < 0.001. However, there was no significant effect of perspective condition on the wisdom score. Nevertheless, stronger resting-state absolute EEG powers in the frontal lobe were associated with wiser advising from the 2nd-, but not the 3rd-person perspective. Moreover, Z tests revealed that the correlations between the resting-state absolute EEG powers and wisdom scores were significantly stronger during advising from the 2nd- than the 3rd-person perspective. These results suggest that advising from the 2nd-person perspective was more self-related, and mental activities during rest contributed to advising from the 2nd- but not the 3rd-person perspective.


Assuntos
Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Metacognição/fisiologia , Descanso/psicologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Descanso/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2273, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385238

RESUMO

Earth's core oscillations and magnetic field inside the liquid outer core cannot be observed directly from the surface, we can infer these information from the intradecadal variations in Earth's rotation rate defined by length of day. However, the fine time-varying characteristics as well as relevant mechanisms of the intradecadal variations are still unclear. Here we report that the intradecadal variations present a significant 8.6-year harmonic component with an unexpected increasing phenomenon, besides a 6-year decreasing oscillation. More importantly, we find that there is a very good correspondence between the extremes of the 8.6-year oscillation with geomagnetic jerks. The fast equatorial waves with subdecadal periods propagating at Earth's core surface may explain the origin of this 8.6-year oscillation.

10.
J Aging Health ; 26(2): 261-82, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24368296

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the contributions of diseases to disability burden among older persons in China. METHOD: Based on the 2006 China Disability Survey (n = 354,859), we used the attribution method and Sullivan method to obtain disability prevalence and life expectancy with disability (LED) by disease, respectively. RESULTS: At disease group level, ear, eye, circulatory and musculoskeletal diseases, injury, and poisoning were the five leading causes of disability burden in terms of their contributions to disability prevalence and LED. At individual disease level, presbycusis, cataracts, cerebrovascular disease, osteoarthritis, and unclassified injuries were the five leading conditions, which accounted for 64% of disabilities and caused males and females aged 60 to have 3.04 and 3.76 years of LED, respectively. DISCUSSION: Along with the epidemiologic transition, chronic conditions have become the predominant contributor to disability burden among elderly persons in China. And, presbycusis, cataracts, cerebrovascular disease, osteoarthritis, and unclassified injuries should be the priorities in ameliorating disability.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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