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1.
Curr Drug Deliv ; 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Essential oils are poor aqueous solubility and high volatility compounds. The encapsulation of essential oils with cyclodextrins (CDs) can protect them from the adverse environmental conditions and improve their stability. Therefore, increasing the functional capabilities of essential oils when they were used as additives in pharmaceutical and food systems. Additionally, the release of active compounds is an important issue. However, there were few studies about the effect of different CDs on the release of drugs after encapsulation. Therefore, the information on the study of release models is considerably limited. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to (i) characterize the physico-chemical properties and release behavior of myrcene encapsulated in the four different shell matrices of α-CD, ß-CD, γ-CD and 2-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin (HP-ß-CD), which were selected from the perspective of stability, and (ii) determine the release mechanism of myrcene in inclusion complexes (ICs). METHODS: ICs of myrcene and four CDs were prepared by freeze-drying. The physico-chemical properties of ICs were fully characterized by laser diffraction particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The release behaviors of ICs at 50, 60, 70 and 80 °C were determined and described by zero-order or first-order kinetics with the Henderson-Pabis, Peppas, Avrami and Page mathematical models. Moreover, the possible binding modes of ICs were identified with molecular modelling technique. RESULTS: Firstly, the structure of particle size distribution (PSD), FT-IR, DSC and SEM showed that (i) CDs could effectively encapsulate the myrcene molecules, and (ii) the release kinetics were well simulated by Avrami and Page models. Secondly, the release rates of the ICs experienced unsteady state in the early stage, and gradually became almost constants period after 20 hours. Except that the release of myrcene in γ-CD/myrcene belonged to the first-order kinetic, the release models of the remaining three ICs belonged to diffusion mode. Thirdly, the calculated binding energies of the optimized structures for α-CD/myrcene, ß-CD/myrcene, γ-CD/myrcene, and HP-ß-CD/myrcene ICs were -4.28, -3.82, -4.04, and -3.72 kcal/mol, respectively. Finally, the encapsulation of myrcene with α-CD and ß-CD was preferable according to the stability and release characteristics. CONCLUSION: The encapsulation of myrcene was profoundly affected by the type of CDs, and the stability could be improved by complexation with suitable CDs. The binding behavior between guest and CD molecules, and the release profile of the guest molecules could be effectively explained by the kinetics parameters and molecular modelling. This study can provide an effective basis and guide for screening suitable shell matrices.

2.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 692, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differential DNA methylation panel derived from peripheral blood could serve as biomarkers of CRC susceptibility. However, most of the previous studies utilized post-diagnostic blood DNA which may be markers of disease rather than susceptibility. In addition, only a few studies have evaluated the predictive potential of differential DNA methylation in CRC in a prospective cohort and on a genome-wide basis. The aim of this study was to identify a potential panel of DNA methylation biomarkers in peripheral blood that is associated with CRC risk and therefore serve as epigenetic biomarkers of disease susceptibility. METHODS: DNA methylation profile of a nested case-control study with 166 CRC and 424 healthy normal subjects were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The differentially methylated markers were identified by moderated t-statistics. The DNA methylation panel was constructed by stepwise logistic regression and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator in the training dataset. A methylation risk score (MRS) model was constructed and the association between MRS and CRC risk assessed. RESULTS: We identified 48 differentially methylated CpGs sites, of which 33 were hypomethylated. Of these, sixteen-CpG based MRS that was associated with CRC risk (OR = 2.68, 95% CI: 2.13, 3.38, P <  0.0001) was constructed. This association is confirmed in the testing dataset (OR = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.48, 2.74, P <  0.0001) and persisted in both males and females, younger and older subjects, short and long time-to-diagnosis. The MRS also predicted CRC with AUC 0.82 (95% CI: 0.76, 0.88), indicating high accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has identified a novel DNA methylation panel that is associated with CRC and could, if validated be useful for the prediction of CRC risk in the future.

3.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 334, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shotgun metagenomics based on untargeted sequencing can explore the taxonomic profile and the function of unknown microorganisms in samples, and complement the shortage of amplicon sequencing. Binning assembled sequences into individual groups, which represent microbial genomes, is the key step and a major challenge in metagenomic research. Both supervised and unsupervised machine learning methods have been employed in binning. Genome binning belonging to unsupervised method clusters contigs into individual genome bins by machine learning methods without the assistance of any reference databases. So far a lot of genome binning tools have emerged. Evaluating these genome tools is of great significance to microbiological research. In this study, we evaluate 15 genome binning tools containing 12 original binning tools and 3 refining binning tools by comparing the performance of these tools on chicken gut metagenomic datasets and the first CAMI challenge datasets. RESULTS: For chicken gut metagenomic datasets, original genome binner MetaBat, Groopm2 and Autometa performed better than other original binner, and MetaWrap combined the binning results of them generated the most high-quality genome bins. For CAMI datasets, Groopm2 achieved the highest purity (> 0.9) with good completeness (> 0.8), and reconstructed the most high-quality genome bins among original genome binners. Compared with Groopm2, MetaBat2 had similar performance with higher completeness and lower purity. Genome refining binners DASTool predicated the most high-quality genome bins among all genomes binners. Most genome binner performed well for unique strains. Nonetheless, reconstructing common strains still is a substantial challenge for all genome binner. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we tested a set of currently available, state-of-the-art metagenomics hybrid binning tools and provided a guide for selecting tools for metagenomic binning by comparing range of purity, completeness, adjusted rand index, and the number of high-quality reconstructed bins. Furthermore, available information for future binning strategy were concluded.

4.
Acta Biomater ; 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682055

RESUMO

In view of the fact that titanium (Ti)-based implants still face the problem of loosening and failure of the implants caused by the slow biological response, the low osseointegration rate and the implant bacterial infection in clinical application, we designed a cancellous bone-like biomimetic Ti scaffold using the template accumulated by sugar spheres as a pore-forming agent. And based on a modified surface mineralization process and mussel-like adhesion mechanism, a silicon-doped calcium phosphate composite coating (Van-pBNPs/pep@pSiCaP) with Vancomycin (Van)-loaded polydopamine (pDA)-modified albumin nanoparticles (Van-pBNPs) and cell adhesion peptides (GFOGER) was constructed on the surface of Ti scaffold for mimicking the extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment of natural bone matrix to induce greater tissue regeneration. The in vitro study demonstrated that this porous Ti scaffold with functional bio-surface could distinctly facilitate cell early adhesion and spreading, and activate the expression of α2ß1 integrin receptor on the cell membrane through promoting the formation of focal adhesions (FAs) in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), thus mediating greater osteogenic cell differentiation. And it could also effectively inhibit the adhesion and growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis, exhibiting good antibacterial properties. Moreover, the Van-pBNPs/pep@pSiCaP-Ti scaffolds showed enhanced in vivo bone-forming ability due to the contributions of bioactive chemical components and the natural cancellous bone-like macrostructure. This work offers a promising structural and functional bio-inspired strategy for designing metal implants with desirable ability of osteoinduction synergistically with antibacterial efficacy for promoting bone regeneration and infection prevention simultaneously. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: This manuscript describes a new method for making porous Ti scaffolds with a natural cancellous bone-like structure. Besides, a functional bio-surface was constructed on the bionic structure, mimicking some of the functions of the collagen-rich organic matrix and inorganic CaP nanocrystallites of native ECM of bone in chemical components and biological activities. This interconnected inter-pore opening structure encouraged the migration of cells among open macro-pores within the scaffold. In addition, the functionalized surface not only improved early cell adhesion, spreading, stimulated greater osteogenic differentiation of bone-forming cells, but also endowed the scaffold with excellent antibacterial effect. The biomimetic metal implant with multiple biomedical functions designed in this study has a great clinical application potential. This study represents a feasible method for the preparation of biomimetic structure of metal implants and the improvement of their surface biological activity.

5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; : e016512, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715831

RESUMO

Background Results of several longitudinal cohort studies suggested an association between cerebral small-vessel disease and depression. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to explore whether cerebral small-vessel disease imparts increased risk for incident depression. Methods and Results We searched prospective cohort studies relevant to the relationship between cerebral small-vessel disease and incident depression published through September 6, 2019, which yielded 16 cohort studies for meta-analysis based on the relative odds ratio (OR) calculated with fixed- and random-effect models. Baseline white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) (pooled OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.14-1.65), enlarged perivascular spaces (pooled OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.03-1.71), and cerebral atrophy (pooled OR, 2.83; 95% CI, 1.54-5.23) were significant risk factors for incident depression. Presence of deep WMHs (pooled OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.05-2.06) was a stronger predictor of depression than were periventricular WMHs (pooled OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.93-1.86). What's more, the pooled OR increased from 1.20 for the second quartile to 1.96 for the fourth quartile, indicating that higher the WMH severity brings greater risk of incident depression (25th-50th: pooled OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.68-2.12; 50th-75th; pooled OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 0.81-2.46; 75th-100th: OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.06-3.64). These results were stable to subgroup analysis for age, source of participants, follow-up time, and methods for assessing WMHs and depression. Conclusions Cerebral small-vessel disease features such as WMHs, enlarged perivascular spaces, and cerebral atrophy, especially the severity of WMHs and deep WMHs, are risk factors for incident depression.

6.
J Sex Med ; 17(8): 1509-1519, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surveys report low frequencies of sexual history (SH) obtained in primary care. Sexually transmitted infections incidence can be reduced with timely screening. It is important to determine whether providers obtain thorough SH and to identify needs for improvement. AIM: To evaluate the frequency and depth of SH taking in primary care. METHODS: In this cross-sectional cohort study, 1,017 primary care visits were reviewed (1,017 adult patients, female 55.26%). 417 patients were seen by male providers and 600 patients were seen by female providers. Multivariate ordered and logit models were deployed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measures included SH taking rates and completeness based on the 5 P model as described by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. RESULTS: All components of SH were explored in 1.08% of visits. Partial SH was obtained in 33.92% of visits. No SH was taken in the majority of visits (65%). SH was more likely to be taken from female patients than from male patients (P < .001), and was less likely to be obtained from older patients as compared to younger individuals (P < .001). There was no significant difference in SH taking between male and female providers (P = .753). The provider title and the level of training were found to be independent predictors of SH taking (P < .001). CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The results of this study highlight an unmet need for more comprehensive and consistent SH taking amongst providers, particularly in high-risk settings, so that SH can be used as a valuable tool in preventive care. STRENGTHS & LIMITATIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest study to date examining SH taking in the primary care setting. Limitations include the retrospective study design, lack of generalizability to other hospitals, and inconsistencies in available data. CONCLUSION: The SH taking rates in primary care clinics are globally low with a variation depending on the provider position or level of training, provider gender, and patient age. Palaiodimos L, Herman HS, Wood E, et al. Practices and Barriers in Sexual History Taking: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Public Adult Primary Care Clinic. J Sex Med 2020;17:1509-1519.

7.
Biochemistry ; 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650633

RESUMO

The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) is an oxomanganese cluster composed of four redox-active Mn ions and one redox-inactive Ca2+ ion, with two nearby bound Cl- ions. Sodium is a common counterion of both chloride and hydroxide anions, and a sodium-specific binding site has not been identified near the OEC. Here, we find that the oxygen-evolution activity of spinach PSII increases with Na+ concentration, particularly at high pH. A Na+-specific binding site next to the OEC, becomes available after deprotonation of the D1-H337 amino acid residue, is suggested by the analysis of two recently published PSII cryo-electron microscopy maps in combination with quantum mechanical calculations and multiconformation continuum electrostatics simulations.

8.
Comput Biol Med ; 122: 103824, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658729

RESUMO

Data in the medical field often contain missing values and may result in biased research results. Therefore, the objective of this work is to propose a new imputation method, a novel weighted distance threshold method, to impute missing values. After several experiments, we find that the proposed imputation method has the following benefits. (1) The proposed method with purity can reassign instances into the nearest class of the dataset, and the purity computation can filter outliers; (2) The proposed method redefines the degree of missing values and can determine attributes and instances relative to the missing values in different datasets; and (3) The proposed method need not set the k value of the nearest neighborhood because this study identifies the k value based on the best threshold to calculate purity to enhance the results of imputation. In addition, the distance threshold can adjust the optimal nearest neighborhood to estimate missing values. This study implements several experiments to compare the proposed method with other imputation methods using different missing types, missing degrees, and types of datasets. The results indicate that the proposed imputation method is better than the listed methods. Moreover, this study uses the stroke dataset from the International Stroke Trial (IST) to verify whether the proposed method can be effectively applied in practice, and the results show that the proposed method achieves 90% accuracy in the Stroke dataset.

9.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 99, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a public catastrophe and global concern. The main symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, cough, myalgia, fatigue and lower respiratory tract infection signs. Almost all populations are susceptible to the virus, and the basic reproduction number (R0) is 2.8-3.9. The fight against COVID-19 should have two aspects: one is the treatment of infected patients, and the other is the mobilization of the society to avoid the spread of the virus. The treatment of patients includes supportive treatment, antiviral treatment, and oxygen therapy. For patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and circulatory support are recommended. Plasma therapy and traditional Chinese medicine have also achieved good outcomes. This review is intended to summarize the research on this new coronavirus, to analyze the similarities and differences between COVID-19 and previous outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and to provide guidance regarding new methods of prevention, diagnosis and clinical treatment based on autodock simulations. METHODS: This review compares the multifaceted characteristics of the three coronaviruses including COVID-19, SARS and MERS. Our researchers take the COVID-19, SARS, and MERS as key words and search literatures in the Pubmed database. We compare them horizontally and vertically which respectively means concluding the individual characteristics of each coronavirus and comparing the similarities and differences between the three coronaviruses. RESULTS: We searched for studies on each outbreak and their solutions and found that the main biological differences among SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV are in ORF1a and the sequence of gene spike coding protein-S. We also found that the types and severity of clinical symptoms vary, which means that the diagnosis and nursing measures also require differentiation. In addition to the common route of transmission including airborne transmission, these three viruses have their own unique routes of transmission such as fecal-oral route of transmission COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: In evolutionary history, these three coronaviruses have some similar biological features as well as some different mutational characteristics. Their receptors and routes of transmission are not all the same, which makes them different in clinical features and treatments. We discovered through the autodock simulations that Met124 plays a key role in the efficiency of drugs targeting ACE2, such as remdesivir, chloroquine, ciclesonide and niclosamide, and may be a potential target in COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Pneumonia Viral , Receptores Virais/química , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Animais , Antivirais/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Betacoronavirus/ultraestrutura , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Reservatórios de Doenças , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/fisiologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/ultraestrutura , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Vírus da SARS/genética , Vírus da SARS/fisiologia , Vírus da SARS/ultraestrutura , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão
10.
Cancer Res ; 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606006

RESUMO

N6-Methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant modification of mammalian messenger RNAs (mRNA). RNA methylation fine tunes RNA stability and translation, altering cell fate. The fat mass- and obesity-associated protein (FTO) is an m6A demethylase with oncogenic properties in leukemia. Here we show that FTO expression is suppressed in ovarian tumors and cancer stem cells (CSC). FTO inhibited the self-renewal of ovarian CSC and suppressed tumorigenesis in vivo, both of which required FTO demethylase activity. Integrative RNA-sequencing and m6A mapping analysis revealed significant transcriptomic changes associated with FTO overexpression and m6A loss involving stem cell signaling, RNA transcription, and mRNA splicing pathways. By reducing m6A levels at the 3'UTR and the mRNA stability of two phosphodiesterase genes (PDE1C and PDE4B), FTO augmented second messenger 3', 5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling and suppressed stemness features of ovarian cancer cells. Our results reveal a previously unappreciated tumor suppressor function of FTO in ovarian CSC mediated through inhibition of cAMP signaling.

11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 161: 258-270, 2020 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522544

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that remarkably imposes a huge global public health burden. Yeast ß-glucans have been incorporated in functional foods and used in prophylactic applications owing to their biological effects. However, few studies had investigated the effects of yeast ß-glucans on neurodegenerative diseases. Here, gut microbiota and metabolites SCFAs were analyzed through high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing and GC-MS, respectively. Results indicated that yeast ß-glucans could prominently shape the intestinal flora and produce SCFAs. Aß1-42-induced AD mice treated with small-molecular yeast ß-glucan (S-ß-Glu) or macro-molecular yeast ß-glucan (M-ß-Glu) exhibited evident alterations of the composition of the gut microbiota, especially in some beneficial bacteria and inflammatory-related bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Desulfovibrio, Oscillibacter, Mucispirillum, Alistipes, Anaerotruncus, and Rikenella. M-ß-Glu regulated gut microbiota act as prebiotics better than S-ß-Glu. Correlation analysis demonstrated the key microbiota closely associated with AD-related pathologies and cognition. Moreover, M-ß-Glu and S-ß-Glu ameliorated neuroinflammation and brain insulin resistance (IR), which played a central role in the process of AD pathology. This study broadened the underlying applications of yeast ß-glucans as a novel dietary supplementation to prevent early-stage pathologies associated with AD by regulating gut microbiota and the potential mechanism might be ameliorating brain IR.

12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3120, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561727

RESUMO

Hyaluronan is widely used in cosmetics and pharmaceutics. Development of robust and safe cell factories and cultivation approaches to efficiently produce hyaluronan is of many interests. Here, we describe the metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum and application of a fermentation strategy to manufacture hyaluronan with different molecular weights. C. glutamicum is engineered by combinatorial overexpression of type I hyaluronan synthase, enzymes of intermediate metabolic pathways and attenuation of extracellular polysaccharide biosynthesis. The engineered strain produces 34.2 g L-1 hyaluronan in fed-batch cultures. We find secreted hyaluronan encapsulates C. glutamicum, changes its cell morphology and inhibits metabolism. Disruption of the encapsulation with leech hyaluronidase restores metabolism and leads to hyper hyaluronan productions of 74.1 g L-1. Meanwhile, the molecular weight of hyaluronan is also highly tunable. These results demonstrate combinatorial optimization of cell factories and the extracellular environment is efficacious and likely applicable for the production of other biopolymers.

13.
Environ Res ; 188: 109802, 2020 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592940

RESUMO

VOCs emissions from motor vehicles have become a main source of air pollution in many cities. However, the characteristics of VOCs emissions have not been fully elucidated. Ten representative vehicles were selected in Wuhan, China, and the VOCs emitted by these vehicles under actual working conditions were collected and analyzed through on-road tests. Results showed that the average concentrations of total VOCs emitted by gasoline and diesel vehicles were 5.9 ± 2.4 mg/m3 and 6.8 ± 3.0 mg/m3, while the average emission factors were 5.3 ± 2.2 mg/km and 33.9 ± 22.7 mg/km, respectively. The five compounds emitted at the highest levels by gasoline and diesel vehicles were hexanal, acetone, toluene, p-xylene and iso-pentane. Emission concentration of diesel vehicles was slightly higher than that of gasoline vehicles. Emission factor of diesel vehicles was much higher, because they consumed more fuel and produced more power than gasoline vehicles. The average concentrations of total VOCs emitted by China III, IV and V vehicles were 8.4 ± 1.4 mg/m3, 5.8 ± 3.4 mg/m3 and 5.3 ± 1.9 mg/m3, and their average emission factors were 21.7 ± 18.6 mg/km, 19.4 ± 28.9 mg/km and 9.1 ± 7.2 mg/km, respectively. Vehicle emissions decreased obviously as the emission standards increased. The average concentrations of total VOCs emitted under low-speed and high-speed conditions were 9.4 ± 3.5 mg/m3 and 5.5 ± 1.8 mg/m3. Concentrations of acetone, hexanal, toluene and p-xylene were the highest four VOCs under both conditions. The average emission factor of VOCs under high-speed conditions (24.0 ± 13.6 mg/km) was substantially lower than under low-speed conditions (54.0 ± 41.5 mg/km). Thus, tightening emission standards and reducing traffic congestion would help reduce VOCs emissions.

14.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008831, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555673

RESUMO

Conspecific male animals fight for resources such as food and mating opportunities but typically stop fighting after assessing their relative fighting abilities to avoid serious injuries. Physiologically, how the fighting behavior is controlled remains unknown. Using the fighting fish Betta splendens, we studied behavioral and brain-transcriptomic changes during the fight between the two opponents. At the behavioral level, surface-breathing, and biting/striking occurred only during intervals between mouth-locking. Eventually, the behaviors of the two opponents became synchronized, with each pair showing a unique behavioral pattern. At the physiological level, we examined the expression patterns of 23,306 brain transcripts using RNA-sequencing data from brains of fighting pairs after a 20-min (D20) and a 60-min (D60) fight. The two opponents in each D60 fighting pair showed a strong gene expression correlation, whereas those in D20 fighting pairs showed a weak correlation. Moreover, each fighting pair in the D60 group showed pair-specific gene expression patterns in a grade of membership analysis (GoM) and were grouped as a pair in the heatmap clustering. The observed pair-specific individualization in brain-transcriptomic synchronization (PIBS) suggested that this synchronization provides a physiological basis for the behavioral synchronization. An analysis using the synchronized genes in fighting pairs of the D60 group found genes enriched for ion transport, synaptic function, and learning and memory. Brain-transcriptomic synchronization could be a general phenomenon and may provide a new cornerstone with which to investigate coordinating and sustaining social interactions between two interacting partners of vertebrates.

15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(22): e20494, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481463

RESUMO

Aims to explore the interaction between serum selenium level and CYP4F2 and CTRP9 gene polymorphisms in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD).A total of 200 cases of CAD were selected from the Central Hospital of Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Hubei, China, and 200 healthy subjects cases were served as controls. The polymorphism of CYP4F2 and CTRP9 gene was detected by Sanger sequencing, and the serum selenium level was measured by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry.The serum selenium level in the CAD group was significantly lower than that in the control group. The risk of CAD was decreased in the patients carrying the AA genotype in CYP4F2 rs3093135, while the frequency of the CC genotype of CTRP9 rs9553238 in CAD patients was higher than that in control subjects. Low serum selenium level and CTRP9 rs9553238 CC genotype play a positive role in the occurrence of CAD.The serum selenium level is negatively correlated with CAD. The polymorphism of the CYP4F2 rs3093135 and CTRP9 rs9553238 was significantly related to the susceptibility of CAD, and there is a synergistic effect between the serum selenium level and the CTRP9 rs9553238 CC genotype, which significantly increases the risk of CAD.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Família 4 do Citocromo P450/genética , Selênio/sangue , Peptídeos e Proteínas Associados a Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510811

RESUMO

Two dimensional (2D) nanoribbons constitute an emerging nanoarchitecture for advanced microelectronics and energy conversion due to the stronger size confinement effects compared to traditional nanosheets. Triclinic crystalline red phosphorus (cRP) composed by a layered structure is a promising 2D phosphorus allotrope and the tube-like substructure is beneficial to the construction of nanoribbons. In this work, few-layer cRP nanoribbons are synthesized and the effectiveness in the electrochemical nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) is investigated. An iodine-assisted chemical vapor transport (CVT) method is developed to synthesize circa 10 g of bulk cRP lumps with a yield of over 99 %. With the aid of probe ultrasonic treatment, high-quality cRP microcrystals are exfoliated into few-layer nanoribbons (cRP NRs) with large aspect ratios. As non-metallic materials, cRP NRs are suitable for the electrochemical nitrogen reduction reaction. The ammonia yield is 15.4 µg h-1 mgcat. -1 at -0.4 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode in a neutral electrolyte under ambient conditions and the Faradaic efficiency is 9.4 % at -0.2 V. Not only is cRP a promising catalyst, but also the novel strategy expands the application of phosphorus-based 2D structures beyond that of traditional nanosheets.

17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(29): 33139-33151, 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584533

RESUMO

Mimicking human skin's functions to develop intelligent materials have inspired extensive exploration in the design and synthesis of a novel device. However, how to simulate neuron function and integrate highly sensitive, positive perceptions and self-healing into one single material remains a challenge. Here, we prepared a recycled polyurethane (PU) with high tensile strength values (11.37 ± 0.03 MPa), high maximum elongation (1130 ± 11.59%), and high self-healing property (100% for 6 h at 25 °C) and a smart PU composite of polypyrrole-decorated carbon nanotubes with higher sensitivity. The smart composite can not only actively identify physical change such as strain, moisture, and temperature but also proactively detect various chemical environment changes such as acid, alkali, oxidant, and reductant (T: 25-90 °C, ΔR/R0 values were 0.1-1.6; strain: 10-150%, ΔR/R0 values were 2.5-27; 0.01-0.1 mol L-1 oxidant solutions, ΔR/R0 values were 0.66-0.75; 0.01-0.1 mol L-1 reductant solutions, ΔR/R0 values were 0.51-0.65; 0.1-0.5 mol L-1 acid solutions, ΔR/R0 values were 0.54-0.58; and 0.1-0.5 mol L-1 alkali solutions, ΔR/R0 values were 0.42-0.46). More importantly, the signal values of the smart composite can quickly return to the initial values after eliminating physical and chemical stimuli. The abovementioned features of the smart composite, the high physicochemical response, and significant restorability make it potentially possible to apply it in intelligent chemical manufacturing.

18.
Eur J Radiol ; 129: 109119, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593075

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this study, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate the anatomical alterations of cerebral cortex in children with Tourette syndrome (TS) and explore whether such deficits were related with their clinical symptoms. METHODS: All subjects were scanned in a 3.0T MRI scanner with three-dimensional T1-weighted images (3DT1WI). Then, some surface-based features were extracted by using the FreeSurfer software. After that, the between-group differences of those features were assessed. RESULTS: Sixty TS patients and 52 age- and gender-matched healthy control were included in this study. Surface-based analyses revealed altered cortical thickness, cortical sulcus, cortical curvature and local gyrification index (LGI) in TS group compared with healthy controls. The brain regions with significant-group differences in cortical thickness included postcentral gyrus, superiorparietal gyrus, rostral anterior cingulate cortex in the left hemisphere and frontal pole, lateral occipital gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus in the right hemisphere. In addition, the superior temporal gyrus, medial orbitofrontal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, medial orbitofrontal gyrus, superiorparietal gyrus and lateral occipital gyrus showed significant between-group differences for cortical sulcus. Moreover, the brain regions with significant between-group differences in cortical curvature were located in caudal anterior cingulate cortex, supramarginal gyrus, inferior parietal gyrus and lateral occipital gyrus. The alteration of LGI were most prominent in the inferior temporal gyrus and insula. Additionally, there was no statistical difference in brain surface area for TS children compared with controls. CONCLUSION: The results of this study revealed that cortical thickness, sulcus, cortical curvature and LGI were changed in multiple brain regions for children with TS.

19.
Artif Intell Med ; 106: 101872, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593397

RESUMO

Brain network parcellation based on resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) is affected by noise, resulting in spurious small patches and decreased functional homogeneity within each network. Obtaining robust and homogeneous parcellation of neonate brain is more difficult, because neonate rs-fMRI is associated with relatively higher level of noise and no prior knowledge from a functional neonate atlas is available as spatial constraints. To meet these challenges, we developed a novel data-driven Regularized Normalized-cut (RNcut) method. RNcut is formulated by adding two regularization terms, a smoothing term using Markov random fields and a small-patch removal term, to conventional normalized-cut (Ncut) method. The RNcut and competing methods were tested with simulated datasets with known ground truth and then applied to both adult and neonate rs-fMRI datasets. Based on the parcellated networks generated by RNcut, intra-network connectivity was quantified. The test results from simulated datasets demonstrated that the RNcut method is more robust (p < 0.01) to noise and can delineate parcellated functional networks with significantly better (p < 0.01) spatial contiguity and significantly higher (p < 0.01) functional homogeneity than competing methods. Application of RNcut to neonate and adult rs-fMRI dataset revealed distinctive functional brain organization of neonate brains from that of adult brains. Collectively, we developed a novel data-driven RNcut method by integrating conventional Ncut with two regularization terms, generating robust and homogeneous functional parcellation without imposing spatial constraints. A broad range of brain network applications and analyses, especially neonate and infant brain parcellation with noisy and large sample of datasets, can potentially benefit from this RNcut method.

20.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) plays an important role in addressing the issue of plant protection research. In a continuing effort to discover novel HPPD inhibitors, we adopted a bioisosterism strategy to design a series of novel arylthioacetic acid scaffold based on the previously discovered aryloxyacetic acid scaffold. This study sheds new light on the discovery of novel HPPD inhibitors. RESULTS: The compounds A1-A30 and B1-B39 were prepared through an efficient synthetic route for in vitro and glasshouse experiments (herbicidal activities, herbicidal activity spectrum, and crop selectivity). Preliminary bioassay results reveal that these derivatives are promising Arabidopsis thaliana HPPD inhibitors, compounds A11 (Ki = 0.021 µmol L-1 ) and B20 (Ki = 0.022 µmol L-1 ), which exhibit similar activities to that of mesotrione (Ki = 0.020 µmol L-1 ). The glasshouse experiments data indicated that compounds B34 displayed excellent herbicidal activity, which was higher compared to that of mesotrione. Moreover, molecular simulation results show that the compounds B20, B34, and mesotrione shared similar interplay with surrounding residues, which led to a perfect interaction with the active site of Arabidopsis thaliana HPPD. Based on herbicidal results, compound B34 was selected for crop selectivity studies (corn injury ≤ 10%), indicating its potential for weed control in corn fields. CONCLUSION: These bioassay results showed that the compound B34 could be used as a possible lead compound for the development of HPPD inhibitors.

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