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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17147, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574817

RESUMO

The study aims to examine the treatment effect and adverse reactions of patients with newly diagnosed MM receiving different bortezomib-based regimens.This was a retrospective study of patients with newly diagnosed MM and who were treated with bortezomib-based combined chemotherapy at the Department of Hematology of the 2 affiliated hospitals of Wenzhou Medical University between July 2009 and May 2016. Cox proportion hazard multivariate analyses were carried out to assess the differences in treatment effect and adverse events between standard (1.3 mg/m on days 1, 4, 8, 11) and weekly (1.6 mg/m on days 1, 8, 15) cohorts, as well as the differences between intravenous injection and subcutaneous injection therapy. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed using Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test.Among the 117 patients, 78 patients were treated with bortezomib standard therapy and 39 patients were treated with bortezomib weekly therapy (all with intravenous injection). In all patients, the treatment strategy was not independently associated with PFS or OS. The patients in the weekly therapy group had less thrombocytopenia events than those in the standard therapy group. The subcutaneous route had similar treatment effect as the intravenous route, but the incidence of peripheral neuropathy was lower.The once-weekly bortezomib regimen was similar in effectiveness to standard therapy in treating patients with newly diagnosed MM, but the incidence of thrombocytopenia was lower with the weekly regimen compared with the standard regimen.

2.
Adv Ther ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599396

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Seventy-five percent of ovarian cancer would relapse within 18-28 months after platinum-base chemotherapy. Evidence suggests that maintenance chemotherapy is effective in prolonging remission. Recent target therapies such as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPis) and angiogenesis inhibitors (AIs) are known to ease burden and recurrence of ovarian cancer. There is limited data for head-to-head comparison of PARPis, AIs, and chemotherapeutic agents (CTAs) as maintenance treatment. This network meta-analysis thus assessed the effectiveness and toxicity of these three maintenance therapies in patients with ovarian cancer. METHODS: We searched relevant sources (PubMed, EMBASE) to identify randomized controlled trials assessing efficacy and safety of maintenance therapy in patients with ovarian cancer. Primary outcome was progression-free survival (PFS) as assessed by blinded review; safety and tolerability were secondary outcomes. A network meta-analysis to compare three drug classes was performed using statistical software R. RESULTS: We included 24 trials (11,366 patients) assessing efficacy and safety of PARPis (n = 4), AIs (n = 12), and CTAs (n = 8). PARPis [hazard ratio (HR) 0.64; 95% credible intervals (CrI) 0.55-0.73] and AIs (HR 0.87; 95% CrI 0.81-0.93) showed significant improvement in PFS compared to placebo but not CTA (HR 1.00; 95% CrI 0.86-1.15). PARPis showed significant improvement in PFS compared to AIs (HR 0.73; 95% CrI 0.63-0.86) and CTA (HR 0.64; 95% CrI 0.52-0.78). Adverse events (AEs) leading to treatment discontinuation and dose reduction were lower in PARPis [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.60; CrI 0.31-1.18 and IRR 0.73, 95% CrI 0.50-1.06, respectively] compared to AIs, but the differences were not significant. CONCLUSION: PARPi as maintenance treatment improved PFS in ovarian cancer and was relatively safer in terms of implications caused by AEs when compared to AIs. This network meta-analysis provides valuable evidence and significant insights into treatment of ovarian cancer.

3.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e030366, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575574

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), originally introduced as add-on to in vitro fertilisation (IVF) for couples with severe male infertility, is in current clinical practice also used in couples with mild male or even unexplained infertility. However, ICSI has involved unresolved concerns regarding the selection and damage to gametes and the health conditions of the offspring, and it is also labour intensive and therefore more expensive than conventional IVF. High-quality well-powered randomised clinical trials (RCTs) comparing ICSI and IVF are lacking. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We propose a multicentre, open-label RCT in 10 reproductive medical centres across China. We will study couples with non-severe male infertility (defined as a semen concentrate 5-15×106/mL or sperm with a progressive motility 10%-32%) scheduled for their first or second ICSI or IVF cycle, as low fertility rate after fertilisation are more frequent in this population, which could lead to controversy about ICSI or conventional IVF for fertilisation. On the day of oocyte retrieval, eligible participants are after informed consent be randomised to undergo either ICSI or conventional IVF in a 1:1 treatment ratio. Other standard assisted reproductive treatments are similar and parallel between two groups. Our primary outcome is ongoing pregnancy leading to live birth after the first cycle with embryo transfer. To demonstrate or refute a difference of 7% between ICSI and conventional IVF, we need to include 2346 women (1173 in each intervention arm). In addition, we will follow-up neonatal outcomes after delivery to identify the influence of ICSI on offspring. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained from Peking University Third Hospital medical science research ethics committee. The findings will be disseminated to the public through conference presentations and peer-reviewed scientific journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov registry (NCT03298633).

4.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577303

RESUMO

Fabrication of highly crystalline oxide films onto silicon wafers has long been a critical obstacle for integrating multi-functional oxides into silicon-based technology. Herein, Pt/Ti is used as a buffer layer for the integration of highly oriented crystalline LaBaCo2O5+δ (LBCO) thin films onto silicon via pulsed laser deposition. LBCO films are highly (00l) oriented with smooth and sharp LBCO/Pt interfaces. The highly oriented LBCO films exhibit a high magnetic transition temperature (TC) and large coercive field (HC) with superparamagnetism over those deposited on single crystal substrates. What is more, the metallic-like behavior with enhanced magnetoresistance is also observed. The opportunity of using a Pt/Ti buffer layer as the growth template opens an alternative route for integrating functional transition metal oxides with tunable magnetic properties into Si-based technology.

5.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 112019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581133

RESUMO

Two-pore-domain (KCNK, K2P) K+ channels are transmembrane protein complexes that control the flow of ions across biofilms, which underlie many essential cellular functions. Because KCNK family members are known to contribute to tumorigenesis in various types of cancer, we hypothesized that they might be differentially expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells as compared to healthy tissue and serve as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. We tested this hypothesis through bioinformatic analyses of publicly available data for the expression of various KCNK subunits in HCC. We observed reduced expression of KCNK2, KCNK15, and KCNK17 in liver cancer, as well as overexpression of KCNK9, all of which correlated with a better prognosis for HCC patients per survival analyses. Moreover, ROC curves indicated that KCNK2, KCNK9, KCNK15, and KCNK17 levels could be used as a diagnostic biomarker for HCC. Finally, our western blot and qRT-PCR results were consistent with those obtained from bioinformatic analyses. Taken together, these results suggest that KCNK2, KCNK9, KCNK15, and KCNK17 could serve as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of HCC.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583795

RESUMO

The electrophotocatalytic SNAr reaction of unactivated aryl fluorides at ambient temperature without strong base is demonstrated.

7.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 7547-7556, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Cellular immunity plays a crucial role in sepsis, and lymphocyte apoptosis is a key factor in immune homeostasis. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced protein 8-like 2 (TIPE2) is suggested to play a critical role in maintaining immune homeostasis. This study investigated the role of TIPE2 in CD4⁺ T lymphocyte apoptosis based on a mouse model of thermal injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS BALB/c male mice were randomized into 6 groups: sham, burn, burn with siTIPE2, burn with siTIPE2 control, burn with TIPE2, and burn with TIPE2 control groups. Splenic CD4⁺ T lymphocytes were collected by use of a magnetic cell sorting system. RESULTS We found that TIPE2 downregulation reduced the CD4⁺ T lymphocytes apoptosis in the burn with siTIPE2 group, and the protein expression of P-smad2/P-Smad3 were remarkably downregulated. In the burn with siTIPE2 group, Bcl-2 expression was increased compared with that in the sham group (P<0.05), and Bim expression was reduced (P<0.05). In the burn with TIPE2 group, the mitochondrial membrane potential was markedly reduced (P<0.01), while cytochrome C expression was clearly higher than that in the other groups (P<0.01). Activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9 were notably higher in the burn with TIPE2 group relative to those for other groups (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Downregulation of TIPE2 in vivo can reduce the apoptosis of CD4⁺ T lymphocytes following thermal damage, and activate the TGFß downstream signaling of Smad2/Smad3, upregulating Bim, and downregulating Bcl-2.

8.
Nanoscale ; 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591618

RESUMO

The search for suitable anodes with good performance is a key challenge for rechargeable Li- and Na-ion batteries (LIBs and NIBs). In this work, we adopt first-principles calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the ion transport mechanism and potential of C2N stoichiometric nitrogenated holey graphite (C2N-NHG) as a promising anode material for LIBs and NIBs. Although huge in-plane diffusion barriers for both Li and Na ions restrict the application of the C2N-NHG monolayer as an effective anode, Li and Na ions are found to exhibit facile out-of-plane ion transport in the most stable layered AD stacking C2N-NHG. The fully lithiated and sodiated cases of LiC2N and Na0.67C2N show reversible specific capacities up to 587 mA h g-1 and 353 mA h g-1, low chemical potentials of 0.12 V and 0.25 V, and small volume expansions of 7.16% and 13.54%, respectively. Meanwhile, the out-of-plane collective diffusion reduces Li/Na collective migration barriers to 0.23 eV and 0.18 eV. These findings suggest that AD stacking C2N-NHG, with metallic properties after lithiation and sodiation processes, high specific capacity, low open circuit voltage, small volume expansion, and low collective migration barriers, has the potential to serve as a promising high-rate anode material for LIBs and NIBs with large energy density and power density. The calculations reveal that the novel out-of-plane diffusion behaviour plays a crucial role in Li/Na ion transport in holey layered materials.

9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 120: 109500, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Findings from prior investigations show that left stellate ganglion (LSG) inhibitory approaches protect the heart from ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) caused by acute myocardial infarction (AMI), which still remain many side effects. Targeted transient receptor potential vanilloid 1/tyrosine hydroxylase (TRPV-1/TH) expressing sympathetic neurons ablation is a novel neuro-ablative strategy. The aim of this investigation was to explore if targeted molecular neuro-ablative strategy by resiniferatoxin (RTX) stellate microinjection could protect against ischemia-induced VAs. METHODS: Twenty-four anesthetized beagles were assigned to a control group (n = 12) and RTX group (n = 12) in a random manner. Targeted molecular neuro-ablative was produced by RTX stellate microinjection and DMSO was microinjected into LSG in the same way as control. Plasma norepinephrine (NE) level, heart rate variability (HRV), Tpeak-Tend interval (Tp-Te), LSG neural activity and function, ventricular effective refractory period (ERP), beat-to-beat variability of repolarization (BVR) and ventricular action potential duration (APD) were measured at baseline and 60 min after RTX or DMSO microinjection. AMI model was established by the ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery and 60-minute electrocardiography was continuously recorded for VAs analysis. Subsequently, HRV, Tp-Te, plasma NE level from jugular vein and coronary sinus, LSG neural activity and function, ventricular ERP, ventricular APD, BVR, action potential duration alternans (APDA) cycle length and ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT) were evaluated after AMI. Finally, tissue collection of LSG was performed for examining the TRPV-1, nerve growth factor (NGF) protein and c-fos protein. RESULTS: TRPV-1 was highly expressed in the TH-expressing neurons and RTX injection significantly ablated TRPV-1/TH-positive neurons in LSG. Compared with baseline, RTX stellate microinjection significantly reduced plasma NE level, the sympathetic component of HRV, LSG neural activity and LSG function, shortened Tp-Te, prolonged ventricular ERP and APD, but there were no remarkable differences existed for control group. AMI resulted in the significant raise in plasma NE level from jugular vein and coronary sinus, the sympathetic component of HRV, LSG neural activity and LSG function, the marked prolongation in Tp-Te and BVR, the significant decrease in ERP and APD from ischemia area, and the increase in APDA cycle length in the ischemic region of the control group, which were remarkably attenuated in the RTX group. RTX pretreatment markedly rose the VFT in the RTX group. Furthermore, the AMI-triggered VAs was significantly prevented by RTX injection in the RTX group. RTX microinjection down-regulated significantly TRPV-1, NGF and c-fos expression in the LSG compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Targeted ablation of TRPV-1/TH positive sympathetic neurons induced by RTX stellate microinjection could suppress ischemia-induced cardiac autonomic imbalances and cardiac electrophysiology instability to protect against AMI-induced VAs.

10.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 173, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bioemulsifiers are surface-active compounds, which exhibit advantages including low toxicity, higher biodegradability and biocompatibility over synthetic chemical surfactants. Despite their potential benefits, some obstacles impede the practical applications of bioemulsifiers, including low yields and high purification costs. Here, we aimed to exploit a novel protein bioemulsifier with efficient emulsifying activity and low-production cost, as well as proposed a design-bioemulsifier system that meets different requirements of industrial emulsification in the most economical way. RESULTS: The esterase AXE was first reported for its efficient emulsifying activity and had been studied for possible application as a protein bioemulsifier. AXE showed an excellent emulsification effect with different hydrophobic substrates, especially short-chain aliphatic and benzene derivatives, as well as excellent stability under extreme conditions such as high temperature (85 °C) and acidic conditions. AXE also exhibited good stability over a range of NaCl, MgSO4, and CaCl2 concentrations from 0 to 1000 mM, and the emulsifying activity even showed a slight increase at salt concentrations over 500 mM. A design-bioemulsifier system was proposed that uses AXE in combination with a variety of polysaccharides to form efficient bioemulsifier, which enhanced the emulsifying activity and further lowered the concentration of AXE needed in the complex. CONCLUSIONS: AXE showed a great application potential as a novel bioemulsifier with excellent emulsifying ability. The AXE-based-designer bioemulsifier could be obtained in the most economical way and open broad new fields for low-cost, environmentally friendly bioemulsifiers.

11.
Perfusion ; : 267659119871777, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding the potential impact of haematocrit differences in the association between cardiopulmonary bypass reoxygenation and acute kidney injury following Tetralogy of Fallot repair. METHODS: We investigated the association of perfusate oxygenation during aortic occlusion associated with acute kidney injury between 204 normal and 248 higher haematocrit children with Tetralogy of Fallot, aged 1 month-18 years, who were surgically repaired in 2012-2018. Normal and higher haematocrit children were defined as having a preoperative haematocrit within and above age- and sex-specific reference intervals, respectively. Acute kidney injury was determined as a binary variable according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria. RESULTS: After adjusting for baseline and clinical covariates, a significant interaction between the haematocrit and continuous perfusate oxygenation on acute kidney injury was found (pinteraction = 0.049): a higher perfusate oxygenation was associated with a greater acute kidney injury risk among higher haematocrit children (adjusted odds ratio = 1.50, 95% confidence interval = [1.02, 2.22] per SD, p = 0.038) but not among normal haematocrit children (adjusted odds ratio = 0.91, 95% confidence interval = [0.51, 1.63] per SD, p = 0.73). After a similar adjustment, there was a marginal interaction between tertiles of perfusate oxygenation and haematocrit on acute kidney injury (pinteraction = 0.09): the middle and top tertiles of perfusate oxygenation were associated with a trend towards increased acute kidney injury risks among higher haematocrit children (adjusted odds ratio = 1.69, 95% confidence interval = [0.61, 4.66]; adjusted odds ratio = 2.25, 95% confidence interval = [0.84, 5.99], respectively) but not among normal haematocrit children (adjusted odds ratio = 1.16, 95% confidence interval = [0.46, 2.94]; adjusted odds ratio = 0.45, 95% confidence interval = [0.15, 1.36], respectively) compared with the bottom tertile. CONCLUSION: Preoperative haematocrit differences significantly modify the association of perfusate oxygenation with acute kidney injury, highlighting differential control of reoxygenation for different haematocrit children with Tetralogy of Fallot in the management of cardiopulmonary bypass.

12.
Oncol Rep ; 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545454

RESUMO

Distant metastasis is a major cause of cancer­associated mortality in patients with colon cancer. Insulin­like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) has been identified as a crucial inhibitor of human cancer. However, the role of IGFBP7 in the pathogenesis of metastatic colon cancer has not been investigated. In the present study, the expression of IGFBP7 in 81 pairs of colon cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues were investigated using immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, 24 pairs of primary colon cancer and matched liver metastasis tissues were analyzed. LοVο cells with IGFBP7­knockdown and HT­29 cells with IGFBP7­overexpression were employed. The expression levels of E­cadherin, N­cadherin and Vimentin were quantified and compared. Significant alterations in the expression of IGFBP7 between late stage (III + IV) colon cancer and adjacent normal colonic mucosa were observed. (P=0.031). The association between IGFBP7 and epithelial­mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers were validated in primary colon cancer and matched liver metastasis tissues. The invasive front of liver metastatic colon tissues revealed reduced IGFBP7 expression. Additionally, knockdown of IGFBP7 in LοVο cells resulted in decreased E­cadherin, and increased N­cadherin and Vimentin expression compared with the control group. Overexpression of IGFBP7 in HT­29 cells induced an upregulation of E­cadherin; however, the N­cadherin and Vimentin levels were decreased. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that IGFBP7 may prevent colon cancer metastasis by inhibiting EMT, and serves as a potential diagnostic marker and therapeutic target for patients with colon cancer.

13.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; : 104143, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scoring systems have been proved efficacy to stratify stroke and thromboembolism risk in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Whether CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc score has predictive value for the prognosis in lacunar stroke (LS) patients remains unclear. METHODS: A total of 763 consecutive patients with LS (mean age: 66 ± 12 years; 464 male) were enrolled in this study between January 2013 and December 2014. Patients were divided into LS without AF (LS; n = 679) and LS with AF (LS-AF; n = 84) groups. Measures of performance for the risk scores were evaluated at predicting mortality and restroke in LS-AF and LS without AF patients. All patients were evaluated with respect to clinical features and in-hospital clinical results. RESULTS: During the mean follow-up period of 20 ± 5.8 months, 29 patients (3.8%) experienced all-cause death, 105 patients (13.8%) experienced recurrence of ischemic stroke. Multivariate analysis revealed that CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc score were independently associated with all-cause death (all P < .05). On receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, area under the curve (AUC) for CHADS2 score was .942 with a similar accuracy of the CHA2DS2-VASc score (AUC: .908) in predicting mortality in LS-AF patients. Kaplan-Meier curves were conducted according to the cut-off value of CHA2DS2-VASc score. When CHADS2 score greater than or equal to 4 point or CHA2DS2-VASc score greater than or equal to 5 point, the mortality in LS-AF patients was significantly higher compared with those CHADS2 score less than 4 point or CHA2DS2-VASc score less than 5 point. However, after adjusting for clinical covariates, CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc score could not predict both mortality and restroke in LS without AF patients. CONCLUSIONS: The CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc score have excellent predictive value for mortality in LS-AF patients but could not predict both mortality and restroke in LS without AF patients.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478860

RESUMO

Combining data content with visual embellishments, infographics can effectively deliver messages in an engaging and memorable manner. Various authoring tools have been proposed to facilitate the creation of infographics. However, creating a professional infographic with these authoring tools is still not an easy task, requiring much time and design expertise. Therefore, these tools are generally not attractive to casual users, who are either unwilling to take time to learn the tools or lacking in proper design expertise to create a professional infographic. In this paper, we explore an alternative approach: to automatically generate infographics from natural language statements. We first conducted a preliminary study to explore the design space of infographics. Based on the preliminary study, we built a proof-of-concept system that automatically converts statements about simple proportionrelated statistics to a set of infographics with pre-designed styles. Finally, we demonstrated the usability and usefulness of the system through sample results, exhibits, and expert reviews.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478862

RESUMO

Electromyography (EMG)-based interfaces are trending toward continuous, simultaneous control with multiple degrees of freedom. Emerging methods range from data-driven approaches to biomechanical model-based methods. However, there has been no direct comparison between these two types of continuous EMG-based interfaces. The aim of this study was to compare a musculoskeletal model (MM) with two data-driven approaches, linear regression (LR) and artificial neural network (ANN), for predicting continuous wrist and hand motions for EMG-based interfaces. Six able-bodied subjects and one transradial amputee subject performed (missing) metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and wrist flexion/extension, simultaneously or independently, while four EMG signals were recorded from forearm muscles. To add variation to the EMG signals, the subjects repeated the MCP and wrist motions at various upper extremity postures. For each subject, the EMG signals collected from the neutral posture were used to build the EMG interfaces; the EMG signals collected from all postures were used to evaluate the interfaces. The performance of the interface was quantified by Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) and the normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) between measured and estimated joint angles. The results demonstrated that the MM predicted movements more accurately, with higher r values and lower NRMSE, than either LR or ANN. Similar results were observed in the transradial amputee. Additionally, the variation in r across postures, an indicator of reliability against posture changes, was significantly lower (better) for the MM than for either LR or ANN. Our findings suggest that incorporating musculoskeletal knowledge into EMG-based human-machine interfaces could improve the estimation of continuous, coordinated motion.

16.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0221492, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546249

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is the most common and essential serotype that causes salmonellosis in Guizhou province. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and molecular genotyping of 79 S. Enteritidis clinical isolates from 2011 to 2016 in Guizhou, China. Antimicrobial resistance and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of S. Enteritidis clinical isolates were detected by micro broth dilution method against ten classes 16 antimicrobial agents, and molecular genotyping were examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). All (100%) isolates showed resistance to at least one antimicrobial. Resistance to nalidixic acid (98.7%) was the highest, followed by sulfamethoxazole (87.3%) and ampicillin (77.2%). The majority of isolates (92.4%) showed decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Resistance to the third and fourth-generation cephalosporins was observed. Twenty-six AMR profiles were observed, and the predominant AMR profile was ampicillin-streptomycin-sulfamethoxazole-amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-nalidixic acid. A high burden of multidrug resistance (MDR) (81.0%) was found. Seventy-nine S. Enteritidis isolates were divided into 33 different pulsotypes (PTs), and the most frequent PT was PT18. Twenty-six different MLVA types (MTs) were generated with seven VNTR loci analysis of these isolates. The dominant PTs and MTs were persistent during 2011-2016. S. Enteritidis clinical isolates showed higher genetic diversity using PFGE combined with MLVA grouped into 60 PT-MT genotypes. No correlation was observed between genotypes, AMR profiles and geographic location. These data revealed the characteristics of AMR and molecular genotyping of S. Enteritidis clinical isolates in Guizhou province. These results highlight that strengthening the AMR and molecular genotyping surveillance is essential to prevent and control salmonellosis in Guizhou. PFGE combined with MLVA should be powerful tools for the molecular genotyping of S. Enteritidis isolates.

17.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122135, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540787

RESUMO

Microalgae have attracted great attention as a promising sustainable resource for biofuel production. In studies aiming to improve lipid accumulation, many key enzymes involved in lipid biosynthesis were identified and confirmed, but genetic engineering remains a challenge in most species of microalgae. In an alternative approach, various chemical modulators can be used to directly regulate the lipid biosynthesis pathway, with similar effects to gene overexpression and interference approaches, including improving the precursor supply and blocking competing pathways. The produced lipid can be protected from being converted into other metabolites by the chemicals such as lipase inhibitors. In addition, a few chemicals were also demonstrated to greatly influence cell growth and lipid accumulation by indirect regulation of the lipid biosynthesis pathway, such as increasing cell permeability or regulating oxidative stress. Thus, adding chemical modulators can be a useful alternative strategy for improving lipid accumulation in large-scale cultivation of microalgae.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Biocombustíveis , Engenharia Genética , Lipídeos
18.
Autophagy ; 15(11): 2019-2021, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470757

RESUMO

Macroautophagy/autophagy has been demonstrated to play an essential role in embryonic development. However, the role of autophagy during human fetal digestive tract development has not been investigated. Here, by using over 5,000 human embryonic digestive tract cells ranging from 6 weeks to 25 weeks, we explored the dynamic expression of autophagy-related genes at single-cell resolution, and found that the transcriptional activity of autophagy-related genes boosted remarkably and specifically in the early (between 6 and 9 weeks) stages. Interestingly, the small intestine cells at 9 weeks showed the most significant enrichment of autophagy-related genes than any other stages. In summary, our results for the first time revealed that autophagy may play an essential role in the development of the digestive tract, especially for the small intestine, in early human embryos. Abbreviations: GI: gastrointestinal; S-Intes: small intestine; t-SNE: t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding.

19.
J Neuroeng Rehabil ; 16(1): 112, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Establishing gait symmetry is a major aim of amputee rehabilitation and may be more attainable with powered prostheses. Though, based on previous work, we postulate that users transfer a previously-learned motor pattern across devices, limiting the functionality of more advanced prostheses. The objective of this study was to preliminarily investigate the effect of increased stance time via visual feedback on amputees' gait symmetry using powered and passive knee prostheses. METHODS: Five individuals with transfemoral amputation or knee disarticulation walked at their self-selected speed on a treadmill. Visual feedback was used to promote an increase in the amputated-limb stance time. Individuals were fit with a commercially-available powered prosthesis by a certified prosthetist and practiced walking during a prior visit. The same protocol was completed with a passive knee and powered knee prosthesis on separate days. We used repeated-measures, two-way ANOVA (alpha = 0.05) to test for significant effects of the feedback and device factors. Our main outcome measures were stance time asymmetry, peak anterior-posterior ground reaction forces, and peak anterior propulsion asymmetry. RESULTS: Increasing the amputated-limb stance time via visual feedback significantly improved the stance time symmetry (p = 0.012) and peak propulsion symmetry (p = 0.036) of individuals walking with both prostheses. With the powered knee prosthesis, the highest feedback target elicited 36% improvement in stance time symmetry, 22% increase in prosthesis-side peak propulsion, and 47% improvement in peak propulsion symmetry compared to a no feedback condition. The changes with feedback were not different with the passive prosthesis, and the main effects of device/ prosthesis type were not statistically different. However, subject by device interactions were significant, indicating individuals did not respond consistently with each device (e.g. prosthesis-side propulsion remained comparable to or was greater with the powered versus passive prosthesis for different subjects). Overall, prosthesis-side peak propulsion averaged across conditions was 31% greater with the powered prosthesis and peak propulsion asymmetry improved by 48% with the powered prosthesis. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing prosthesis-side stance time via visual feedback favorably improved individuals' temporal and propulsive symmetry. The powered prosthesis commonly enabled greater propulsion, but individuals adapted to each device with varying behavior, requiring further investigation.

20.
Brain Behav Immun ; 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430517

RESUMO

High-fat high-sugar diet-induced obesity can lead to hippocampal inflammation and cognitive deficits, but the detailed underlying mechanism is still not clear. We aim to investigate the role of HMGB1 in hippocampal inflammatory responses and cognitive impairment in high-fat high-fructose diet (HFHFD)-induced obesity. Rats were fed with a normal control diet or an HFHFD diet for 14 weeks. In the last 6 weeks on the diets, the rats were treated with control, or an HMGB1 inhibitor glycyrrhizin, or an anti-HMGB1 neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb). Obesity was induced in the HFHFD-fed rats, which had higher body weight, epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT) weight and caloric efficiency, and lower brain/body weight ratio, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity than the ones on normal diets. In the HFHFD-induced obese rats, the HMGB1 levels in plasma and hippocampus were increased, and the nucleus-to-cytoplasm translocation of HMGB1 was promoted. The hippocampal inflammatory responses were enhanced in the HFHFD-induced obesity, including the activation of TLR4 and NF-κB, the production of IL-1ß, TNF-α and IL-6, as well as the activation of microglia and astrocytes. In addition, the hippocampal cell apoptosis and cognitive impairment were observed in the HFHFD-fed rats. The treatment with glycyrrhizin or HMGB1 mAb successfully decreased the HMGB1 levels in plasma and hippocampus, and prevented the HMGB1 translocation from the nucleus to cytoplasm. Inhibiting HMGB1 by glycyrrhizin or HMGB1 mAb suppressed the hippocampal inflammatory, alleviated the apoptosis and ameliorated the cognitive impairment in HFHFD-fed rats. These findings indicate that HMGB1 mediates the hippocampal inflammation and contributes to the cognitive deficits in HFHFD-induced obesity. Therefore, inhibition of HMGB1 may have beneficial effect in protecting against hippocampal inflammation and cognitive deficits in dietary obesity.

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