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1.
Talanta ; 206: 120211, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514873

RESUMO

Urinary glucose determination using a glucose test strip is simple and convenient in daily self-monitoring of diabetes. However, diabetic patients exhibit acquired impaired color vision (ICV), which results in the inability to discriminate between hues. Even with the assistance of a color chart, it is still not easy for these patients to read the urinary glucose results with the naked eye. In this study, a smartphone camera using an image-based colorimetric detection method was successfully developed for quantitative analysis of urine glucose. A horseradish peroxidase-hydrogen peroxide-3,3'5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (HRP-H2O2-TMB) system was optimized for a reliable and gradual color fading process via a glucose oxidase (GOD) catalyzed oxidation reaction. The color changes of the peroxidase-H2O2 enzymatic reactions in the 96-well microplate were captured by a smartphone RGB camera with subsequent detection of red, green, and blue (RGB) intensities decreasing at each image pixel. The highly quantitative relationships between the glucose concentrations and the color characteristic values of the blue channel of the captured images were successfully established. The high accuracy of this method was demonstrated in urine glucose measurements with a linear response over the 0.039 mg mL-1 to 10.000 mg mL-1 glucose concentration range and a 0.009 mg mL-1 detection limit. The method has great potential as a point-of-need platform for diabetic patients with defective color vision and features high accuracy and low cost.

2.
Talanta ; 207: 120341, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594589

RESUMO

Herein, a sodium hexametaphosphate ((NaPO3)6) modulated fluorescence responsive probe based on the integration of reduced graphene quantum dots (rGQDs) and chitosan (CS) via self-assembly/disassembly for label-free alkaline phosphatase assay was constructed. The cationic-charged CS can couple with anionic rGQDs and quench their fluorescence intensity through electrostatic attraction and structure transformation. This self-assembly system above could be decomposed when (NaPO3)6 present, because (NaPO3)6 could competes with rGQDs for the binding sites on the CS, leading to the disassembly of the rGQDs/CS system, as well as to the system exhibiting a turn-on fluorescence signal. By introducing alkaline phosphatase (ALP) into the system, (NaPO3)6 can be hydrolyzed to give phosphate anions. The decomposition effect of enzymatic products on the rGQDs/CS system is weakened. Thus the self-assembling system shows a decreasing photoluminescence (PL) signal compared with the rGQDs/CS-(NaPO3)6 disassembling system. The concentration of ALP can be reflected by the variation of the PL intensity of rGQDs/CS system mixed with the enzymatic hydrolysis products. The dynamic detection range for ALP is 20-500 mU mL-1, with a detection limit (LOD) of 7.8 mU mL-1. The present fluorescence probe based on the rGQDs/CS system for ALP has excellent selectivity and strong anti-interference capability. When applied to real samples analysis, the present strategy exhibits satisfactory results. In addition, the rGQDs/CS system was used to fabricate paper-based test strips for visual detection of ALP activity, validating its great potential in the application of on-site ALP assays.

3.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(11): e619-e626, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674320

RESUMO

As a result of recent, substantial capacity building, a new landscape for cancer drug trials is emerging in China. However, data on the characteristics of cancer drug trials, and how they have changed over time, are scarce. Based on clinical trials published on the China Food and Drug Administration Registration and Information Disclosure Platform for Drug Clinical Studies, we aimed to systematically review changes over time in clinical trials of cancer drugs in mainland China from 2009 to 2018, to provide insight on the effectiveness of the pharmaceutical industry and identify unmet clinical needs of stakeholders. A total of 1493 trials of 751 newly tested cancer drugs were initiated. Increases over time were observed for the annual number of initiated trials, newly tested drugs, and newly added leading clinical trial units, with a sharp increase after 2016. Of the 1385 trials in which cancer types were identified, solid tumours (325 [23%] trials), non-small-cell lung cancer (232 [17%]), and lymphoma (126 [9%]) were the most common. A markedly uneven distribution was also observed in the geography of leading units with the largest number of leading units located in east China (50 [41%]) and the smallest number located in southwest China (4 [3%]). The growth trends we observed illustrate the progress in and increasing capability of cancer drug research and development achieved in mainland China over the decade from 2009. The low number of clinical trials on tumours with epidemiological characteristics unique to the Chinese population and the unbalanced geographical distribution of leading clinical trial units will provide potential targets for policy makers and other stakeholders. Further research efforts should address cancers uniquely relevant to Chinese populations, globally rare cancers, and the balance between equitable drug access, efficiency, and sustainability of cancer drug research and development in mainland China.

4.
Appl Opt ; 58(28): 7774-7780, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674459

RESUMO

A compact, low-cost, and highly sensitive optical fiber hydrophone (OFH) based on an incident-angle sensing mechanism (IA-OFH) was demonstrated. An off-center positioned collimator was used for light emitting and receiving, which is very sensitive to the incident angle due to the very small beam divergence of the collimator. Moreover, owing to the angle-sensitive detection (without using any optical interference effect), precise control on the light wavelength and the cavity length is no longer needed, which can greatly simplify the device fabrication and the interrogation system. A quartz IA-OFH with a detection limit of 0.7 mPa/Hz1/2, a dynamic range of ∼110 dB, and a response bandwidth over 1.0 MHz was experimentally demonstrated.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689417

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of home-based rehabilitation on improving physical function in home-dwelling patients after a stroke. DATA SOURCES: Various electronic databases, including PubMed, CINAL, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and two Chinese datasets (i.e., Chinese Electronic Periodical Services and China Knowledge Resource Integrated) were searched for studies published before March 20, 2019. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized controlled trials conducted to examine the effect of home-based rehabilitation on improving physical function in home-dwelling patients with a stroke and published in English or Chinese were included. In total, 49 articles in English (n=23) and Chinese (n=26) met the inclusion criteria. DATA EXTRACTION: Data related to patient characteristics, study characteristics, intervention details, and outcomes were extracted by two independent reviewers. DATA SYNTHESIS: A random-effects model with a sensitivity analysis showed that home-based rehabilitation exerted moderate improvements on physical function in home-dwelling patients with a stroke (g = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45∼0.70). Moderator analyses revealed that those stroke patients of a younger age, of a male gender, with a first-ever stroke episode, in the acute stage, and receiving rehabilitation training from their caregiver showed greater improvements in physical function. CONCLUSIONS: Home rehabilitation can improve functional outcome in stroke survivors and should be considered appropriate during discharge planning if continuation care is required.

6.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2465, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681335

RESUMO

Background: Treg cells represent important viral reservoirs during chronic HIV infection. CD39 is closely involved in Treg-mediated immunosuppressive effects. However, CD39 expression on nTregs and mTregs and a relationship with HIV DNA levels during HIV infection is still unclear. In this study, we analyzed the distribution of HIV DNA in Treg subsets and the association between HIV DNA and CD39 expression on Treg subsets. Methods: Sixty-two HIV-infected patients with different HIV stages and 14 uninfected individuals were enrolled. nTregs (CD4+CD25+CD127lowCD45RO-) and mTregs (CD4+CD25+CD127lowCD45RO+) were isolated by magnetic selection and flow cytometric sorting. HIV DNA was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). CD39 expression on nTregs and mTregs was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: Higher levels of HIV DNA were detected in mTregs than those in nTregs during chronic HIV infection. The frequency of CD39+ nTregs and HIV DNA levels in nTregs were increased in patients with advanced HIV infection. Furthermore, HIV DNA levels in nTregs correlated positively with CD39+ nTreg frequency. CD39+ nTreg frequency was also increased in immune non-responders. Conclusions: mTregs and nTregs are both important reservoirs of virus during chronic HIV infection and HIV DNA levels increase in nTregs in patients with advanced HIV infection. We observed increased frequency of CD39+ nTregs and HIV DNA levels in nTregs in patients with advanced HIV infection. HIV DNA levels in nTregs correlated positively with CD39+ nTreg frequency.

7.
BMC Med Genomics ; 12(1): 157, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preimplantation genetic testing for monogenic defects (PGT-M) has been available in clinical practice. This study aimed to validate the applicability of targeted capture sequencing in developing personalized PGT-M assay. METHODS: One couple at risk of transmitting Usher Syndrome to their offspring was recruited to this study. Customized capture probe targeted at USH2A gene and 350 kb flanking region were designed for PGT-M. Eleven blastocysts were biopsied and amplified by using multiple displacement amplification (MDA) and capture sequencing. A hidden Markov model (HMM) assisted haplotype analysis was performed to deduce embryo's genotype by using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in each sample. The embryo without paternal rare variant was implanted and validated by conventional prenatal or postnatal diagnostic means. RESULTS: Four embryos were diagnosed as free of father's rare variant, two were transferred and one achieved a successful pregnancy. The fetal genotype was confirmed by Sanger sequencing of fetal genomic DNA obtained by amniocentesis. The PGT-M and prenatal diagnosis results were further confirmed by the molecular diagnosis of the baby's genomic DNA sample. The auditory test showed that the hearing was normal. CONCLUSIONS: Targeted capture sequencing is an effective and convenient strategy to develop customized PGT-M assay.

8.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695190

RESUMO

Simultaneous profiling of transcriptome and chromatin accessibility within single cells is a powerful approach to dissect gene regulatory programs in complex tissues. However, current tools are limited by modest throughput. We now describe an ultra high-throughput method, Paired-seq, for parallel analysis of transcriptome and accessible chromatin in millions of single cells. We demonstrate the utility of Paired-seq for analyzing the dynamic and cell-type-specific gene regulatory programs in complex tissues by applying it to mouse adult cerebral cortex and fetal forebrain. The joint profiles of a large number of single cells allowed us to deconvolute the transcriptome and open chromatin landscapes in the major cell types within these brain tissues, infer putative target genes of candidate enhancers, and reconstruct the trajectory of cellular lineages within the developing forebrain.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612698

RESUMO

Flexible photodetectors (PDs) prepared with silicon-based materials have received considerable attention for their use in a wide range of portable and wearable applications. In this study, we present the first free-standing flexible PD based on sulfur-hyperdoped ultrathin silicon, which was fabricated using a femtosecond laser in a SF6 atmosphere. It is found that the fabricated device exhibits excellent performance of broadband photoresponse from 400 to 1200 nm, with a peak responsivity of 63.79 A/W @ 870 nm at a low bias voltage of -2 V, corresponding to an external quantum efficiency reaching 9092%, which surpasses most values reported for silicon-based flexible PDs. In addition, the device shows a fast response speed (rise time τr = 68 µs) and stable detection performance with good mechanical flexibility. The high-performance PD described here suggests a promising way in flexible applications for sensors, imaging systems, and optical communication systems.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569382

RESUMO

Background: Workplace violence in the health care sector has become a growing global problem. Research has shown that although caregivers comprise a high-risk group exposed to workplace violence, most of them lacked the skills and countermeasures against workplace violence. Therefore, through a quasi-experimental design, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of situational simulation training on the nursing staffs' concept and self-confidence in coping with workplace violence. Methods: Workplace violence simulation trainings were applied based on the systematic literature review and the conclusions from focus group interviews with nursing staff. Data were obtained from structured questionnaires including: (1) baseline characteristics; (2) perception of aggression scale (POAS); and (3) confidence in coping with patient aggression. Results: The results revealed that training course intervention significantly improved the nursing staffs' self-perception and confidence against workplace violence (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The "simulation education on workplace violence training" as the intervention significantly improved the workplace violence perception and confidence among nursing staffs in coping with aggression events.

11.
Health Care Women Int ; : 1-16, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658000

RESUMO

Our paper is a narrative synthesis of the health belief model (HBM), which was developed in the early 1950s by social psychologists Hochbaum, Rosenstock, and Kegels working in the US Public Health Services. The HBM has been adapted to explore various long- and short-term health behaviors. In this narrative synthesis, we provide the analysis of the utilization of HBM and cervical cancer screening in Africa from 2009 to 2017 and critically evaluate the HBM in the context of different African countries. We also elucidate cervical cancer screening behavior among women living in Africa through a compassionate approach. Our results provide insights into individuals' health-seeking behavior and their place of residence, which provide valuable evidence for the development of further preventative medicine.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(43): 40196-40203, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573173

RESUMO

In this study, the impact of moisture on the electrical characteristics of an amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistor (a-IGZO TFT) was investigated. In commercial applications of such TFTs, high stability and quality performance in humid environments are essential. During TFT operation under ambient moisture, the electrolysis of water molecules occurs via the tip electric field effect. Hydrogen diffuses from the etch-stop layer or back-channel into the main channel under a negative electric field. The hydrogen atoms act as shallow donors (which causes the carrier concentration in the channel to rise), causing the threshold voltage (VTH) to shift in the negative direction. Hydrogen diffusion from the overlap of the source/drain and gate electrodes to the channel center caused by the tip electric field induces a significant barrier lowering and VTH shifts in a short-channel device. However, under negative bias stress (NBS) in ambient moisture, the negative VTH shift is more obvious in short- than in long-channel devices, indicating suppressed hydrogen diffusion in long-channel devices. This is attributed to the electrolysis of water by the tip electric field at the source, drain, and gate electrodes, which causes hydrogen to diffuse to the center of the channel. Here, a novel physical model of the capacitance-voltage (C-V) electrical property changes under ambient moisture is proposed, based on the early appearance of abnormalities in the C-V measurements. The electrolysis of water caused by the tip electric field and electrical abnormalities caused by hydrogen diffusion into the a-IGZO active layer are explained by this model. A secondary-ion mass spectrometry analysis shows that hydrogen content in the channel generally increases under NBS in ambient moisture. The degradation behavior due to moisture in a-IGZO is clarified. Thus, inhibiting the tip electric field may benefit future flexible-display and gas-sensing applications.

13.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; : 104441, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627995

RESUMO

OBJECT: Ischemic stroke readmission within 90 days of hospital discharge is an important quality of care metric. The readmission rates of ischemic stroke patients are usually higher than those of patients with other chronic diseases. Our aim was to identify the ischemic stroke readmission risk factors and establish a 90-day readmission prediction model for first-time ischemic stroke patients. METHODS: The readmission prediction model was developed using the extreme gradient boosting (XGboost) model, which can generate an ensemble of classification trees and assign a predictive risk score to each feature. The patient data were split into a training set (5159) and a validation set (911). The prediction results were evaluated with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and time-dependent ROC curve, which were compared with the outputs from the logistic regression (LR) model. RESULTS: A total of 6070 adult patients (39.6% female, median age 67 years) without any ischemic attack (IS) history were included, and 520 (8.6%) were readmitted within 90 days. The XGboost-based prediction model achieved a standard area under the curve (AUC) value of .782 (.729-.834), and the best time-dependent AUC value was .808 in 54 days for the validation set. In contrast, the LR model yielded a standard AUC value of .771 (.714-.828) and best time-dependent AUC value of .797. CONCLUSIONS: The XGboost model obtained a better risk prediction for 90-day readmission for first-time ischemic stroke patients than the LR model. This model can also reveal the high risk factors for stroke readmission in first-time ischemic stroke patients.

14.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 147: 111752, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630033

RESUMO

The sensitive and efficient strategy remains a central challenge for early diagnosis of pathogenic bacteria. Herein, an ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor was proposed based on the multiple amplification strategy via the 3D DNA walker, rolling circle amplification (RCA) and hybridization chain reaction (HCR) for the accurate detection of Escherichiacoli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7). Firstly, the target sequence extracted from E. coli O157:H7 was transformed and amplified by the DNA walker firstly. Subsequently, a large number of transformed nucleic acid sequences were amplified by the RCA reaction. And then, the progress of HCR was triggered by every fragment in RCA products to form a long double-stranded DNA sequence to immobilize electrochemical indicators, generating a significantly enhanced electrochemical signal. As expected, a high sensitivity with a detection limit of 7 CFU/mL was achieved based on the proposed multiple amplification strategy, which is superior to most current methods for E. coli O157: H7 assay. The multiple amplification strategy could be readily expanded for the detection of various pathogenic bacteria, providing a new approach for early diagnosis of pathogenic microorganisms or other diseases.

15.
AIDS ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634199

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: CD4CD19 conjugates play an important role in regulating antibody responses and follicular helper T cells development in animal models. However, little is known regarding the characteristic of CD4CD19 conjugates in humans with chronic HIV-1 infection. METHODS: The numbers of CD4CD19 conjugates were counted in 86 HIV-1-infected patients, including 66 typical progressors (TPs) and 20 complete responders (CRs). CD4CD19 conjugates were sorted by flow cytometry and dissociated into CD4 T singlets and CD19 B singlets. The phenotypes of these cells were analyzed in both TPs and CRs, and the levels of HIV-1 DNA in CD4CD19 conjugates were measured in 10 CRs. RESULTS: We identified CD4CD19 cells were one type of T-B conjugates in peripheral blood, and the numbers and percentages of CD4CD19 conjugates decreased with HIV-1 disease progression. Phenotypic analysis showed CD4CD19 conjugates expressed higher levels of surface CD32. mRNA analysis found that the mRNA levels for CD32b were significantly higher compared with CD32a in CD4CD19 conjugates. Further analysis found CD4CD19 conjugates expressed high levels of CCR7 and CXCR5 than CD4 T and CD19 B singlets. Virus infectivity assay showed CD4CD19 conjugates expressed higher levels of HIV-1-p24 than CD4CD19 cells. CD4CD19 conjugates in lymph node from TPs expressed higher levels of HIV-1-p24 than CD4CD19 conjugates in respective peripheral blood. Importantly, CD4CD19 conjugates from CRs contained higher levels of HIV-1 DNA than total CD4 T cells. CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that CD4CD19 conjugates actively participate in HIV-1 infection and latency, and may serve as a new cellular target to eliminate latency.

17.
Vet Res ; 50(1): 76, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578154

RESUMO

Edwardsiella piscicida is a severe fish pathogen. Haem utilization systems play an important role in bacterial adversity adaptation and pathogenicity. In this study, a speculative haem utilization protein, HutZEp, was characterized in E. piscicida. hutZEp is encoded with two other genes, hutW and hutX, in an operon that is similar to the haem utilization operon hutWXZ identified in V. cholerae. However, protein activity analysis showed that HutZEp is probably not related to hemin utilization. To explore the biological role of HutZEp, a markerless hutZEp in-frame mutant strain, TX01ΔhutZ, was constructed. Deletion of hutZEp did not significantly affect bacterial growth in normal medium, in iron-deficient conditions, or in the presence of haem but significantly retarded bacterial biofilm growth. The expression of known genes related to biofilm growth was not affected by hutZEp deletion, which indicated that HutZEp was probably a novel factor promoting biofilm formation in E. piscicida. Compared to the wild-type TX01, TX01ΔhutZ exhibited markedly compromised tolerance to acid stress and host serum stress. Pathogenicity analysis showed that inactivation of hutZEp significantly impaired the ability of E. piscicida to invade and reproduce in host cells and to infect host tissue. In contrast to TX01, TX01ΔhutZ was defective in blocking host macrophage activation. The expression of hutZEp was directly regulated by the ferric uptake regulator Fur. This study is the first functional characterization of HutZ in a fish pathogen, and these findings suggested that HutZEp is essential for E. piscicida biofilm formation and contributes to host infection.

18.
Molecules ; 24(20)2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618892

RESUMO

Icariin is a prenylated flavonol glycoside isolated from Epimedium herb, and has been shown to be its main bioactive component. Recently, the antidepressant-like mechanism of icariin has been increasingly evaluated and demonstrated. However, there are few studies that have focused on the involvement of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/serine-threonine protein kinase (AKT) signaling in mediating the perimenopausal depression effects of icariin. Perimenopausal depression is a chronic recurrent disease that leads to an increased risk of suicide, and poses a significant risk to public health. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of icariin on the expression of the PI3K-AKT pathway related to proteins in a rat model of perimenopausal depression. Eighty percent of the left ovary and the entire right ovary were removed from the model rats. A perimenopausal depression model was created through 18 days of chronic unpredictable stimulation, followed by the gavage administration of target drugs for 30 consecutive days. We found that icariin administered at various doses significantly improved the apparent symptoms in the model rats, increased the organ indices of the uterus, spleen, and thymus, and improved the pathological changes in the ovaries. Moreover, icariin administration elevated the serum levels of female hormone estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and interleukin (IL)-2, decreased those of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteotropic hormone (LH), promoted the expression levels of estrogen receptor (ER) and ERα in the hypothalamus, and increased those of serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), and noradrenaline (NA) in the brain homogenate. Furthermore, icariin elevated the expression levels of AKT, phosphorylation-akt (p-AKT), PI3K (110 kDa), PI3K (85 kDa), and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) in the ovaries, and inhibited those of Bax. These results show that icariin administration rebalanced the disordered sex hormones in perimenopausal depression rats, regulated the secretion of neurotransmitters in the brain, boosted immune function, and improved the perimenopausal syndrome. The mechanism of action may be related to the regulation of the expression of PI3K-AKT pathway-related proteins.

19.
J Mater Chem B ; 7(42): 6508-6514, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576898

RESUMO

In this work, a fluorometric and colorimetric analysis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was developed based on nanozymes. The nanozymes were composed of nucleotides (ATP, ADP and AMP) coordinated with copper ions. All three kinds of nanozymes (ATP-Cu, ADP-Cu and AMP-Cu) exhibited polyphenol oxidase (PPO)-mimic activity by catalyzing a chromogenic reaction of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DP) and 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AP). However, there were obvious differences in the PPO-like activity and the fluorescence of the three nanozymes produced from the same concentration of nucleotides (keeping the concentration of Cu2+ unchanged at 5 mM). The catalytic activities of produced ADP-Cu and AMP-Cu were obviously higher than that of ATP-Cu at a certain nucleotide concentration of 3 mM. In addition, when ATP was hydrolyzed into ADP and AMP by ALP, more nanozymes were produced and the catalytic activity of the system was enhanced, which resulted in an obvious increase of the colorimetric signal. The signal intensity was proportional to ALP concentration in the range of 0-30 U L-1, and the detection limit for ALP was 0.3 U L-1 from the colorimetric detection. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity of the produced nanozymes was also proportional to the ALP concentration in the range of 1-30 U L-1 and the detection limit was 0.45 U L-1 from the fluorescence detection. A fluorometric and colorimetric sensing ALP method was thus established. The method showed a high selectivity for ALP activity compared with proteins, amino acids and other interference components. Furthermore, the proposed method was also used to detect ALP activity in human serum samples, which showed great potential for diagnostic and practical purposes.

20.
ChemSusChem ; 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593617

RESUMO

Transition metal carbides and/or nitrides (MXenes), a burgeoning group of 2 D layer-structure compounds, have multiple merits, such as high electrical conductivity, tunable layer structure, small band gap, and functionalized redox-active surface, and are receiving significant attention as one of the most promising class of energy storage materials. The synthesis methods, structural configuration, and surface chemistry of MXenes directly influence their performance. This Minireview focuses on interfacial structure design and functionalization of MXenes and MXene-based energy storage materials and the effect of structural configuration and surface chemistry on their electrochemical performance. Additionally, the structure-property relationships between interfacial structure, functional group, interlayer spacing, and the corresponding energy storage performance are summarized in detail. Finally, light is shed on the perspectives for the future research on advanced MXene-based energy storage materials including scientific and technical challenges.

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