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1.
Carbohydr Polym ; 227: 115323, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590841

RESUMO

Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) has many advantages over plant cellulose, which make it widely used in many fields, especially in the food industry. In this study, three strains including BCA263, BCC529, and P1 were selected for characteristics analysis of BNCs under static and agitated culture conditions. The BNCs produced under static culture condition were in the shape of uniform membrane, while BNCs produced under agitated culture were in form of small agglomerates and fragments. BCA263 and BCC529 strains were more suitable for static culture, while P1 strain was more suitable for agitated culture. BNCs produced under static culture condition exhibited higher crystallinity, stronger tensile strength, denser network structure, higher temperature resistance and good flame retardancy; while BNCs produced under agitated culture condition exhibited larger porous and lower crystallinity. Furthermore, BNCs produced under agitated culture condition were more suitable as a stabilizer of coffee milk beverage.

2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17798, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689858

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Dieulafoy disease of the bronchus is a rare vascular deformity. To the best of our knowledge, reports of these involving both lung vascular are hitherto absent. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 67-year-old male was admitted to our department due to agnogenic hemoptysis. DIAGNOSES: Bronchoscopy was performed and some smooth, pulsatile nodular lesions were found in the middle and lower lobes, Computed tomography angiography of the bronchial artery confirmed a left bronchial artery arising from the aortic arch at T4 level, and both bronchial arteries were dilated and tortuous. INTERVENTIONS: Bronchial artery embolization was performed successfully. OUTCOMES: The patient was discharged with no hemoptysis. In addition, patient is under follow-up until today without any further incidents. LESSONS: This case reminds us that Dieulafoy disease of the bronchus could be a potential etiology for unexplained hemoptysis. The clinician should be aware of this disease when bronchoscopy revealed multiple some smooth, pulsatile nodular lesions, thereafter, bronchoscope biopsy should be avoided, as it could lead to fatal hemoptysis.

3.
Theranostics ; 9(24): 7313-7324, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695770

RESUMO

Hypoxia is a key hallmark of solid tumors and tumor hypoxia usually contributes to cancer progression, therapeutic resistance and poor outcome. Accurately detecting and imaging tumor hypoxia with high spatial resolution would be conducive to formulating optimized treatment plan and thus achieving better patient outcome. Methods: Tumor hypoxia can cleave the azo linker and release a NIR fluorophore (NR-NH2) and release the active drug as well. NR-NH2 shows a strong absorption band at around 680 nm and a strong fluorescence band at 710 nm, allowing for both multispectral optoacoustic tomography imaging (MSOT) and fluorescent imaging of tumor hypoxia in a tumor-bearing mouse model. Results: Liposome encapsulated with the activatable chromophore (NR-azo) for detecting/imaging tumor hypoxia and for tumor inhibition was demonstrated. For this chromophore, a xanthene-based NIR fluorophore acts as the optoacoustic and fluorescent reporter, an azo linker serves as the hypoxia-responsive moiety and a nitrogen mustard as the therapeutic drug. NR-azo shows an absorption at around 575 nm but exhibits negligible fluorescence due to the existence of the strong electron-withdrawing azo linker. Conclusion: We demonstrated an optoacoustic and fluorescent system for not only imaging tumor hypoxia in vivo but also achieving tumor inhibition.

4.
Cells ; 8(11)2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703440

RESUMO

Trichinella spiralis maintains chronic infections within its host, involving a variety of immunomodulatory properties, the mechanisms of which have not been completely elucidated. In this study, we found that T. spiralis infection induced strong regulatory T cell responses through parasite excretory-secretory (ES) products, characterized by increase of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ and CD4+CD25-Foxp3+ Treg cells accompanied by high levels of IL-10 and TGF-ß. T. spiralis adult worm excretory-secretory products (AES) and muscle larvae excretory-secretory products (MES) were both able to activate BMDCs in vitro to facilitate their maturation and to create regulatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-ß. The T. spiralis AES- and MES-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) possessed abilities not only to present antigens to sensitized CD4+ T cell to stimulate their proliferation but also to induce naive CD4+ T cells to differentiate to Treg cells secreting IL-10 and TGF-ß. The passive transfer of T. spiralis AES- and MES-pulsed bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) conferred the naive mice to acquire the differentiation of Treg cells. T. spiralis AES possesses a better ability to induce Treg cells than did MES, although the latter has the ability to induce CD4+CD25-Foxp3+ Treg cells. The results obtained in this study suggested that T. spiralis ES products stimulate the differentiation of host Treg cells possibly through activating dendritic cells to create a regulatory environment that benefits the survival of the parasite in the host.

5.
Nanotoxicology ; : 1-19, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703536

RESUMO

Mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes (MAMs) are central microdomains of the ER that interact with mitochondria. MAMs provide an essential platform for crosstalk between the ER and mitochondria and play a critical role in the local transfer of calcium (Ca2+) to maintain cellular functions. Despite the potential uses of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO-NPs) in biomedical applications, the hepatotoxicity of these nanoparticles (NPs) is not well characterized and little is known about the involvement of MAMs in ER-mitochondria crosstalk. We studied SPIO-NPs-associated hepatotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, human normal hepatic L02 cells were exposed to SPIO-NPs (2.5, 7.5, and 12.5 µg/mL) for 6 h and SPIO-NPs (12.5 µg/mL) was found to induce apoptosis. In vivo, SPIO-NPs induced liver injury when mice were intravenously injected with 20 mg/kg body weight SPIO-NPs for 24 h. Based on both in vitro and in vivo studies, we found that the structure and Ca2+ transport function of MAMs were perturbated and an accumulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in MAMs fractions was increased upon treatment of SPIO-NPs. The interaction between COX-2 and the components of MAMs, in terms of IP3R-GRP75-VDAC1 complex, was also revealed. Furthermore, the role of COX-2 in SPIO-NPs-associated hepatotoxicity was investigated by modifying the expression of COX-2. We demonstrated that COX-2 increases the structural and functional ER-mitochondria coupling and enhances the efficacy of ER-mitochondria Ca2+ transfer through the MAMs, thus sensitizing hepatocytes to a mitochondrial Ca2+ overload-dependent apoptosis. Taken together, our findings link SPIO-NPs-triggered hepatotoxicity with ER-mitochondria Ca2+ crosstalk which is mediated by COX-2 and provide mechanistic insight into the impact of interorganelle ER-mitochondria communication on hepatic nanotoxicity.

6.
Chin J Nat Med ; 17(10): 746-755, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703755

RESUMO

To investigate the effect of Yiqi Wenyang (YQWY) decoction on reversing cardiac hypertrophy induced by the transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Wistar rats aged 7-8 weeks were subjected to TAC surgery and then randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 5/group): Sham group, TAC group, low-dose group and high dose group. After 16-week intragastric administration of YQWY decoction, the effect of YQWY decoction on alleviating cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was examined by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), hematoxylin/eosin (HE), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) staining, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blot (WB), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF), respectively. The results showed significant differences in left ventricle volume-diastole/systole (LV Vol d/s), N-terminal pro-B-type brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) (P < 0.01), Ejection Fraction (EF), LV mass and fractional shortening (FS) (P < 0.05) between YQWY-treated group and TAC group. HE and WGA staining showed that treatment with YQWY decoction dramatically prevented TAC-induced cardiomycyte hypertrophy. Moreover, the results of WB, IHC and IF indicated that administration of YQWY could suppress the expressions of cardiac hypertrophic markers, which included the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), BNP and myosin heavy chain 7 (MYH7) (P < 0.05) and inhibit phosphorylation of GATA binding protein 4 (P-GATA4) (P < 0.05), phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (P-ERK) (P < 0.05), phosphorylation of P38 mitogen activated protein kinase (P-P38) (P < 0.05) and phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (P-JNK) (P < 0.05). Thus, we concluded that YQWY decoction suppressed cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and reversed the impaired heart function, and the curative effects of YQWY decoction were associated with the decreased phosphorylation of GATA4 and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), as well as the reduced expression of the downstream targets of GATA4, including ANP, BNP, and MYH7.

7.
Prog Neurobiol ; : 101721, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704315

RESUMO

Although exogenous nerve growth factor demonstrated great potential for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment, its therapeutic effect and underlying cytological mechanism were not fully elucidated so far. We employed a controlled, prospectively designed modified single prolonged stress mice model to investigate the role of exogenous nerve growth factor on the modified single prolonged stress induced PTSD-like symptoms and hippocampal cytoarchitecture impairment, as well as the potential neuronal signaling modulation. We discovered that the modified single prolonged stress-exposure induced significant PTSD-like symptoms as well as mildly impaired hippocampal Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) subregion cytoarchitecture, but not dentate gyrus neurogenesis, together with a gradual inhibition of TrkA-CREB-ERK signalings in hippocampal CA1 subregion. Nerve growth factor (NGF) treatment dose-dependently ameliorated the modified single prolonged stress induced PTSD-like symptoms. NGF increased the cytoplasm/nucleus ratio and improved the neuronal plasticity, mainly via the TrkA-CREB-ERK pathway. Our study offered the translational evidence for the potential application of exogenous NGF for treating or early preventing PTSD after stress exposure.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are several studies comparing the difference between adenocarcinoma (AC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) of lung cancer. However, seldom studies compare the different overall survival (OS) between AC and SqCC at same clinical or pathological stage. The aim of the study was to investigate the 5-year OS between AC and SqCC groups. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Taiwan Society of Cancer Registry. There were 48,296 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients analyzed between 2009 and 2014 in this retrospective study. We analyzed both the AC and SqCC groups by age, gender, smoking status, Charlson co-morbidity index (CCI) score, clinical TNM stage, pathological stage, tumor location, histologic grade, pleura invasion, performance status, treatment, stage-specific 5-year OS rate in each clinical stage I-IV and causes of death. We used propensity score matching to reduce the bias. RESULTS: The AC and SqCC groups are significantly different in age, gender, smoking status, CCI score, clinical TNM stage, pathological stage, tumor location, histologic grade, pleura invasion, performance status, treatment, stage-specific 5-year OS rate in each clinical stage and causes of death (p < 0.0001). The stage-specific 5-year OS rates between AC and SqCC were 79% vs. 47% in stage I; 50% vs. 32% in stage II; 27% vs. 13% in stage III; 6% vs. 2% in stage IV, respectively (all p values < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: AC and SqCC have significantly different outcomes in lung cancer. We suggest that these two different cancers should be analyzed separately to provide more precise outcomes in the future.

9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1465, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide and causes a tremendous disease burden. Temperature is an important environmental determinant among the many risk factors for IHD. However, the emerging temperature-related health risks of IHD in the elderly is limited because of the lack of estimates that integrate global warming and demographic change. METHODS: Data on daily IHD deaths in the elderly aged ≥65 years and meteorological conditions were collected in Tianjin, a megacity of China, from 2006 to 2011. First, the baseline relationship between the temperature and years of life lost (YLL) from IHD was established. Then, future assessments were performed in combination with temperature projections for 19 global-scale climate models (GCMs) under 3 representative concentration pathways (RCPs) for the 2050s and 2070s. RESULTS: Increased YLL from IHD in the elderly was found to be associated with future ambient temperatures. The annual temperature-related YLL from IHD in the 2050s and 2070s were higher than the baseline. For instance, increases of 4.5, 14.9 and 38.3% were found under the RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, respectively, in the 2070s. The most significant increases occurred in warm season months. The increase in heat-related YLL will not be completely offset, even with the 25% adaptation assumed. When considering demographic change, the temperature-related disease burden of IHD in the elderly will be exacerbated by 158.4 to 196.6% under 3 RCPs in the 2050s and 2070s relative to the baseline. CONCLUSIONS: These findings have significant meaning for environmental and public health policy making and interventions towards the important issue of the health impacts of global warming on the elderly.

10.
J Spinal Cord Med ; : 1-5, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603731

RESUMO

Context: Syphilitic meningomyelitis is a rare manifestation of neurosyphilis, not well described in the literature. Methods: We reported a rare case of a 29-year-old female with syphilitic meningomyelitis. Her clinical manifestations and imaging findings were discussed with the related literatures reviewed. Results: The patient presented with progressive bilateral lower extremities numbness and weakness for months. Laboratory tests revealed positive serum Treponema pallidum Hemagglutinin Test (TPHA) and rapid plasma reagin test (RPR). The cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) was positive with TPHA but negative for RPR with lymphocytic pleocytosis and elevated protein. Spinal MRI showed swelling and high-signal intensity of thoracic spinal cord except T6-7 level with associated gadolinium enhancement ("flip-flop sign") and peripheral strip-like enhancement on T1WI ("candle guttering appearance"). She was initially diagnosed as spinal cord tumor due to the chronic clinical onset and cord swelling with central enhancement found on thoracic MRI. After dramatic clinical and radiographic improvement with dexamethosone and serological tests of syphilis, she was diagnosed as probable syphilitic meningomyelitis. Till now, there are 12 cases of syphilitic myelitis reported with spinal cord MR images. Thoracic cord is the predominant involved segment (10/12), "candle guttering appearance" is the most common enhancing characteristics of the lesion (7/12), "flip-flop sign" may be seen in the stage with significant inflammation (3/12). Conclusion: Syphilitic meningomyelitis can occur at early or late stage of syphilis, the onset may be acute, subacute or chronic. The imaging findings suggested focal inflammation of the spinal cord. Prognosis is relatively good after proper treatment.

11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609598

RESUMO

The novel PFOS alternatives, 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (F-53B) and sodium p-perfluorous nonenoxybenzenesulfonate (OBS), are emerging in the Chinese market, but little is known about their ecological risks. In this study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to PFOS, F-53B, and OBS to evaluate their bioconcentration and acute metabolic consequences. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) accumulated in larvae in the order of F-53B > PFOS > OBS, with the bioconcentration factors ranging from 20 to 357. Exposure to F-53B and PFOS, but not OBS, increased energy expenditure, and reduced feed intake in a concentration-dependent manner and the expression of genes involved in metabolic pathways at the transcriptional and translational levels. Molecular docking revealed that the binding affinities of PFASs to glucokinase were decreased in the following order: F-53B > PFOS > OBS. Finally, the results of Point of Departure (PoD) indicate that metabolic end points at the molecular and organismal level are most sensitive to F-53B followed by PFOS and OBS. Collectively, F-53B has the highest bioconcentration potential and the strongest metabolism-disrupting effects, followed by PFOS and OBS. Our findings have important implications for the assessment of early developmental metabolic effects of PFOS alternatives F-53B and OBS in wildlife and humans.

12.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15252, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649331

RESUMO

Involuntary admission (IA) is limited to particular situations in mental health laws to protect patients from unnecessary coercion. China's first national mental health law has been in effect since 2013; however, the status of IA has not been sufficiently explored. To explore the changing patterns of IA since the clinical application of the IA criteria specified in the new law, an investigation of IA status was undertaken in 14 periods (each period lasting for one month from 05/2013 to 05/2017) in the tertiary specialized psychiatric hospital in Shanghai. The socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of 3733 patients were collected. The differences among IA rates in different periods were compared, and the characteristics of patients who were and were not involuntarily admitted were analysed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to clarify the independent variables of IA. The IA rate dramatically decreased after the implementation of the new law, while the overall trend gradually increased. The implementation of the IA risk criteria is effective, but IA is still common in China. The medical factors influencing IA following the implementation of the new law are similar to those in previous studies at home and abroad. Non-medical factors might be the main causes of the high IA rates in Chinese psychiatric institutions.

13.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 17(1): 69, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Endothelium is a key element in the regulation of vascular homeostasis and its alteration can lead to the development of vascular diseases. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease with potential extensive vascular lesions, involving skin vessels, renal glomeruli, cardiovascular system, brain, lung alveoli, gastrointestinal tract vessels and more. We aimed to assess endothelial dysregulation related biomarkers in pediatric-onset SLE (pSLE) patient serum and elucidate its correlation with their clinical features, laboratory parameters, and the overall disease activity. METHODS: Disease activities were evaluated by SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI). Patient characteristics were obtained by retrospective chart review. Six biomarkers associated with endothelial dysregulation, including Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), Tie2, Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), thrombomodulin, and a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motif (ADAMTS13) were tested through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) measurement. RESULTS: This study comprised 118 pSLE patients. Data from 40 age-matched healthy controls were also obtained. The mean diagnostic age was 13 ± 4.12 years-old and 90.7% are females. Serum levels of VEGF, Tie2, thrombomodulin were significantly higher while serum ADAMTS13 was lower in active pSLE patients when compared to those with inactive diseases (all p < 0.05). In organ specific association, serum thrombomodulin level was higher in pSLE patient with renal involvement, and serum ADAMTS13 levels was negatively associated with neurological involvement (p < 0.05). A cutoff of thrombomodulin at 3333.6 pg/ml best correlated renal involvement. (AUC = 0.752, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Endothelial dysregulation associating proteins seems to be potent biomarkers for pSLE activity as well as organ involvement in pSLE patients. These biomarkers may be beneficial in understanding of the vascular pathogenesis and disease monitoring.

14.
Am Heart J ; 217: 121-130, 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risks and benefits of pharmacologic treatment and operative closure of patent ductus arteriosus (O-PDA) in premature infants remain controversial. Recent series have demonstrated the feasibility of transcatheter PDA closure (TC-PDA) in increasingly small infants. The effect of this change on practice has not been evaluated. METHODS: A multicenter observational study of infants treated in neonatal intensive care units in hospitals contributing data to the Pediatric Health Information Systems Database from January 2007 to December 2017 was performed to study trends in the propensities for (1) mechanical closure of PDA and (2) TC-PDA versus O-PDA, as well as interhospital variation in practice. RESULTS: A total of 6,214 subjects at 44 hospitals were studied (5% TC-PDA). Subject median gestational age was 25 weeks (interquartile range: 24-27 weeks). Median age at closure was 24 days (interquartile range: 14-36 days). The proportion of all neonatal intensive care unit patients undergoing either O-PDA or TC-PDA decreased (3.1% in 2007 and 0.7% in 2017, P < .001), whereas the proportion in which TC-PDA was used increased significantly (0.1% in 2007 to 29.0% in 2017). Case-mix-adjusted multivariable models similarly demonstrated increasing propensity to pursue TC-PDA (odds ratio [OR] 1.66 per year, P < .001) with acceleration of the trend after 2014 (OR 2.46 per year, P < .001) as well as significant practice variation (P < .001, median OR 4.6) across the study period. CONCLUSIONS: In the face of decreasing closure of PDA, the use of TC-PDA increased dramatically with significant practice variability. This demonstrates that there is equipoise for potential clinical trials.

15.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0222919, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in patients diagnosed with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) via the application of the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. Patients with a diagnosis of SNHL was enrolled in the study group after exclusion and a propensity score matched group without SNHL was served as the control group with a 1:2 ratio. The main outcome was regarded as the emergence of AMD diagnostic codes. Cox proportional hazard regression was applied to analyze the incidence and adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of AMD in the multivariate model. A total of 15,686 patients with SNHL were included in the study group while another 31,372 non-SNHL patients served as the control group. After a follow-up interval up to 16 years, there were 484 AMD events occurred in the study group and 660 AMD cases in those non-SNHL patients with a significantly higher aHR compared to the control group after adjusting for multiple potential risk factors (aHR: 1.399, 95% CI: 1.244-1.574). Other prominent risk factors for AMD included older age, ischemic heart disease, hyperlipidemia, Alzheimer's disease, liver disease and kidney disease. Besides, a higher cumulative probability of AMD was observed in the study group (log-rank P <0.0001). CONCLUSION: The patients with SNHL demonstrated a higher incidence of developing AMD.

16.
J Affect Disord ; 261: 49-57, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have revealed the abnormal static functional connectivity (FC) among different brain regions in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). However, little is known about the dynamic changes of FC in patients with GAD. METHODS: This study investigated the whole-brain dynamic changes of FC in patients with GAD by combining global FC density (FCD) and sliding window correlation analyses. The standard deviation of dynamic FCD (dFCD) was calculated to evaluate its temporal variability along time. Support vector regression was then employed to predict the symptom severity of patients based on abnormal dynamic connectivity patterns. RESULTS: The abnormal dFCD variability between 81 GAD patients and 80 healthy controls showed that the patients had higher dFCD variability in the bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and left hippocampus while lower dFCD variability in the right postcentral gyrus. The abnormal dFCD variability of the left dmPFC is an important feature for anxiety prediction. LIMITATIONS: The selection of sliding window length remains controversial, and most of our patients have been treated with medications. Future studies are expected to rule out the potential confounding effects from applying different parameters of the sliding window and recruiting large samples of medication-free patients. CONCLUSION: The altered patterns of time-varying brain connectivity in the frontolimbic and sensorimotor areas may reflect abnormal dynamic neural communication between these regions and other regions of the brain, which may deepen our understanding of the disease.

17.
Bioresour Technol ; 295: 122241, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627067

RESUMO

An anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactor (AO-MBR), an anaerobic side-stream reactor (ASSR) coupled MBR (A-MBR), and an MBR with ASSR packed with carriers (AP-MBR) were operated parallelly to investigate biological nutrient removal, microbial community structure and mass balance of nutrients in sludge reduction systems. Compared to AO-MBR, A-MBR and AP-MBR were both efficient in COD and NH4+-N removal, had significantly higher nitrogen removal, reduced sludge production by 35.0% and 45.9%, but deteriorated biological phosphorus removal. Nitrosomonadaceae and Nitrospira were major bacteria responsible for ammonium and nitrite oxidation in the three systems. Inserting ASSR and packing carriers both favored denitrifying bacteria enrichment and organic substances release, and thus resulted in higher nitrate uptake rate (NUR) in the anoxic tank. Higher endogenous NUR in ASSR than in anoxic tank also indicated that ASSR and carriers both accelerated sludge decay. Denitrification and sludge reduction occurred in ASSR played important roles in biological nutrient removal.

18.
Biol Open ; 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615770

RESUMO

This study was to investigate the heterogeneity and plasticity of porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) and pulmonary interstitial macrophages (IM) isolated from healthy pigs, including phenotype, function and gene expression. Dynamic changes of nitric oxide (NO) levels secreted by PAM and IM with stimulation of different doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were investigated by Griess method and the viability of the PAM and IM cells was investigated by MTT assay. The flow cytometry, fluorescence quantitative PCR and ELISA techniques were used to measure cell phenotype, gene expression and cytokine secretion, respectively. The PAM and IM cells in normal healthy pigs showed heterogeneity with (95.42±1.51) % and (31.99±5.84) % of CD163+ macrophage, respectively. The NO level in IM was significantly higher versus PAM after LPS treatment. Consistently, the ratio of Arg I/iNOS in IM was much lower than that in PAM, suggesting that the PAM belongs to M2 macrophages and IM belongs to M1 macrophages. The PAM and IM cells in normal healthy pigs also showed plasticity. The Arg I/iNOS ratio and TIMP1/MMP12 ratio were significantly decreased in LPS or LPS+IFNγ treated PAM and IM, suggesting that cells were polarized towards M1 macrophages under LPS or LPS+IFNγ stimulation. On the contrary, IL-4 and IL-13 stimulation on PAM and IM leaded to M2 polarization. Similar result was found in IL-1ß gene expression and TNFα secretion. In conclusion, porcine macrophages have shown heterogeneity and plasticity on polarization under the stimulation of LPS, IFNγ, IL-4 and IL-13.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617899

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The ability to identify novel risk factors for health outcomes is a key strength of electronic health record (EHR)-based research. However, the validity of such studies is limited by error in EHR-derived phenotypes. The objective of this study was to develop a novel procedure for reducing bias in estimated associations between risk factors and phenotypes in EHR data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The proposed method combines the strengths of a gold-standard phenotype obtained through manual chart review for a small validation set of patients and an automatically-derived phenotype that is available for all patients but is potentially error-prone (hereafter referred to as the algorithm-derived phenotype). An augmented estimator of associations is obtained by optimally combining these 2 phenotypes. We conducted simulation studies to evaluate the performance of the augmented estimator and conducted an analysis of risk factors for second breast cancer events using data on a cohort from Kaiser Permanente Washington. RESULTS: The proposed method was shown to reduce bias relative to an estimator using only the algorithm-derived phenotype and reduce variance compared to an estimator using only the validation data. DISCUSSION: Our simulation studies and real data application demonstrate that, compared to the estimator using validation data only, the augmented estimator has lower variance (ie, higher statistical efficiency). Compared to the estimator using error-prone EHR-derived phenotypes, the augmented estimator has smaller bias. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed estimator can effectively combine an error-prone phenotype with gold-standard data from a limited chart review in order to improve analyses of risk factors using EHR data.

20.
Genet Epidemiol ; 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583758

RESUMO

Genetic interactions have been recognized as a potentially important contributor to the heritability of complex diseases. Nevertheless, due to small effect sizes and stringent multiple-testing correction, identifying genetic interactions in complex diseases is particularly challenging. To address the above challenges, many genomic research initiatives collaborate to form large-scale consortia and develop open access to enable sharing of genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. Despite the perceived benefits of data sharing from large consortia, a number of practical issues have arisen, such as privacy concerns on individual genomic information and heterogeneous data sources from distributed GWAS databases. In the context of large consortia, we demonstrate that the heterogeneously appearing marginal effects over distributed GWAS databases can offer new insights into genetic interactions for which conventional methods have had limited success. In this paper, we develop a novel two-stage testing procedure, named phylogenY-based effect-size tests for interactions using first 2 moments (YETI2), to detect genetic interactions through both pooled marginal effects, in terms of averaging site-specific marginal effects, and heterogeneity in marginal effects across sites, using a meta-analytic framework. YETI2 can not only be applied to large consortia without shared personal information but also can be used to leverage underlying heterogeneity in marginal effects to prioritize potential genetic interactions. We investigate the performance of YETI2 through simulation studies and apply YETI2 to bladder cancer data from dbGaP.

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