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1.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 894840, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35498711

RESUMO

Numerous studies have shown that plant shading can promote the quality of green tea. However, the association of shading with metabolic regulation in tea leaves and roots remains unelucidated. Here, the metabolic profiling of two tea cultivars ("Xiangfeicui" and "Jinxuan") in response to shading and relighting periods during the summer season was performed using non-targeted metabolomics methods. The metabolic pathway analyses revealed that long-term shading remarkably inhibit the sugar metabolism such as glycolysis, galactose metabolism, and pentose phosphate pathway in the leaves and roots of "Xiangfeicui," and "Jinxuan" were more sensitive to light recovery changes. The lipid metabolism in the leaves and roots of "Xiangfeicui" was promoted by short-term shading, while it was inhibited by long-term shading. In addition, the intensity of the flavonoid metabolites in the leaves and roots of "Jinxuan" were upregulated with a trend of rising first and then decreasing under shading, and five flavonoid synthesis genes showed the same trend (F3H, F3'5'H, DFR, ANS, and ANR). Simultaneously, the amino acids of the nitrogen metabolism in the leaves and roots of the two cultivars were significantly promoted by long-term shading, while the purine and caffeine metabolism was inhibited in the leaves of "Xiangfeicui." Interestingly, CsGS1.1 and CsTSI, amino acid synthase genes was upregulated in the leaves and roots of two cultivars. These results indicated that shading could participate in carbon and nitrogen metabolic regulation of both leaf and root, and root metabolism could have a positive association with leaf metabolism to promote the shaded tea quality.

2.
Eat Weight Disord ; 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071328

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The main objective of the study was to translate, validate, and compare the Chinese ORTO scales (ORTO-15 and ORTO-R). The secondary objective was to assess factors that may be related with risk of orthorexia nervosa (ON). METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted on March-to-June 2021 for ORTO-15 and April 2022 for ORTO-R. ORTO questionnaires were translated into Chinese using the forward-backward-forward method. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), discriminant validity and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to examine the construct validity of the questionnaires. The internal consistency was assessed using the Cronbach alpha coefficient and the test-retest reliability. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to explore potential factors related with ON scores. RESULTS: Totally, 1289 and 1084 eligible participants were included for assessment of ORTO-15 and ORTO-R, with the mean age of 20.9 ± 2.0 years and 21.0 ± 2.3 years. The internal consistency of Chinese ORTO-15 scale and ORTO-R scale were both satisfactory (α = 0.79, ICC = 0.79; α = 0.77, ICC = 0.82). However, all ORTO-15 models showed a poor fit using CFA whereas the ORTO-R was characterized by acceptable goodness-of-fit. Multivariate linear regression indicated that physical activities and mental disorders were positively associated with ON risk assessed by both ORTO-R and ORTO-15. CONCLUSION: The Chinese ORTO-R scale was a more reliable tool to screen for ON tendencies than the Chinese version of ORTO-15. Mental disorders and physical activities might be associated with the increased ON risk. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level V (descriptive cross-sectional study).

3.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 7(8): 1571-1573, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36051368

RESUMO

Chalcophora japonica chinensis Schaufuss, 1879 (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a common pine pest in Chongqing, Fujian, Yunnan, and other in China. The mitochondrial genome of C. japonica is 15,759 bp in size. The genome includes 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), and two ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs). The overall GC content of the mitogenome is 32.0%. The results showed that C. japonica was most related to Chrysochroa fulgidissima, Trachys variolaris, and Agrilus mali. The full mitochondrial genome of C. japonica is now available, allowing researchers to better understand the species' genetic evolution and regulatory strategies.

4.
Front Mol Biosci ; 9: 959738, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36046602

RESUMO

Targeted therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an effective strategy, but currently, there are very limited therapeutic targets for AML treatment. Ferroptosis is strongly related to drug resistance and carcinogenesis. However, there are few reports about ferroptosis in AML. This article explores the relationship between ferroptosis-related gene (FRG) expression and prognosis in AML patients from the FerrDb and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) databases. The ferroptosis-related gene ARNTL was observed to have high expression and poor prognosis in AML. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis revealed the predictive accuracy of the signature. The area under the time-dependent ROC curve (AUC) was 0.533 at one year, 0.619 at two years, and 0.622 at three years within the training cohort. Moreover, we found that the ARNTL expression is closely associated with tumor-infiltrating immune cells like the macrophages and NK cells. Inhibiting the ARNTL expression suppressed colony formation and induced ferroptosis in AML cells. Overall, the survival prediction model constructed based on ARNTL accurately predicted the survival in AML patients, which could be a potential candidate for diagnosing and treating AML.

5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15222, 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36075924

RESUMO

We aim to investigate the association of mood disorders with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This retrospective cohort study used data from 2000 and 2016 from National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan. Patients with AMD diagnosis formed the exposed group, and an age- and sex-matched group without AMD served as the nonexposed group. Main outcomes were the incidence of mood disorders including psychological counseling, behavior therapy, sleep or anxiety-related disorders, and major depressive disorders (MDDs) in the exposed and non-exposed groups. The Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to evaluate the incidence and adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of mood disorders. A total of 5916 and 11,832 individuals with and without AMD were enrolled into the exposed and nonexposed groups. There were 1017 (17.19%) and 1366 (11.54%) episodes of mood disorders occurred in the exposed and nonexposed groups, respectively. The aHRs of any psychological counseling, behavioral therapy, sleep or anxiety-related disorders, and MDD were significantly higher in patients with AMD than in those without AMD (all P < 0.05). Besides, patients with dry-AMD, participants aged 50-70 years, and women with AMD had a higher incidence of mood disorders (all P < 0.05) than did non-AMD individuals, patients > 70 years, and women without AMD. In conclusion, AMD occurrence leads to an increased rate of mood disorders, particularly among those with dry-AMD, middle aged participants (aged 50-70), and women.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Atrofia Geográfica , Degeneração Macular , Estudos de Coortes , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Feminino , Atrofia Geográfica/complicações , Humanos , Incidência , Degeneração Macular/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Humor/complicações , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080374

RESUMO

The TDM of voriconazole which exhibits wide inter-individual variability is indispensable for treatment in clinic. In this study, a method that high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry cubed (HPLC-MS3) is first built and validated to quantify voriconazole in human plasma. The system is composed of Shimadzu Exion LCTM UPLC coupled with a Qtrap 5500 mass spectrometer. The separation of voriconazole is performed on a Poroshell 120 SB-C18 column at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min remaining 7 min for each sample. The calibration curves are linear in the concentration range of 0.25-20 µg/mL. Intra-day and inter-day accuracies and precisions are within 8.0% at three concentrations, and the recoveries and matrix effect are all within accepted limits. In terms of stability, there is no significant degradation of voriconazole under various conditions. The HPLC-MS3 and HPLC-MRM (multiple reaction monitoring) methods are compared in 42 patients with Passing-Bablok regression and Bland-Altman plots, and the results show no significant difference between the two methods. However, HPLC-MS3 has a higher S/N (signal-to-noise ratio) and response than the MRM. Finally, the HPLC-MS3 assay is successfully applied to monitor the TDM (therapeutic drug monitoring) of voriconazole in human plasma, and this verifies that the dosing guidelines for voriconazole have been well implemented in the clinic and patients have received excellent treatment.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Voriconazol
7.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080439

RESUMO

A sensitive and rapid bioanalytical method based on the LC-triple-stage fragmentation (LC-MS3) strategy on a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer in combination with protein precipitation extraction for sample pretreatment has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of the antiepileptic drug oxcarbazepine (OXC) and its main active metabolite (MHD) in human serum. The separation was performed on a Waters XBridge BEH C18 column (2.5 µm, 2.1 × 50 mm) in isocratic elution with 0.1% formic acid in water and methanol (50:50, v:v) as the mobile phase. The run time for each sample was 2.0 min. The calibration curves ranging from 25 to 1600 ng/mL for OXC and from 0.5 to 32 µg/mL for MHD showed correlation coefficients (r) better than 0.99. All of the validation data, such as precision, accuracy and other parameters, fit the requirements of the current bioanalytical method validation guidelines. The LC-MS3 method for quantitation of OXC and MHD was compared with the LC-MRM based method. Passing-Bablok regression coefficients and Bland-Altman plots showed that the developed LC-MS3 method is a reliable method for quantitative analysis of OXC and MHD. The proposed LC-MS3 method was successfully applied to determine the serum concentrations of OXC and MHD to support a clinical study.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Epilepsia , Carbamazepina/uso terapêutico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Oxcarbazepina , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
8.
J Oncol ; 2022: 5632744, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36090890

RESUMO

Background: Anlotinib is a novel multitarget tyrosine kinase inhibitor for tumor angiogenesis and has antitumor activity in a variety of solid tumors. Given that, our study was designed to unearth the mechanism of anlotinib in radioresistant esophageal cancer (EC) cells. Methods: Radioresistant EC cell lines TE-1R and KYSE-150R were established by multiple fractionated irradiation. Detection of cell proliferation was governed by the MTT assay, angiogenesis by the tube formation assay, and cell migration and invasion by the transwell assay. Lastly, RT-qPCR Western blotting was employed to detect the expression of related genes. Cancerous cells showing tumor growth were then detected by tumor xenografts in mice. Results: Radioresistant EC cell lines TE-1R and KYSE-150R were successfully established. Anlotinib downregulated EphA2 inhibited proliferation, angiogenesis, migration, and invasion of radioresistant EC cells in vitro. The up-regulated expression of EphA2 in both EC cell lines and radioresistant EC cells, along with anlotinib, in turn, inhibited the expression of EphA2 in radioresistant EC cells. Inhibiting EphA2 also enhanced anlotinib-mediated effects on radioresistant EC cells, so as to restrain cell proliferation, angiogenesis, migration, and invasion. Correspondingly, overexpression of EphA2 is capable of reversing the therapeutic effect of anlotinib on radioresistant EC cells. Also, anlotinib enhances the inhibitory effect of irradiation on mice. Conclusion: It is concluded that anlotinib inhibits EphA2 expression, thereby suppressing angiogenesis and resensitizing EC cells to radiotherapy, providing another perspective to overcome radioresistance in EC.

9.
Front Oncol ; 12: 961939, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091112

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the clinical efficacy of bile-derived liquid biopsy compared with plasma and tumor tissue biopsy in patients with biliary tract carcinoma (BTC). Methods: A total of 13 patients with BTC were enrolled in this cohort. Tumor tissue, bile, and plasma samples were obtained and analyzed using next-generation sequencing for genomic profiling. Results: Bile and plasma samples were collected from all 13 patients, and 11 patients also had matched tumor tissues available. The cell-free DNA (cfDNA) concentration was significantly higher in the bile supernatant than in plasma (median: 1918 vs. 63.1 ng/ml, p = 0.0017). The bile supernatant and pellet had a significantly higher mean mutation allele frequency (MF) than plasma (median: 3.84% vs. 4.22% vs. 0.16%; p < 0.001). Genomic alterations were predominantly missense. Both bile supernatant and pellet had significantly more genomic alterations than plasma (average: 9.3 vs. 7.2 vs. 2.3 alterations per sample; p < 0.01). Among the top 10 most frequent genomic alterations, the consistency between bile supernatant and tumor tissue was 90.00% (18/20), that between bile pellet and tumor tissue was 85.00% (17/20), and that between the plasma and tissue was only 35.00% (7/20). MAF of both bile supernatant and pellet was positively correlated with that in tissue samples (ρ < 0.0001, spearman r = 0.777, and ρ < 0.0001, spearman r = 0.787, respectively), but no significant correlation with tissue was found in the plasma (ρ = 0.966, spearman r = 0.008). Furthermore, additional genomic alterations could be detected in bile supernatant and pellet than in tissue. Potential targets for targeted therapy were identified in bile supernatant and pellet. Regarding copy number variation (CNV) and chromosomal instability (CIN) detection, four additional CNVs from two patients were detected in the bile supernatant that was not detected in tissues (i.e., amplification of TERC, IL7R, RICTOR, and TERT). CIN was significantly higher in tumor tissue than in plasma. The CIN of the bile was also significantly higher than that of plasma. There was no significant difference in CIN between the tissue and the bile supernatant. Conclusion: The consistency of all genomic alterations and tumor tissue-determined genomic alteration in the bile supernatant/pellet was significantly higher than in plasma. Bile supernatants/pellets are better for genetic sequencing and may also have potential clinical value to guide targeted therapy and evaluate prognosis. Bile cfDNA may be a feasible substitute for tumor tissue in the genetic testing of patients with BTC.

10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is closely associated with genetic factors and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, showing significant familial aggregation. Individuals with a family history suffer elevated NPC risk, requiring effective genetic counseling for risk stratification and individualized prevention. METHODS: We performed whole-exome sequencing on 502 familial NPC patients and 404 unaffected relatives and controls. We systematically evaluated the established cancer predisposition genes and investigated novel NPC susceptibility genes, making comparisons with other 21 familial cancers in the UK biobank (N = 5218). RESULTS: Rare pathogenic mutations in the established cancer predisposition genes were observed in familial NPC patients, including ERCC2 (1.39%), TP63 (1.00%), MUTYH (0.80%) and BRCA1 (0.80%). Additionally, six novel susceptibility genes were identified. RAD54L involved in DNA repair pathway together with ERCC2, MUTYH, and BRCA1, showed the highest frequency (4.18%) in familial NPC. Enrichment analysis found mutations in TP63 were enriched in familial NPC, while RAD54L and EML2 were enriched in both NPC and other EBV-associated cancers. Besides rare variants, common variants reported in the studies of sporadic NPC were also associated with familial NPC risk. Individuals in the top quantile of common variant-derived genetic risk score (GRSC) while carrying rare variants exhibited increased NPC risk (OR = 13.47, 95% CI: 6.33-28.68, P = 1.48 × 10-11); males in this risk group showed cumulative lifetime risk of 24.19%, much higher than those in the bottom GRSC quantile and without rare variants (2.04%). CONCLUSIONS: This study expands the catalog of NPC susceptibility genes and provides the potential for risk stratification of individuals with an NPC family history.

11.
Front Immunol ; 13: 972184, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045679

RESUMO

The virus-induced signaling adaptor protein VISA (also known as MAVS, ISP-1, Cardif) is a critical adaptor protein in the innate immune response to RNA virus infection. Upon viral infection, VISA self-aggregates to form a sizeable prion-like complex and recruits downstream signal components for signal transduction. Here, we discover that BAG6 (BCL2-associated athanogene 6, formerly BAT3 or Scythe) is an essential negative regulator in the RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway. BAG6 inhibits the aggregation of VISA by promoting the K48-linked ubiquitination and specifically attenuates the recruitment of TRAF2 by VISA to inhibit RLR signaling. The aggregation of VISA and the interaction of VISA and TRAF2 are enhanced in BAG6-deficient cell lines after viral infection, resulting in the enhanced transcription level of downstream antiviral genes. Our research shows that BAG6 is a critical regulating factor in RIG-I/VISA-mediated innate immune response by targeting VISA.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Viroses , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Fator 2 Associado a Receptor de TNF/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação
12.
Environ Res ; 215(Pt 2): 114264, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Air Quality Index (AQI) has been criticized because it does not adequately account for the health effect of multi-pollutants. Although the developed Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a more effective communication tool, little is known about the best method to construct AQHI on long time and large spatial scales. OBJECTIVES: To further evaluate the validity of existing approaches to the establishment of AQHI on both long time and larger spatial scales. METHODS: By introducing 3 approaches addressing multi-pollutant exposures: cumulative risk index (CRI), supervised principal component analysis (SPCA), and Bayesian multi-pollutants weighted model (BMP), we constructed CRI-AQHI, SPCA-AQHI, BMP-AQHI and standard-AQHI on cardiovascular mortality in China from 2015 to 2019 at both the national and geographic regional levels. We further assessed the performance of the four methods in estimating the joint effect of multi-pollutants by simulations under various scenarios of pollution effect. RESULTS: The results of national China showed that the BMP-AQHI improved the goodness of fit of the standard-AQHI by 108.24%, followed by CRI-AQHI (5.02%), and all AQHIs performed better than AQI, consistent with 6 geographic regional results. In addition, the simulation result showed that the BMP method provided stable and relatively accurate estimations of the short-term combined effect of exposure to multi-pollutants. CONCLUSIONS: AQHI based on BMP could communicate the air pollution risk to the public more effectively than the current AQHI and AQI.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 853: 158630, 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084783

RESUMO

Exoelectrogens possess extraordinary degradation ability to various pollutants through extracellular electron transfer (EET). Compared with extracellular electron release process, intracellular electron transfer network is not yet fully recognized. Especially, controversy remains regarding the role of CymA, an essential electron-transfer hub of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, in EET process. In this study, we thoroughly surveyed the intracellular transfer strategies during EET through dye decolorization. Loss of CymA severely impaired the reduction ability of S. oneidensis MR-1 to methyl orange (MO), but hardly affected the decolorization of aniline blue (AB). Complement of cymA fully restored the MO decolorization ability of ΔcymA mutant. The contribution of CymA to extracellular decolorization was subjected to MO concentrations. The defect in the decolorization ability of ΔcymA mutant was not evident at low MO concentration, but severe at high MO concentration. Further investigation revealed that EET rate determined the significance of CymA in the extracellular bioremediation by S. oneidensis MR-1. Coupled with MO concentrations increasing from 15 to 120 mg/L, the initial electron transfer rates of S. oneidensis MR-1 increased accordingly from 2.69 × 104 to 11.21 × 104 electrons CFU-1 s-1, which led to a gradual increase of the dependencyCymA. Thus, we first revealed that extracellular degradation performance could feedback regulate the intracellular electron transfer process of S. oneidensis MR-1. This work is helpful to fully understand the complex EET process of exoelectrogens and facilitates the application of exoelectrogens in bioremediation of environmental pollutants.

14.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 2541358, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36092784

RESUMO

Background: Breast cancer is a kind of cancer that starts in the epithelial tissue of the breast. Breast cancer has been on the rise in recent years, with a younger generation developing the disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in breast tumor detection and treatment planning in today's clinical practice. As manual segmentation grows more time-consuming and the observed topic becomes more diversified, automated segmentation becomes more appealing. Methodology. For MRI breast tumor segmentation, we propose a CNN-SVM network. The labels from the trained convolutional neural network are output using a support vector machine in this technique. During the testing phase, the convolutional neural network's labeled output, as well as the test grayscale picture, is passed to the SVM classifier for accurate segmentation. Results: We tested on the collected breast tumor dataset and found that our proposed combined CNN-SVM network achieved 0.93, 0.95, and 0.92 on DSC coefficient, PPV, and sensitivity index, respectively. We also compare with the segmentation frameworks of other papers, and the comparison results prove that our CNN-SVM network performs better and can accurately segment breast tumors. Conclusion: Our proposed CNN-SVM combined network achieves good segmentation results on the breast tumor dataset. The method can adapt to the differences in breast tumors and segment breast tumors accurately and efficiently. It is of great significance for identifying triple-negative breast cancer in the future.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Algoritmos , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/diagnóstico por imagem
15.
Matern Child Nutr ; : e13430, 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098334

RESUMO

Fresh mother's own milk (MOM) can protect preterm infants from many complications. Often MOM is pasteurized for safety, which can deactivate cellular and bioactive components with protective benefits. Questions remain regarding whether pasteurized MOM provides the same benefits as fresh MOM. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association and feasibility of feeding very preterm infants with fresh MOM. This prospective cohort study included 157 very preterm infants born before 32 weeks' gestational age and with a birthweight below 1500 g. Of these, 82 infants were included in the fresh MOM without any processing group and 75 infants were included in the pasteurized never-frozen MOM (PNFMOM) group. The mortality rate, survival rate without severe complication, incidence of complications, feeding indexes and growth velocities were compared to assess the association and feasibility of feeding fresh MOM. Compared with the PNFMOM group, the fresh MOM group had a higher survival rate without severe complications (p = 0.014) and a lower incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (p = 0.010) after adjustment for confounders. The fresh MOM group regained birthweight earlier (p = 0.021), reached total enteral feeding earlier (p = 0.024), and received total parenteral nutrition for less time (p = 0.045). No adverse events associated with fresh MOM feeding were recorded. Feeding fresh MOM may reduce the incidence of complications in very premature infants. Fresh MOM was shown to be a feasible feeding strategy to improve preterm infants' outcomes.

16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(39): e2202563119, 2022 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122234

RESUMO

Hundreds of members have been synthesized and versatile applications have been promised for endofullerenes (EFs) in the past 30 y. However, the formation mechanism of EFs is still a long-standing puzzle to chemists, especially the mechanism of embedding clusters into charged carbon cages. Here, based on synthesis and structures of two representative vanadium-scandium-carbido/carbide EFs, VSc2C@Ih (7)-C80 and VSc2C2@Ih (7)-C80, a reasonable mechanism-C1 implantation (a carbon atom is implanted into carbon cage)-is proposed to interpret the evolution from VSc2C carbido to VSc2C2 carbide cluster. Supported by theoretical calculations together with crystallographic characterization, the single electron on vanadium (V) in VSc2C@Ih (7)-C80 is proved to facilitate the C1 implantation. While the V=C double bond is identified for VSc2C@Ih (7)-C80, after C1 implantation the distance between V and C atoms in VSc2C2@Ih (7)-C80 falls into the range of single bond lengths as previously shown in typical V-based organometallic complexes. This work exemplifies in situ self-driven implantation of an outer carbon atom into a charged carbon cage, which is different from previous heterogeneous implantation of nonmetal atoms (Group-V or -VIII atoms) driven by high-energy ion bombardment or high-pressure offline, and the proposed C1 implantation mechanism represents a heretofore unknown metal-carbon cluster encapsulation mechanism and can be the fundamental basis for EF family genesis.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36123298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Moraxella catarrhalis is a common, potential pathogen colonizing the respiratory tract in children. However, there is little information regarding the determinants of M. catarrhalis colonization and disease development. METHODS: A population-based cohort study was conducted to collect nasopharyngeal swabs from children aged 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 60 months for the detection of four common respiratory tract pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus, M. catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae. Questionnaires on breastfeeding status were administered during each visit. RESULTS: A total of 921 children were enrolled between 2012 and 2018. S.aureus was the most common pathogen, although the rates declined during the initial 18 months of life; in contrast, the other three pathogens increased during the first 5 years of life. M. catarrhalis was the second most common colonizing pathogen in all age groups, with prevalence ranging from 0.8% (7/842) at one month to 20.4% (33/162) at 60 months of age. Breastfed children (odds ratio [OR]: 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.35-0.92; P = 0.02) had a lower potential for M. catarrhalis carriage; however, infants with a longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding (OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.01-1.25; P = 0.04), especially >12 months of age, had a higher rate of M. catarrhalis carriage. CONCLUSION: Breastfeeding should be promoted because it may be correlated with a lower risk of M. catarrhalis carriage. However, an extended period of exclusive breastfeeding may be positively associated with M. catarrhalis colonization.

18.
Water Res ; 223: 119028, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36063704

RESUMO

Precipitation can affect the residence time of nitrogen compounds, and temperature can influence nitrogen transformation in soil. Therefore, we hypothesized that climate factors can affect the emissions of N2O, an important greenhouse gas produced via nitrogen transformation, by influencing the migration and transformation of nonpoint source nitrogen in soil. To test this hypothesis and quantify the effect of climate factors on N2O emissions, the SWAT model and the modified SWAT-N2O coupler were used to study the effect of climate factors on the migration and transformation of nonpoint source nitrogen and N2O emissions in an agricultural watershed from 2009 to 2018. Temperature affected N2O emissions more significant than precipitation, and N2O emissions increased with temperature and reached a plateau when the average monthly temperature was 23.0 °C. The N2O emissions first increased rapidly with precipitation due to the increase in moisture. However, when the average monthly precipitation reached 78.8 mm, the N2O emissions began to decrease because the residence time of nitrogen compounds in soil were reduced due to fast removal via runoff, which inhibits N2O emissions. Under the context of climate change with three scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP8.5), temperature would increase gradually while precipitation would not change significantly from 2021 to 2080, as a result, the changes would increase N2O emissions by 6.7%, 32.3%, and 70.7%, respectively. This study quantifies the feedback of N2O emissions to climate change in croplands, providing a scientific basis for climate change mitigation and agricultural management.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Nitrogênio , Agricultura , Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio/análise , Compostos de Nitrogênio , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Solo
19.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 307, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064538

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been considered a promising alternative for treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there is significant heterogeneity in their therapeutic efficacy, largely owing to the incomplete understanding of the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic activities of MSCs. Here, we hypothesize that the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP), which is recognized as a neuroimmunological pathway, may be involved in the therapeutic mechanisms by which MSCs mitigate ARDS. Using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and bacterial lung inflammation models, we found that inflammatory cell infiltration and Evans blue leakage were reduced and that the expression levels of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) in lung tissue were significantly increased 6 hours after MSC infusion. When the vagus nerve was blocked or α7 nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor (α7nAChR)-knockout mice were used, the therapeutic effects of MSCs were significantly reduced, suggesting that the CAP may play an important role in the effects of MSCs in ARDS treatment. Our results further showed that MSC-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) likely promoted ACh synthesis and release. Additionally, based on the efficacy of nAChR and α7nAChR agonists, we found that lobeline, the nicotinic cholinergic receptor excitation stimulant, may attenuate pulmonary inflammation and alleviate respiratory symptoms of ARDS patients in a clinical study (ChiCTR2100047403). In summary, we reveal a previously unrecognized MSC-mediated mechanism of CAP activation as the means by which MSCs alleviate ARDS-like syndrome, providing insight into the clinical translation of MSCs or CAP-related strategies for the treatment of patients with ARDS.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Neuroimunomodulação , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7 , Animais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Neuroimunomodulação/genética , Neuroimunomodulação/imunologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/genética , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/imunologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7/genética , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7/imunologia
20.
Chem Biol Interact ; 366: 110153, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084722

RESUMO

Anemoside B4 (AB4) is a natural triterpenoid abundant in the roots of Pulsatilla chinensis. Although various biological activities have been widely attributed to AB4, few studies have focused on its antiallergic effects. In this study the inhibitory effects of AB4 on immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic responses were investigated, both in vitro and in vivo, and the mechanism of its effects. IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis was used to elucidate the antiallergic effects of AB4 in vivo. The degranulation assay, calcium imaging, and cytokine and chemokine release in the laboratory of allergic disease 2 (LAD2) cell line were used to evaluate the antiallergic effect of AB4 in vitro. Pathological staining was performed to analyze angiectasis. Western blot analysis was performed to investigate the downstream signaling pathways. AB4 dose-dependently attenuated ovalbumin/IgE-induced paw swelling in mice, and reduced the serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and C-C motif chemokine 2. In addition, AB4 suppressed IgE-mediated LAD2 cell degranulation, calcium influx, and PLC/IP3 and JAK/STAT3 phosphorylation. Our results suggest that AB4 inhibits allergic reactions through the PLC/IP3 and JAK/STAT3 pathways.

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