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1.
PLoS Pathog ; 20(5): e1012058, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768227

RESUMO

Viral disruption of innate immune signaling is a critical determinant of productive infection. The Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL26 protein prevents anti-viral gene expression during infection, yet the mechanisms involved are unclear. We used TurboID-driven proximity proteomics to identify putative UL26 interacting proteins during infection to address this issue. We find that UL26 forms a complex with several immuno-regulatory proteins, including several STAT family members and various PIAS proteins, a family of E3 SUMO ligases. Our results indicate that UL26 prevents STAT phosphorylation during infection and antagonizes transcriptional activation induced by either interferon α (IFNA) or tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). Additionally, we find that the inactivation of PIAS1 sensitizes cells to inflammatory stimulation, resulting in an anti-viral transcriptional environment similar to ΔUL26 infection. Further, PIAS1 is important for HCMV cell-to-cell spread, which depends on the presence of UL26, suggesting that the UL26-PIAS1 interaction is vital for modulating intrinsic anti-viral defense.

2.
Small ; : e2402356, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38727156

RESUMO

Additive manufacturing (AM) of ceramics has significantly contributed to advancements in ceramic fabrication, solving some of the difficulties of conventional ceramic processing and providing additional possibilities for the structure and function of components. However, defects induced by the layer-by-layer approach on which traditional AM techniques are based still constitute a challenge to address. This study presents the volumetric AM of a SiOC ceramic from a preceramic polymer using xolography, a linear volumetric AM process that allows to avoid the staircase effect typical of other vat photopolymerization techniques. Besides optimizing the trade-off between preceramic polymer content and transmittance, a pore generator is introduced to create transient channels for gas release before decomposition of the organic constituents and moieties, resulting in crack-free solid ceramic structures even at low ceramic yield. Formulation optimization alleviated sinking of printed parts during printing and prevented shape distortion. Complex solid and porous ceramic structures with a smooth surface and sharp features are fabricated under the optimized parameters. This work provides a new method for the AM of ceramics at µm/mm scale with high surface quality and large geometry variety in an efficient way, opening the possibility for applications in fields such as micromechanical systems and microelectronic components.

3.
Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol ; 9(3): e1260, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38751691

RESUMO

Objectives: The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the potential benefits of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) in patients with pN1 oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: A literature search through major databases was conducted until January 2023. The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) or risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of different survival outcomes were extracted and pooled. Results: Ten studies published between 2005 and 2022, with a pooled patient population of 2888, were included in this meta-analysis. Due to differences in study design and reported outcomes, the studies were categorized into distinct groups. In pN1 patients without extranodal extension (ENE), PORT was associated with a significant improvement in overall survival (OS) (aHR 0.76, 95% CI: 0.61-0.94). In pN1 patients without ENE and positive margins, PORT improved OS (aHR 0.71, 95% CI: 0.56-0.89) and was associated with a lower regional recurrence rate (RR 0.35, 95% CI: 0.15-0.83). However, in pN1 patients without ENE, positive margins, perineural invasion, and lymphovascular invasion, there were no significant differences observed between the PORT and observation groups in either 5-year OS (RR 0.48, 95% CI: 0.07-3.41) or 5-year disease-free survival (RR 0.37, 95% CI: 0.07-2.06). Conclusions: The current study demonstrated that PORT has the potential to improve OS in pN1 disease. However, the decision of whether to administer PORT still hinges on diverse clinical scenarios, and additional research is necessary to furnish a more conclusive resolution. Level of Evidence: 2.

4.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1307944, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38737546

RESUMO

Background: Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a common clinical endocrine disorder with a high heterogeneity in both endocrine hormones and etiological phenotypes. However, the etiology of POI remains unclear. Herein, we unraveled the causality of genetically determined metabolites (GDMs) on POI through Mendelian randomization (MR) study with the overarching goal of disclosing underlying mechanisms. Methods: Genetic links with 486 metabolites were retrieved from GWAS data of 7824 European participants as exposures, while GWAS data concerning POI were utilized as the outcome. Via MR analysis, we selected inverse-variance weighted (IVW) method for primary analysis and several additional MR methods (MR-Egger, weighted median, and MR-PRESSO) for sensitivity analyses. MR-Egger intercept and Cochran's Q statistical analysis were conducted to assess potential heterogeneity and pleiotropy. In addition, genetic variations in the key target metabolite were scrutinized further. We conducted replication, meta-analysis, and linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSC) to reinforce our findings. The MR Steiger test and reverse MR analysis were utilized to assess the robustness of genetic directionality. Furthermore, to deeply explore causality, we performed colocalization analysis and metabolic pathway analysis. Results: Via IVW methods, our study identified 33 metabolites that might exert a causal effect on POI development. X-11437 showed a robustly significant relationship with POI in four MR analysis methods (P IVW=0.0119; P weighted-median =0.0145; PMR-Egger =0.0499; PMR-PRESSO =0.0248). Among the identified metabolites, N-acetylalanine emerged as the most significant in the primary MR analysis using IVW method, reinforcing its pivotal status as a serum biomarker indicative of an elevated POI risk with the most notable P-value (P IVW=0.0007; PMR-PRESSO =0.0022). Multiple analyses were implemented to further demonstrate the reliability and stability of our deduction of causality. Reverse MR analysis did not provide evidence for the causal effects of POI on 33 metabolites. Colocalization analysis revealed that some causal associations between metabolites and POI might be driven by shared genetic variants. Conclusion: By incorporating genomics with metabolomics, this study sought to offer a comprehensive analysis in causal impact of serum metabolome phenotypes on risks of POI with implications for underlying mechanisms, disease screening and prevention.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Metabolômica , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária , Humanos , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/genética , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/sangue , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/metabolismo , Feminino , Metabolômica/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Metaboloma , Biomarcadores/sangue
5.
J Thorac Dis ; 16(4): 2244-2258, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38738240

RESUMO

Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive interstitial lung disease with a high mortality rate and limited treatment efficacy. Nintedanib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is clinically used to treat pulmonary fibrosis. At present, only nintedanib is on the market for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. Pazopanib is a drug for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma and advanced soft tissue sarcoma. Methods: In this study, we explored whether pazopanib can attenuate bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis and explored its antifibrotic mechanism. In vivo and in vitro investigations were carried out to investigate the efficacy and mechanism of action of pazopanib in pulmonary fibrosis. Results: In vivo experiments showed that pazopanib can alleviate pulmonary fibrosis caused by BLM, reduce the degree of collagen deposition and improve lung function. In vitro experiments showed that pazopanib suppressed transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1)-induced myofibroblast activation and promoted apoptosis and autophagy in myofibroblasts. Further mechanistic studies demonstrated that pazopanib inhibited the TGF-ß1/Smad and non-Smad signaling pathways during fibroblast activation. Conclusions: In conclusion, pazopanib attenuated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis by suppressing the TGF-ß1 signaling pathway. Pazopanib inhibits myofibroblast activation, migration, autophagy, apoptosis, and extracellular matrix (ECM) buildup by downregulating the TGF-ß1/Smad signal route and the TGF-ß1/non-Smad signal pathway. It has the same target as nintedanib and is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

6.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 669: 804-815, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38749219

RESUMO

Herein, a novel copper selenide/zinc selenide/Nitrogen-doped carbon (Cu2Se/ZnSe/NC) sphere was constructed via a combination of cation exchange, selenization and carbonization approaches with zinc-based metal-organic frameworks (ZIF-8) as precursor for sulfadiazine (SDZ) removal. Compared with the ZnSe/NC, the defective Cu2Se/ZnSe interface in the optimizing Cu-ZnSe/NC2 sample caused a remarkably improved adsorption performance. Notably, the adsorption capacity of 129.32 mg/g was better than that of mostly reported adsorbents for SDZ. And the adsorption referred to multiple-layer physical-chemical process that was spontaneous and exothermic. Besides, the Cu-ZnSe/NC2 displayed fast adsorption equilibrium of about 20 min and significant anti-interference ability for inorganic ions. Specially, the adsorbent possessed excellent stability and reusability, which could also be applied for rhodamine B (RhB), methylene blue (MB), and methyl orange (MO) dyes removal. Ultimately, the charge redistribution of Cu2Se/ZnSe interface greatly contributes the superior adsorption performance for SDZ, in which electrostatic attraction occupied extremely crucial status as compared to π-π electron-donor-acceptor (π-π EDA) interaction and hydrogen bonding (H-bonding), as revealed by the density function theory (DFT) calculations and experimental results. This study can provide a guideline for design of high-efficient adsorbent with interfacial charge redistribution.

7.
Orthop Surg ; 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38751150

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It is unclear whether less acetabular coverage is associated with the failure of core decompression (CD) for osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). This study aimed to investigate the clinical outcomes of CD for ONFH with small- or medium-sized pre-collapse lesions, and determine what factors, especially acetabular anatomical parameters, predict the failure of CD. METHODS: Between January 2010 and December 2022, we retrospectively reviewed 269 consecutive CDs in 188 patients diagnosed with ONFH with small- or medium-sized pre-collapse lesions. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to evaluate the survival rate of CD for ONFH with progression of collapse or conversion to total hip arthroplasty (THA) as the endpoint. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the potential risk factors for the failure of CD. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was further performed with conversion to THA as the endpoint to determine the predictive value of these factors. RESULTS: The overall 5-year survival rate of CD for ONFH with small- or medium-sized pre-collapse lesions was 74.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 69.0%-81.1%) with progression of collapse as the endpoint and 83.9% (95% CI 79.3%-88.7%) with conversion to THA as the endpoint. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that bilateral affected hips was significantly associated with progression of collapse, and center-edge angle (CEA), sharp angle, acetabular head index (AHI), as well as acetabular depth ratio (ADR) were significantly associated with both progression of collapse and conversion to THA. Multivariate logistic regression analysis further indicated that CEA and AHI were independent risk factors for both progression of collapse and conversion to THA. ROC curve analysis with conversion to THA as the endpoint revealed that the cutoff values for CEA and AHI were 26.8° (sensitivity = 74.4%, specificity = 78.6%, area under the curve (AUC) = 0.809) and 79.8 (sensitivity = 78.4%, specificity = 73.8%, AUC = 0.818), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: CD showed satisfactory clinical outcomes for ONFH with small- or medium-sized pre-collapse lesions where less acetabular coverage with a CEA < 26.8° or AHI < 79.8 was identified as an independent risk factor for the failure of CD.

8.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 22(1): 246, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735970

RESUMO

Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation are the key problems that impede diabetic wound healing. In particular, dressings with ROS scavenging capacity play a crucial role in the process of chronic wound healing. Herein, Zr-based large-pore mesoporous metal-organic frameworks (mesoMOFs) were successfully developed for the construction of spatially organized cascade bioreactors. Natural superoxide dismutase (SOD) and an artificial enzyme were spatially organized in these hierarchical mesoMOFs, forming a cascade antioxidant defense system, and presenting efficient intracellular and extracellular ROS scavenging performance. In vivo experiments demonstrated that the SOD@HMUiO-MnTCPP nanoparticles (S@M@H NPs) significantly accelerated diabetic wound healing. Transcriptomic and western blot results further indicated that the nanocomposite could inhibit fibroblast senescence and ferroptosis as well as the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) signaling pathway activation in macrophages mediated by mitochondrial oxidative stress through ROS elimination. Thus, the biomimetic multi-enzyme cascade catalytic system with spatial ordering demonstrated a high potential for diabetic wound healing, where senescence, ferroptosis, and STING signaling pathways may be potential targets.


Assuntos
Inflamação , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Cicatrização , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/farmacologia , Camundongos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Porosidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7 , Masculino , Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Nanopartículas/química , Humanos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Nanocompostos/química , Proteínas de Membrana
9.
Chemosphere ; 359: 142286, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729439

RESUMO

Antibiotics are emerging organic pollutants that have attracted huge attention owing to their abundant use and associated ecological threats. The aim of this study is to develop and use photocatalysts to degrade antibiotics, including tetracycline (TC), ciprofloxacin (CIP), and amoxicillin (AMOX). Therefore, a novel Z-scheme heterojunction composite of g-C3N4 (gCN) and 3D flower-like Bi2WO6 (BW) perovskite structure was designed and developed, namely Bi2WO6/g-C3N4 (BW/gCN), which can degrade low-concentration of antibiotics in aquatic environments under visible light. According to the Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculation and the characterization results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FITR), Scanning electron microscopy - energy spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), this heterojunction was formed in the recombination process. Furthermore, the results of 15 wt%-BW/gCN photocatalytic experiments showed that the photodegradation rates (Rp) of TC, CIP, and AMOX were 92.4%, 90.1% and 82.3%, respectively, with good stability in three-cycle photocatalytic experiments. Finally, the quenching experiment of free radicals showed that the holes (h+) and superoxide radicals (·O2-) play a more important role than the hydroxyl radicals (·OH) in photocatalysis. In addition, a possible antibiotic degradation pathway was hypothesized on the basis of High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. In general, we have developed an effective catalyst for photocatalytic degradation of antibiotic pollutants and analyzed its photocatalytic degradation mechanism, which provides new ideas for follow-up research and expands its application in the field of antibiotic composite pollution prevention and control.

11.
Pediatr Res ; 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) is gaining increasing attention, the TBI risk in patients with ADHD, unaffected siblings of ADHD probands, and non-ADHD controls remains unclear. METHODS: Overall, 18,645 patients with ADHD, 18,880 unaffected siblings of ADHD probands, and 188,800 age-/sex-matched controls were followed up from enrollment to the end of 2011. The cases of TBI and TBI requiring hospitalization were identified during follow-up. RESULTS: Patients with ADHD (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.57) and unaffected siblings (HR: 1.20) had an increased risk of any TBI compared with non-ADHD controls. Surprisingly, the likelihood of developing TBI requiring hospitalization during follow-up was higher in the unaffected siblings group (HR: 1.21) than in the control group, whereas it was lower in the ADHD probands group (HR: 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with ADHD and unaffected siblings of ADHD probands were more likely to develop any TBI during follow-up than controls. Unaffected siblings of patients with ADHD exhibited the highest risk of subsequent TBI requiring hospitalization compared with patients with ADHD and healthy controls. Therefore, TBI risk in patients with ADHD and their unaffected siblings would require further investigation. IMPACT: ADHD diagnosis and ADHD trait are associated with risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Both patients with ADHD and their unaffected siblings were more likely to develop TBI during the follow-up compared with the control group. TBI requiring hospitalization occurred more in the sibling group than in the proband group. TBI risk should be closely monitored among unaffected siblings of patients with ADHD.

12.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2403607, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728594

RESUMO

Graphitic carbon nitride (CN), as a nonmetallic photocatalyst, has gained considerable attention for its cost-effectiveness and environmentally friendly nature in catalyzing solar-driven CO2 conversion into valuable products. However, the photocatalytic efficiency of CO2 reduction with CN remains low, accompanied by challenges in achieving desirable product selectivity. To address these limitations, a two-step hydrothermal-calcination tandem synthesis strategy is presented, introducing carbon quantum dots (CQDs) into CN and forming ultra-thin CQD/CN nanosheets. The integration of CQDs induces a distinct work function with CN, creating a robust interface electric field after the combination. This electric field facilitates the accumulation of photoelectrons in the CQDs region, providing an abundant source of reduced electrons for the photocatalytic process. Remarkably, the CQD/CN nanosheets exhibit an average CO yield of 120 µmol g-1, showcasing an outstanding CO selectivity of 92.8%. The discovery in the work not only presents an innovative pathway for the development of high-performance photocatalysts grounded in non-metallic CN materials employing CQDs but also opens new avenues for versatile application prospects in environmental protection and sustainable cleaning energy.

13.
Behav Sci (Basel) ; 14(5)2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38785879

RESUMO

In recent decades, scholarly interest has grown in the psychological components of happiness. Savoring belief, or the capacity to attend to, appreciate, and enhance the positive experiences in one's life, along with resilience and meaning in life, have emerged as significant predictors of enhanced happiness among diverse populations. This research examined the interrelationships among savoring belief, resilience, meaning in life, and happiness. A sample of 561 students from 75 universities in Taiwan, comprising 361 female and 200 male participants with an average age of 20.88 years, participated in an online survey. The study employed various instruments, including the Savoring Belief Inventory, the Subjective Happiness Scale, the Brief Resilience Scale, and the Meaning in Life Questionnaire. These instruments were translated into Traditional Chinese using a back-translation method and subsequently validated for accuracy by specialists in the field. Analysis of the data using Hayes' PROCESS Model 6 revealed several key insights: (1) savoring belief positively influenced happiness, resilience, and meaning in life with resilience further enhancing happiness and meaning in life; (2) resilience served as a significant mediator in the relationship between savoring belief and happiness; (3) meaning in life significantly mediated the relationship between savoring belief and happiness; (4) a sequential mediation model illustrated the mediating effects of resilience and meaning in life on the relationship between savoring belief and happiness. This study illustrates that, much like a garden requires water, sunlight, and care to flourish, our happiness is cultivated through enhancing our ability to savor the good moments, rebound from challenges, and find deep significance in our lives. We can significantly boost well-being by fostering these qualities-savoring belief, resilience, and a sense of meaning. These findings are particularly relevant for educators, highlighting the critical need to develop these traits in students to promote greater happiness and fulfillment in their lives. Discussions included theoretical implications, educational implications, and avenues for future research.

14.
Nature ; 629(8013): 784-790, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720075

RESUMO

Electro-optical photonic integrated circuits (PICs) based on lithium niobate (LiNbO3) have demonstrated the vast capabilities of materials with a high Pockels coefficient1,2. They enable linear and high-speed modulators operating at complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor voltage levels3 to be used in applications including data-centre communications4, high-performance computing and photonic accelerators for AI5. However, industrial use of this technology is hindered by the high cost per wafer and the limited wafer size. The high cost results from the lack of existing high-volume applications in other domains of the sort that accelerated the adoption of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) photonics, which was driven by vast investment in microelectronics. Here we report low-loss PICs made of lithium tantalate (LiTaO3), a material that has already been adopted commercially for 5G radiofrequency filters6 and therefore enables scalable manufacturing at low cost, and it has equal, and in some cases superior, properties to LiNbO3. We show that LiTaO3 can be etched to create low-loss (5.6 dB m-1) PICs using a deep ultraviolet (DUV) stepper-based manufacturing process7. We demonstrate a LiTaO3 Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) with a half-wave voltage-length product of 1.9 V cm and an electro-optic bandwidth of up to 40 GHz. In comparison with LiNbO3, LiTaO3 exhibits a much lower birefringence, enabling high-density circuits and broadband operation over all telecommunication bands. Moreover, the platform supports the generation of soliton microcombs. Our work paves the way for the scalable manufacture of low-cost and large-volume next-generation electro-optical PICs.


Assuntos
Lítio , Óxidos , Fótons , Lítio/química , Óxidos/química , Tantálio/química , Nióbio/química , Semicondutores , Óptica e Fotônica/instrumentação , Raios Ultravioleta , Silício/química
15.
J Med Chem ; 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38778566

RESUMO

Induction of cuproptosis and targeting of multiple signaling pathways show promising applications in tumor therapy. In this study, we synthesized two thiosemicarbazone-copper complexes ([CuII(L)Cl] 1 and [CuII2CuI(L)2Cl3] 2, where HL is the (E)-N-methyl-2-(phenyl(pyridin-2-yl)methylene ligand), to assess their antilung cancer activities. Both copper complexes showed better anticancer activity than cisplatin and exhibited hemolysis comparable to that of cisplatin. In vivo experiments showed that complex 2 retarded the A549 cell growth in a mouse xenograft model with low systemic toxicity. Primarily, complex 2 kills lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo by triggering multiple pathways, including cuproptosis. Complex 2 is the first mixed-valent Cu(I/II) complex to induce cellular events consistent with cuproptosis in cancer cells, which may stimulate the development of mixed-valent copper complexes and provide effective cancer therapy.

16.
Nanoscale Adv ; 6(9): 2306-2318, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38694475

RESUMO

Significant attention has been directed toward core-shell GaInN/GaN multiple-quantum shell (MQS) nanowires (NWs) in the context of high-efficiency micro light-emitting diodes (micro-LEDs). These independent three-dimensional NWs offer the advantage of reducing the impact of sidewall etching regions. Furthermore, the emitting plane on the sidewalls demonstrates either nonpolar or semipolar orientation, while the dislocation density is exceptionally low. In this study, we assessed how changes in the NW morphology are affected by GaInN/GaN superlattice (SL) structures grown at varying growth temperatures, as well as control of the emission plane via the p-GaN shell and emission sizes. The SL growth rate was enhanced at elevated growth temperatures, accompanied by the shrinkage of the (0001)-plane and expansion of the (11̄01)-plane on the NWs. The samples exhibited a higher light output when the SLs were grown at elevated temperatures compared to those grown with lower temperatures. A similar trend was observed for the samples with a gradual temperature transition during the growth. These findings indicate that the dimensions of the (0001)-plane can be controlled through SL growth, which in turn influences the emission properties of NW-LEDs. In addition, the emission properties of NW-LEDs with different growth time p-GaN shells and different emission sizes were investigated. Based on the NW-LED characteristics, it was revealed that the weak emission of the (0001)-plane was the dominant factor for the limited light output, and the most effective way to realize high efficiency devices is to suppress current injection into the apex or minimize the grown (0001)-plane region. Overall, it is one promising way to control the emission planes of NWs, which holds significant relevance for the potential application of NW-LEDs in the realm of micro-LEDs.

17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(8)2024 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38673893

RESUMO

During embryogenesis, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is released from neural tube and myotome to promote myogenic fate in the somite, and is routinely used for the culture of adult skeletal muscle (SKM) stem cells (MuSC, called satellite cells). However, the mechanism employed by bFGF to promote SKM lineage and MuSC proliferation has not been analyzed in detail. Furthermore, the question of if the post-translational modification (PTM) of bFGF is important to its stemness-promoting effect has not been answered. In this study, GST-bFGF was expressed and purified from E.coli, which lacks the PTM system in eukaryotes. We found that both GST-bFGF and commercially available bFGF activated the Akt-Erk pathway and had strong cell proliferation effect on C2C12 myoblasts and MuSC. GST-bFGF reversibly compromised the myogenesis of C2C12 myoblasts and MuSC, and it increased the expression of Myf5, Pax3/7, and Cyclin D1 but strongly repressed that of MyoD, suggesting the maintenance of myogenic stemness amid repressed MyoD expression. The proliferation effect of GST-bFGF was conserved in C2C12 over-expressed with MyoD (C2C12-tTA-MyoD), implying its independence of the down-regulation of MyoD. In addition, the repressive effect of GST-bFGF on myogenic differentiation was almost totally rescued by the over-expression of MyoD. Together, these evidences suggest that (1) GST-bFGF and bFGF have similar effects on myogenic cell proliferation and differentiation, and (2) GST-bFGF can promote MuSC stemness and proliferation by differentially regulating MRFs and Pax3/7, (3) MyoD repression by GST-bFGF is reversible and independent of the proliferation effect, and (4) GST-bFGF can be a good substitute for bFGF in sustaining MuSC stemness and proliferation.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos , Desenvolvimento Muscular , Proteína MyoD , Mioblastos , Desenvolvimento Muscular/genética , Animais , Camundongos , Proteína MyoD/metabolismo , Proteína MyoD/genética , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/farmacologia , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Mioblastos/citologia , Linhagem Celular , Fator de Transcrição PAX7/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição PAX7/genética , Fator de Transcrição PAX3/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição PAX3/genética , Fator Regulador Miogênico 5/metabolismo , Fator Regulador Miogênico 5/genética , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Ciclina D1/genética , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/citologia
18.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 667: 650-662, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38663280

RESUMO

In this study, a novel Z-scheme heterojunction on bismuth vanadium/cadmium sulfide (BiVO4/0.6CdS) was developed and evaluated for simultaneous photocatalytic removal of combined tetracycline (TC) and hexavalent chromium Cr(Ⅵ) pollution under visible light. Based on the analysis of intermediate products and theoretical calculation, the property of the intermediate products of TC degradation and the effect of built-in electric field (IEF) of composite materials on photo-generated carrier separation were illustrated. According to the experiments and evaluation results, the performance of BiVO4/0.6CdS is higher than CdS 2.83 times and 4.82 times under the visible light conditions, with the aspect of simultaneous oxidizing TC and reducing Cr(Ⅵ), respectively. The catalyst has a faster removal rate in the binary composite pollution system than the single one. Therefore, the photocatalytic degradation of TC using BiVO4/0.6CdS can reduce the toxic effect of TC on the environment. The aforementioned evaluation provides a new design strategy for Z-scheme heterojunction to simultaneous photocatalytic degradation of composite organic and inorganic pollutants.

19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(19): e2313590121, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38683978

RESUMO

Myokines and exosomes, originating from skeletal muscle, are shown to play a significant role in maintaining brain homeostasis. While exercise has been reported to promote muscle secretion, little is known about the effects of neuronal innervation and activity on the yield and molecular composition of biologically active molecules from muscle. As neuromuscular diseases and disabilities associated with denervation impact muscle metabolism, we hypothesize that neuronal innervation and firing may play a pivotal role in regulating secretion activities of skeletal muscles. We examined this hypothesis using an engineered neuromuscular tissue model consisting of skeletal muscles innervated by motor neurons. The innervated muscles displayed elevated expression of mRNAs encoding neurotrophic myokines, such as interleukin-6, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and FDNC5, as well as the mRNA of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α, a key regulator of muscle metabolism. Upon glutamate stimulation, the innervated muscles secreted higher levels of irisin and exosomes containing more diverse neurotrophic microRNAs than neuron-free muscles. Consequently, biological factors secreted by innervated muscles enhanced branching, axonal transport, and, ultimately, spontaneous network activities of primary hippocampal neurons in vitro. Overall, these results reveal the importance of neuronal innervation in modulating muscle-derived factors that promote neuronal function and suggest that the engineered neuromuscular tissue model holds significant promise as a platform for producing neurotrophic molecules.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Exossomos , Músculo Esquelético , Exossomos/metabolismo , Animais , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Neurônios Motores/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Miocinas
20.
J Reconstr Microsurg ; 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) has been shown to be associated with increased surgical morbidity and mortality following cancer ablation surgery. However, evidence of new-onset AF's impact on surgical outcomes in head and neck cancer patients undergoing tumor ablation and microvascular free tissue transfer remains scarce. This study aims to evaluate the association between AF and surgical outcomes in these patients. METHODS: We enrolled head and neck cancer patients who underwent tumor ablation reconstructed with microvascular free tissue transfer from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Patients were grouped into the following: (1) without AF, (2) new-onset AF, and (3) preexisting AF. The groups were matched by propensity score based on age, gender, cancer stage, and comorbidities. The primary outcome was postoperative complications, whereas all-cause mortality was the secondary outcome. RESULTS: In total, 26,817 patients were included in this study. After matching, we identified 2,176 (79.24%) patients without AF, 285 (10.37%) with preexisting AF, and 285 (10.37%) with new-onset AF. Our results demonstrated that the free flap failure rate was twofold escalated in patients with new-onset AF (9.8%) compared to those without AF (5.4%) or preexisting AF (5.3%; p = 0.01). However, we did not identify significant differences among other postoperative complications across groups. Additionally, we found that the risk of all-cause mortality was significantly elevated in patients with preexisting AF (p < 0.001) compared to those without AF or new-onset AF. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that new-onset AF is associated with an increased risk of flap failure and could serve as a predictor. On the other hand, all-cause mortality in patients with preexisting AF was significantly elevated. Close postoperative monitoring in patients with new-onset and preexisting AF is crucial to identify any potential adverse effects.

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