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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613922

RESUMO

Patients with cancer, such as breast and col-orectal cancer, often experience different symptoms post-chemotherapy. The symptoms could be fatigue, gastroin-testinal (nausea, vomiting, lack of appetite), psychoneuro-logical symptoms (depressive symptoms, anxiety), or other types. Previous research focused on understanding the symptoms using survey data. In this research, we propose to utilize the data within the Electronic Health Record (EHR). A computational framework is developed to use a natural language processing (NLP) pipeline to extract the clinician-documented symptoms from clinical notes. Then, a patient clustering method is based on the symptom severity levels to group the patient in clusters. The association rule mining is used to analyze the associations between symptoms and patient attributes (smoking history, number of comor-bidities, diabetes status, age at diagnosis) in the patient clusters. The results show that the various symptom types and severity levels have different associations between breast and colorectal cancers and different timeframes post-chemotherapy. The results also show that patients with breast or colorectal cancers, who smoke and have severe fatigue, likely have severe gastrointestinal symptoms six months after the chemotherapy. Our framework can be generalized to analyze symptoms or symptom clusters of other chronic diseases where symptom management is critical.

2.
Curr Biol ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648730

RESUMO

We subjected human paleofeces dating from the Bronze Age to the Baroque period (18th century AD) to in-depth microscopic, metagenomic, and proteomic analyses. The paleofeces were preserved in the underground salt mines of the UNESCO World Heritage site of Hallstatt in Austria. This allowed us to reconstruct the diet of the former population and gain insights into their ancient gut microbiome composition. Our dietary survey identified bran and glumes of different cereals as some of the most prevalent plant fragments. This highly fibrous, carbohydrate-rich diet was supplemented with proteins from broad beans and occasionally with fruits, nuts, or animal food products. Due to these traditional dietary habits, all ancient miners up to the Baroque period have gut microbiome structures akin to modern non-Westernized individuals whose diets are also mainly composed of unprocessed foods and fresh fruits and vegetables. This may indicate a shift in the gut community composition of modern Westernized populations due to quite recent dietary and lifestyle changes. When we extended our microbial survey to fungi present in the paleofeces, in one of the Iron Age samples, we observed a high abundance of Penicillium roqueforti and Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA. Genome-wide analysis indicates that both fungi were involved in food fermentation and provides the first molecular evidence for blue cheese and beer consumption in Iron Age Europe.

3.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 134: 105435, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased risks of autistic traits and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among offspring and whether placental inflammatory and oxidative stress cytokines play an intermediary role. METHODS: Based on a prospective cohort study from China, namely, the Ma'anshan Birth Cohort study (MABC), 3260 mother-child pairs were included. Autistic traits and ADHD symptoms among children were assessed at 18 months and 36 months, respectively. The mRNA expression levels of fourteen placental cytokines were determined using PCR. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between GDM and the risks of autistic traits or ADHD symptoms. Mediation analysis was used to assess the potential mediation effects of certain placental inflammatory factors. RESULTS: Of the 3260 children, 419 (12.85%) were exposed to GDM. The prevalence rates of autistic traits and ADHD symptoms were 13.86% and 6.4%, respectively. A 48.6% increased risk of autistic traits was observed among offspring born to mothers with GDM [odds ratio (OR) = 1.49, 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.11-2.00)], while no significant association was found in terms of ADHD symptoms. There were significant positive associations between GDM and IL-10 expression and between HIF1-α and CRP mRNA expression and a significant negative association between GDM and CD206 mRNA expression. The expression of MCP-1 mRNA was negatively associated with the risk of autistic traits [adjusted OR = 0.73 (95%CI: 0.73-0.55)]. The levels of TNF-α were positively associated with the risk of ADHD symptoms [OR = 2.11 (95%CI: 1.39-3.21)], while GRP78 was inversely associated with it [OR = 0.64 (95%CI: 0.44-0.94)]. However, none of the 14 placental cytokines was involved as a key mediator. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that GDM may act as a risk factor for autistic traits in offspring, while the biological mechanisms may not involve the 14 placental cytokines studied. No significant association between GDM and ADHD symptoms was observed.

4.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(Suppl 4): 111, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gene co-expression networks are widely studied in the biomedical field, with algorithms such as WGCNA and lmQCM having been developed to detect co-expressed modules. However, these algorithms have limitations such as insufficient granularity and unbalanced module size, which prevent full acquisition of knowledge from data mining. In addition, it is difficult to incorporate prior knowledge in current co-expression module detection algorithms. RESULTS: In this paper, we propose a novel module detection algorithm based on topology potential and spectral clustering algorithm to detect co-expressed modules in gene co-expression networks. By testing on TCGA data, our novel method can provide more complete coverage of genes, more balanced module size and finer granularity than current methods in detecting modules with significant overall survival difference. In addition, the proposed algorithm can identify modules by incorporating prior knowledge. CONCLUSION: In summary, we developed a method to obtain as much as possible information from networks with increased input coverage and the ability to detect more size-balanced and granular modules. In addition, our method can integrate data from different sources. Our proposed method performs better than current methods with complete coverage of input genes and finer granularity. Moreover, this method is designed not only for gene co-expression networks but can also be applied to any general fully connected weighted network.

5.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 197, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dental calculus (mineralised dental plaque) preserves many types of microfossils and biomolecules, including microbial and host DNA, and ancient calculus are thus an important source of information regarding our ancestral human oral microbiome. In this study, we taxonomically characterised the dental calculus microbiome from 20 ancient human skeletal remains originating from Trentino-South Tyrol, Italy, dating from the Neolithic (6000-3500 BCE) to the Early Middle Ages (400-1000 CE). RESULTS: We found a high abundance of the archaeal genus Methanobrevibacter in the calculus. However, only a fraction of the sequences showed high similarity to Methanobrevibacter oralis, the only described Methanobrevibacter species in the human oral microbiome so far. To further investigate the diversity of this genus, we used de novo metagenome assembly to reconstruct 11 Methanobrevibacter genomes from the ancient calculus samples. Besides the presence of M. oralis in one of the samples, our phylogenetic analysis revealed two hitherto uncharacterised and unnamed oral Methanobrevibacter species that are prevalent in ancient calculus samples sampled from a broad range of geographical locations and time periods. CONCLUSIONS: We have shown the potential of using de novo metagenomic assembly on ancient samples to explore microbial diversity and evolution. Our study suggests that there has been a possible shift in the human oral microbiome member Methanobrevibacter over the last millennia. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Archaea , Metagenoma , Archaea/genética , Cálculos Dentários , Humanos , Methanobrevibacter/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia
6.
Natl Sci Rev ; 8(1): nwaa210, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34691559
8.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 26: 347-359, 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513314

RESUMO

A hypoxic microenvironment is a common feature of skin wounds. Our previous study demonstrated that three-dimensional coculture of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ucMSCs) and endothelial cells facilitates cell communication and host integration in skin tissue engineering. Here, we aimed to identify the mechanism by which ucMSCs affect endothelial cells under hypoxic conditions after skin injury. We demonstrate that hypoxia enhances the exosome-mediated paracrine function of ucMSCs, which increases endothelial cell proliferation and migration. In a mouse full-thickness skin injury model, ucMSC-derived exosomes can be taken up by endothelial cells and accelerate wound healing. Hypoxic exosomes lead to a better outcome than normoxic exosomes by promoting proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis. Mechanistically, microRNA-125b (miR-125b) transcription is induced by hypoxia in ucMSCs. After being packaged into hypoxic exosomes and transported to endothelial cells, miR-125b targets and suppresses the expression of tumor protein p53 inducible nuclear protein 1 (TP53INP1) and alleviates hypoxia-induced cell apoptosis. Inhibition of miR-125b-TP53INP1 interaction attenuates the protective effect of hypoxic exosomes. Moreover, artificial agomiR-125b can accelerate wound healing in vivo. Our findings reveal communication between ucMSCs and endothelial cells via exosomal miR-125b/TP53INP1 signaling in the hypoxic microenvironment and present hypoxic exosomes as a promising therapeutic strategy to enhance cutaneous repair.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585354

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to investigate the mediating effect of placental inflammatory biomarkers on the relationship between prenatal phthalate coexposure and cognitive development in preschoolers. A subgroup of 1660 mother-child pairs from the Ma'anshan Birth Cohort study were included. We measured the levels of phthalate metabolites of dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in all the women included in the study from three urine samples collected in each of the trimesters. A potency-weighted sum of coexposure to DBP, BBzP, and DEHP (indicator: ∑PAE) was calculated. The mRNA of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and the classically activated macrophage (M1) biomarker CD68 was analyzed using placental tissues. The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition-Chinese was used to evaluate the full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) of children aged 2.5-6 years. Average ∑PAEs and ∑PAEs in each trimester were associated with IL-6 and CD68. ∑PAE in the first trimester was positively associated with IL-6 (ß = 0.11, 95% CIs = 0.03-0.19) and CD68 (ß = 0.16, 95% CIs = 0.04-0.28), and negatively associated with FSIQ (ß =-0.06, 95% CIs = -0.11 to -0.02), verbal comprehension (ß =-0.06, 95% CIs = -0.11 to -0.01), and processing speed (ß =-0.07, 95% CIs = -0.12 to -0.01). Additionally, sex discrepancies were observed for the mediating effects of placental inflammation on the relationships between ∑PAE and children's cognitive development. For instance, the association between ∑PAE in early pregnancy and FSIQ was partially mediated by IL-6 (estimated proportion mediated: 21.85%) and CD68 (estimated proportion mediated: 16.2%). Gender-specific associations and trimester-specific relationships of prenatal multiple phthalate coexposure were revealed. ∑PAE in the first trimester of pregnancy was associated with increased of placental inflammation, and a decrease in preschoolers' cognitive development. In boys, placental IL-6 and CD68 elevation resulting from phthalates might be potential mechanisms of poor cognitive development.

10.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0073421, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585989

RESUMO

The influenza A virus (IAV) infection is usually restricted to the respiratory tract and only rarely enters the central nervous system (CNS) and causes neurological symptoms. However, the roles of host factors involved in IAV infection in the CNS remain largely undetermined. Therefore, we aimed to characterize the host responses to IAV infection in the brain. We isolated a strain of IAV H5N6, which is neurotoxic and highly pathogenic to mice. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed 240 differentially expressed genes in IAV-infected brains. Among the significantly downregulated genes, we focused on the gene encoding progesterone receptor membrane component-1 (PGRMC1) and observed that IAV H5N6 infection clearly inhibited PGRMC1 in both neuroblastoma and glioma cells. Furthermore, treatment with AG205, a PGRMC1-specific inhibitor, or PGRMC1 knockout promoted H5N6 multiplication in vitro, while overexpression of PGRMC1 resulted in opposite effects. Furthermore, AG205 treatment or PGRMC1 knockout significantly inhibited the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-mediated interferon beta (IFN-ß) signaling pathway and reduced the levels of several antiviral proteins (Mx1 and ISG15). In addition, PGRMC1-mediated regulation of IFN signaling relied on inhibition of the expression and ubiquitination of RIG-I. The loss of PGRMC1 leads to an increased susceptibility of mice (brain and lung) to influenza A virus infection. Conclusively, our results show for the first time that IAV H5N6 downregulates PGRMC1 expression to contribute to virus proliferation by inhibiting RIG-I-mediated IFN-ß production in the brain. These findings may offer new insights regarding the interplay between IAV and host factors that may impact IAV pathogenicity in the brain. IMPORTANCE Central nervous system (CNS) disease is one of the most common extra-respiratory tract complications of influenza A virus (IAV) infections. However, there is still little knowledge about IAV regulating host responses in brain. In this study, we identified progesterone receptor membrane component-1 (PGRMC1) as a novel host factor involved in the replication and propagation of IAV H5N6 in the host brain. We also observed that PGRMC1 antagonism was required for viral evasion from the host immune response during IAV infection via inhibition of the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-mediated interferon beta (IFN-ß) signaling pathway and downstream antiviral gene expression. This study revealed a newly identified regulatory mechanism used by IAV H5N6 to ensure its life cycle in the CNS.

11.
Oncogene ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504297

RESUMO

Neoantigen peptides arising from genetic alterations may serve as targets for personalized cancer vaccines and as positive predictors of response to immune checkpoint therapy. Mutations in genes regulating RNA splicing are common in hematological malignancies leading to dysregulated splicing and intron retention (IR). In this study, we investigated IR as a potential source of tumor neoantigens in multiple myeloma (MM) patients and the relationship of IR-induced neoantigens (IR-neoAg) with clinical outcomes. MM-specific IR events were identified in RNA-sequencing data from the Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation CoMMpass study after removing IR events that also occurred in normal plasma cells. We quantified the IR-neoAg load by assessing IR-induced novel peptides that were predicted to bind to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. We found that high IR-neoAg load was associated with poor overall survival in both newly diagnosed and relapsed MM patients. Further analyses revealed that poor outcome in MM patients with high IR-neoAg load was associated with high expression levels of T-cell co-inhibitory molecules and elevated interferon signaling activity. We also found that MM cells exhibiting high IR levels had lower MHC-II protein abundance and treatment of MM cells with a spliceosome inhibitor resulted in increased MHC-I protein abundance. Our findings suggest that IR-neoAg may represent a novel biomarker of MM patient clinical outcome and further that targeting RNA splicing may serve as a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent MM immune escape and promote response to checkpoint blockade.

12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5695, 2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584097

RESUMO

The dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 RNA structure and their functional relevance are largely unknown. Here we develop a simplified SPLASH assay and comprehensively map the in vivo RNA-RNA interactome of SARS-CoV-2 genome across viral life cycle. We report canonical and alternative structures including 5'-UTR and 3'-UTR, frameshifting element (FSE) pseudoknot and genome cyclization in both cells and virions. We provide direct evidence of interactions between Transcription Regulating Sequences, which facilitate discontinuous transcription. In addition, we reveal alternative short and long distance arches around FSE. More importantly, we find that within virions, while SARS-CoV-2 genome RNA undergoes intensive compaction, genome domains remain stable but with strengthened demarcation of local domains and weakened global cyclization. Taken together, our analysis reveals the structural basis for the regulation of replication, discontinuous transcription and translational frameshifting, the alternative conformations and the maintenance of global genome organization during the whole life cycle of SARS-CoV-2, which we anticipate will help develop better antiviral strategies.


Assuntos
Mudança da Fase de Leitura do Gene Ribossômico/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Animais , COVID-19/virologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humanos , RNA-Seq , Transcrição Genética , Células Vero , Replicação Viral/genética
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 720844, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489970

RESUMO

Background: Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is characterized by vascular barrier dysfunction and suppression of alveolar fluid clearance (AFC). Obesity itself leads to chronic inflammation, which may initiate an injurious cascade to the lungs and simultaneously induce a protective feedback. In this study, we investigated the protective mechanism of obesity on VILI in a mouse model. Methods: The VILI model was set up via 6-h mechanical ventilation with a high tidal volume. Parameters including lung injury score, STAT3/NFκB pathway, and AFC were assessed. Mice with diet-induced obesity were obtained by allowing free access to a high-fat diet since the age of 3 weeks. After a 9-week diet intervention, these mice were sacrificed at the age of 12 weeks. The manipulation of SOCS3 protein was achieved by siRNA knockdown and pharmaceutical stimulation using hesperetin. WNK4 knockin and knockout obese mice were used to clarify the pathway of AFC modulation. Results: Obesity itself attenuated VILI. Knockdown of SOCS3 in obese mice offset the protection against VILI afforded by obesity. Hesperetin stimulated SOCS3 upregulation in nonobese mice and provided protection against VILI. In obese mice, the WNK4 axis was upregulated at the baseline, but was significantly attenuated after VILI compared with nonobese mice. At the baseline, the manipulation of SOCS3 by siRNA and hesperetin also led to the corresponding alteration of WNK4, albeit to a lesser extent. After VILI, WNK4 expression correlated with STAT3/NFκB activation, regardless of SOCS3 status. Obese mice carrying WNK4 knockout had VILI with a severity similar to that of wild-type obese mice. The severity of VILI in WNK4-knockin obese mice was counteracted by obesity, similar to that of wild-type nonobese mice only. Conclusions: Obesity protects lungs from VILI by upregulating SOCS3, thus suppressing the STAT3/NFκB inflammatory pathway and enhancing WNK4-related AFC. However, WNK4 activation is mainly from direct NFκB downstreaming, and less from SOCS3 upregulation. Moreover, JAK2-STAT3/NFκB signaling predominates the pathogenesis of VILI. Nevertheless, the interaction between SOCS3 and WNK4 in modulating VILI in obesity warrants further investigation.

14.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 210: 106395, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Chronic cough (CC) affects approximately 10% of adults. Many disease states are associated with chronic cough, such as asthma, upper airway cough syndrome, bronchitis, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. The lack of an ICD code specific for chronic cough makes it challenging to identify such patients from electronic health records (EHRs). For clinical and research purposes, computational methods using EHR data are urgently needed to identify chronic cough cases. This research aims to investigate the data representations and deep learning algorithms for chronic cough prediction. METHODS: Utilizing real-world EHR data from a large academic healthcare system from October 2005 to September 2015, we investigated Natural Language Representation of the EHR data and systematically evaluated deep learning and traditional machine learning models to predict chronic cough patients. We built these machine learning models using structured data (medication and diagnosis) and unstructured data (clinical notes). RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of a transformer-based deep learning algorithm, specifically BERT with attention model, was 0.856 and 0.866, respectively, using structured data (medication and diagnosis). Sensitivity and specificity improved to 0.952 and 0.930 when we combined structured data with symptoms extracted from clinical notes. We further found that the attention mechanism of deep learning models can be used to extract important features that drive the prediction decisions. Compared with our previously published rule-based algorithm, the deep learning algorithm can identify more chronic cough patients with structured data. CONCLUSIONS: By applying deep learning models, chronic cough patients can be reliably identified for prospective or retrospective research through medication and diagnosis data, widely available in EHR and electronic claims data, thus improving the generalizability of the patient identification algorithm. Deep learning models can identify chronic cough patients with even higher sensitivity and specificity when structured and unstructured EHR data are utilized. We anticipate language-based data representation and deep learning models developed in this research could also be productively used for other disease prediction and case identification.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Adulto , Algoritmos , Tosse/diagnóstico , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Metabolites ; 11(9)2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564456

RESUMO

Endothelial ABCA1 expression protects against atherosclerosis and this atheroprotective effect is partially attributed to enhancing apoAI-mediated cholesterol efflux. ABCA1 is a target gene for LXR and RXR; therefore, treating endothelial cells with LXR and/or RXR agonists may increase ABCA1 expression. We tested whether treating cultured immortalized mouse aortic endothelial cells (iMAEC) with the endogenous LXR agonist 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol, synthetic LXR agonist GW3965, endogenous RXR agonist 9-cis-retinoic acid, or synthetic RXR agonist SR11237 increases ABCA1 protein expression. We observed a significant increase in ABCA1 protein expression in iMAEC treated with either GW3965 or SR11237 alone, but no significant increase in ABCA1 protein was observed in iMAEC treated with either 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol or 9-cis-retionic acid alone. However, we observed significant increases in both ABCA1 protein expression and apoAI-mediated cholesterol efflux when iMAEC were treated with a combination of either 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol and 9-cis-retinoic acid or GW3965 and SR11237. Furthermore, treating iMAEC with either 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol and 9-cis-retinoic acid or GW3965 and SR11237 did not trigger an inflammatory response, based on VCAM-1, ICAM-1, CCL2, and IL-6 mRNA expression. Based on our findings, delivering LXR and RXR agonists precisely to endothelial cells may be a promising atheroprotective approach.

16.
Neuropathology ; 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553419

RESUMO

Titin, one of the largest proteins in humans, is a major component of muscle sarcomeres. Pathogenic variants in the titin gene (TTN) have been reported to cause a range of skeletal muscle diseases, collectively known as titinopathy. Titinopathy is a heterogeneous group of disabling diseases characterized by muscle weakness. In our study, we aimed to establish the clinicopathological-genetic spectrum of titinopathy from a single neuromuscular center. Three patients were diagnosed as having definite titinopathy, and additional three patients were diagnosed as having possible titinopathy according to the diagnostic criteria. All the patients showed initial symptoms from age one to 40 years. Physical examination revealed that five patients had muscle weakness, and that one patient experienced behavioral changes. Muscle biopsy specimens obtained from all six patients demonstrated multiple myopathological changes, including increased fiber size variation, muscle fiber hypertrophy or atrophy, formation of centralized cell nuclei, necklace cytoplasmic bodies, and formation of rimmed vacuoles and cores. Genetic testing revealed 11 different TTN alterations, including missense (6/11), nonsense (2/11), frameshift (2/11), and splicing (1/11) mutations. Our study provides further evidence that TTN mutations are more likely to be responsible for an increasing proportion of various myopathies, such as hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure (HMERF), core myopathy, and distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles, than currently recognized mutations. Our findings expand the clinical, pathohistological and genetic spectrum of titinopathy.

17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 225: 112736, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Based on a medical record or questionnaire survey approach, previous epidemiological studies have investigated associations between maternal antibiotic exposure during pregnancy and childhood allergic diseases. However, biomonitoring studies on the prenatal low-dose antibiotic exposure, mainly from the environment and contaminated food, and in relation to children allergic diseases, are missing. OBJECTIVES: This research aimed to examine the associations between prenatal low-dose antibiotic exposure measured at multiple time points and children current allergic diseases at 4 years of age. METHODS: The current study including 2453 mother-child pairs was based on the Ma'anshan Birth Cohort study. Selected 41 antibiotics and their two metabolites, which including human antibiotics (HAs), preferred as human antibiotics (PHAs), veterinary antibiotics (VAs) and preferred as veterinary antibiotics (PVAs), in urine samples from 2453 pregnant women were biomonitored through liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. Information on children current allergic diseases were collected via validated questionnaires. Generalized estimating equation were used to explore the associations between the repeated measurements of maternal urinary antibiotic over three trimesters and current allergic diseases in children. RESULTS: The detection rates of nine individual antibiotics in the three trimester during pregnancy are greater than 10%, and the 90th percentile concentration of the detected antibiotics ranges from 0.07 to 22.34 µg/g, and the 95th percentile concentration ranges from 0.17 to 59.57 µg/g. Among the participants, each one-unit concentration increment of sulfamethazine (adjusted OR=1.28, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.49, P-FDR=0.014) in the first trimester and ciprofloxacin (adjusted OR=1.17, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.28, P-FDR=0.008) in the second trimester were associated with an increased risk of current eczema in children. In the third trimester, each one-unit concentration increment of oxytetracycline (adjusted OR=1.90, 95% CI: 1.30, 2.78, P-FDR=0.014) was associated with an increased risk of current asthma in children. Gender-stratified analyses demonstrated that no gender differences were observed in the associations between prenatal antibiotic exposure and current allergic diseases in children. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal exposure to certain specific VAs or PVAs (sulfamethazine, ciprofloxacin and oxytetracycline) in different trimesters was associated with an increased risk of current asthma and current eczema in 4-year-old children. No gender differences were found in these associations. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings and explore the potential mechanisms.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Exposição Materna , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Trimestres da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Bio Protoc ; 11(16): e4128, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34541046

RESUMO

Analyzing cellular structures and the relative location of molecules is essential for addressing biological questions. Super-resolution microscopy techniques that bypass the light diffraction limit have become increasingly popular to study cellular molecule dynamics in situ. However, the application of super-resolution imaging techniques to detect small RNAs (sRNAs) is limited by the choice of proper fluorophores, autofluorescence of samples, and failure to multiplex. Here, we describe an sRNA-PAINT protocol for the detection of sRNAs at nanometer resolution. The method combines the specificity of locked nucleic acid probes and the low background, precise quantitation, and multiplexable characteristics of DNA Point Accumulation for Imaging in Nanoscale Topography (DNA-PAINT). Using this method, we successfully located sRNA targets that are important for development in maize anthers at sub-20 nm resolution and quantitated their exact copy numbers. Graphic abstract: Multiplexed sRNA-PAINT. Multiple Vetting and Analysis of RNA for In Situ Hybridization (VARNISH) probes with different docking strands (i.e., a, b, …) will be hybridized to samples. The first probe will be imaged with the a* imager. The a* imager will be washed off with buffer C, and then the sample will be imaged with b* imager. The wash and image steps can be repeated sequentially for multiplexing.

19.
Brain Behav ; 11(9): e2327, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423595

RESUMO

This study aims to explore the possibility of predicting the dispositional level of dialectical thinking using resting-state electroencephalography signals. Thirty-four participants completed a self-reported measure of dialectical thinking, and their resting-state electroencephalography was recorded. After wave filtration and eye movement removal, time-frequency electroencephalography signals were converted into four frequency domains: delta (1-4 Hz), theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (7-13 Hz), and beta (13-30 Hz). Functional principal component analysis with B-spline approximation was then applied for feature reduction. Five machine learning methods (support vector regression, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, K-nearest neighbors, random forest, and gradient boosting decision tree) were applied to the reduced features for prediction. The model ensemble technique was used to create the best performing final model. The results showed that the alpha wave of the electroencephalography signal in the early period (12-15 s) contributed most to the prediction of dialectical thinking. With data-driven electrode selection (FC1, FCz, Fz, FC3, Cz, AFz), the prediction model achieved an average coefficient of determination of 0.45 on 200 random test sets. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was found between the alpha value of standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography activity in the right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and dialectical self-scale score. The prefrontal and midline alpha oscillations of resting electroencephalography are good predictors of the dispositional level of dialectical thinking, possibly reflecting these brain structures' involvement in dialectical thinking.

20.
J Clin Neurosci ; 91: 270-275, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373039

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Disease evaluation and long-term follow-up of myasthenia gravis (MG) patients rely on disease-specific measures. We evaluated four widely used MG-specific assessments, and compared the response to disease change in different MG subgroups. METHODS: We used the Cronbach's α coefficient to test reliability, Pearson correlation coefficients to test construct validity, as well as one-way ANOVA and independent-sample t-tests to access discriminant validity. Analyses of similar items between QMG and MG-ADL included paired-sample t-tests and mean score comparisons. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to describe the correlation between changes of QMG, MG-ADL, MG-QOL15r and MGC. The Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test was performed to compare the outcomes. RESULTS: 872 MG patients were enrolled. QMG, MG-ADL, MG-QOL15r, and MGC all exhibited high reliability. All four scales displayed good discriminant validity according to the MGFA classification and MGC score. MG-ADL showed significant differences between patients grouped by age and gender, and MG-QOL15r showed significant differences between patients grouped by age. Analyses of similar items showed that MG-ADL achieved higher scores in bulbar items, whereas QMG produced higher scores in limb items. For patients in remission or minimal manifestation status, QMG exhibited significantly greater improvement than MG-QOL15r. In patients of MGFA I, II, III, and IV, QMG showed significantly greater improvement than MG-ADL. CONCLUSIONS: Patient-reported scale is an important supplement for a given period. MG-ADL has a better response to severe disease, and MG-QOL15r is more comprehensive for patients in remission or minimal manifestation status.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Miastenia Gravis , Humanos , Miastenia Gravis/diagnóstico , Miastenia Gravis/terapia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento
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