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1.
Food Chem ; 303: 125400, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470275

RESUMO

Siraitia grosvenorii fruit (SGF) has been used as a natural sweetener and traditional medicine in China for more than two centuries. This study evaluated the effect of SGF extract supplementation (0.5%, 1%, and 2%) on the chemical, microbial and sensory properties of probiotic yogurt. The antioxidant, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitory (ACE-I) and antibacterial bioactivities were determined. SGF extract supplementation improved some of the chemical and physicochemical characteristics. Probiotic yogurt with the fruit extract had significantly more Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus bulgaricus, whereas there was no significant effect on the number of Streptococcus thermophiles. The bioactivities were significantly increased by SGF extract supplementation. Probiotic yogurt with 2% SGF extract showed the highest antioxidant, ACE-I, and antibacterial activities, whereas the one with 1% SGF extract conferred the highest sensory attributes score. Overall, SGF extract offers a promising option as a dietary supplement to produce novel dairy products that have high nutritional and bioactivity values.

2.
J Hazard Mater ; : 121431, 2019 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672436

RESUMO

Spermatogenesis-related microRNAs (miRNAs) are vulnerable to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Changes in spermatogenesis-related miRNAs may be biological intermedia in mechanisms linking PAHs and semen quality. This study aimed to investigate whether spermatogenesis-related microRNAs mediate the associations between PAHs and semen quality. We measured 10 monohydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs) in repeated urine samples and three candidate spermatogenesis-related miRNAs (miRNA106a, miRNA21, and miRNA34c) in seminal plasma from men attending an infertility clinic (n = 111). Mediation analysis was applied to determine the mediating role of spermatogenesis-related miRNAs in the association of PAH exposure with semen quality. Urinary 2-OHFlu and 2-OHPh were related to reduced seminal plasma miRNA34c (p for trend = 0.05 and 0.03, respectively). Urinary 9-OHPh was related to reduced seminal plasma miR106a (p for trend = 0.02), which in turn, was positively associated with sperm concentration, sperm count, sperm total motility, and progressive motility (all p for trends<0.05). Up to 43.8% of the eff ;ect of urinary 9-OHPh on decreased sperm concentration was mediated by seminal plasma miR106a. Our results suggested that certain PAH exposure was associated with reduced spermatogenesis-related miRNAs and such alterations might be an intermediate mechanism by which PAHs exert its adverse effects on semen quality.

3.
Heart Lung ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognostic predictors of pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to advanced heart failure (HF) have yet to be explored. OBJECTIVES: To examine the prognostic value of hemodynamics and comorbidities in this patient group. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled consecutive patients with PH due to advanced HF diagnosed by echocardiography and right heart catheterization. Follow-up was performed every 6 months ± 2 weeks. Primary endpoints were all-cause mortality and heart or lung transplantation. RESULTS: In total, 92 patients were included. The mean age was 46.82 years and mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 26.63%. During a median follow-up time of 9.72 months, 66 patients (71.7%) met primary endpoints. Pulmonary arterial compliance (PAC) was a significant predictor for primary endpoints and patients burdened with more than 3 comorbidities had worse prognoses (P = 0.0114). CONCLUSIONS: In these patients, PAC can be a potential prognostic predictor and patients with a higher comorbidity burden have worse outcomes.

5.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 1-10, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670805

RESUMO

Importance: Surgical treatment comparisons in rare diseases are difficult secondary to the geographic distribution of patients. Fortunately, emerging technologies offer promise to reduce these barriers for research. Objective: To prospectively compare the outcomes of the 3 most common surgical approaches for idiopathic subglottic stenosis (iSGS), a rare airway disease. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this international, prospective, 3-year multicenter cohort study, 810 patients with untreated, newly diagnosed, or previously treated iSGS were enrolled after undergoing a surgical procedure (endoscopic dilation [ED], endoscopic resection with adjuvant medical therapy [ERMT], or cricotracheal resection [CTR]). Patients were recruited from clinician practices in the North American Airway Collaborative and an online iSGS community on Facebook. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was days from initial surgical procedure to recurrent surgical procedure. Secondary end points included quality of life using the Clinical COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) Questionnaire (CCQ), Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10), Eating Assessment Test-10 (EAT-10), the 12-Item Short-Form Version 2 (SF-12v2), and postoperative complications. Results: Of 810 patients in this cohort, 798 (98.5%) were female and 787 (97.2%) were white, with a median age of 50 years (interquartile range, 43-58 years). Index surgical procedures were ED (n = 603; 74.4%), ERMT (n = 121; 14.9%), and CTR (n = 86; 10.6%). Overall, 185 patients (22.8%) had a recurrent surgical procedure during the 3-year study, but recurrence differed by modality (CTR, 1 patient [1.2%]; ERMT, 15 [12.4%]; and ED, 169 [28.0%]). Weighted, propensity score-matched, Cox proportional hazards regression models showed ED was inferior to ERMT (hazard ratio [HR], 3.16; 95% CI, 1.8-5.5). Among successfully treated patients without recurrence, those treated with CTR had the best CCQ (0.75 points) and SF-12v2 (54 points) scores and worst VHI-10 score (13 points) 360 days after enrollment as well as the greatest perioperative risk. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of 810 patients with iSGS, endoscopic dilation, the most popular surgical approach for iSGS, was associated with a higher recurrence rate compared with other procedures. Cricotracheal resection offered the most durable results but showed the greatest perioperative risk and the worst long-term voice outcomes. Endoscopic resection with medical therapy was associated with better disease control compared with ED and had minimal association with vocal function. These results may be used to inform individual patient treatment decision-making.

7.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 44(6): 180245, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580042

RESUMO

Background: Resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) studies have provided much evidence for abnormal intrinsic brain activity in schizophrenia, but results have been inconsistent. Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis of whole-brain, resting-state fMRI studies that explored differences in amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) between people with schizophrenia (including first episode and chronic) and healthy controls. Results: A systematic literature search identified 24 studies comparing a total of 1249 people with schizophrenia and 1179 healthy controls. Overall, patients with schizophrenia displayed decreased ALFF in the bilateral postcentral gyrus, bilateral precuneus, left inferior parietal gyri and right occipital lobe, and increased ALFF in the right putamen, right inferior frontal gyrus, left inferior temporal gyrus and right anterior cingulate cortex. In the subgroup analysis, patients with first-episode schizophrenia demonstrated decreased ALFF in the bilateral inferior parietal gyri, right precuneus and left medial prefrontal cortex, and increased ALFF in the bilateral putamen and bilateral occipital gyrus. Patients with chronic schizophrenia showed decreased ALFF in the bilateral postcentral gyrus, left precuneus and right occipital gyrus, and increased ALFF in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, bilateral superior frontal gyrus, left amygdala, left inferior temporal gyrus, right anterior cingulate cortex and left insula. Limitations: The small sample size of our subgroup analysis, predominantly Asian samples, processing steps and publication bias could have limited the accuracy of the results. Conclusion: Our comprehensive meta-analysis suggests that findings of aberrant regional intrinsic brain activity during the initial stages of schizophrenia, and much more widespread damage with the progression of disease, may contribute to our understanding of the progressive pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 803-812, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564438

RESUMO

Concurrent hearing and genetic screening of newborns is expected to play important roles not only in early detection and diagnosis of congenital deafness, which triggers intervention, but also in predicting late-onset and progressive hearing loss and identifying individuals who are at risk of drug-induced HL. Concurrent hearing and genetic screening in the whole newborn population in Beijing was launched in January 2012. This study included 180,469 infants born in Beijing between April 2013 and March 2014, with last follow-up on February 24, 2018. Hearing screening was performed using transiently evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) and automated auditory brainstem response (AABR). For genetic testing, dried blood spots were collected and nine variants in four genes, GJB2, SLC26A4, mtDNA 12S rRNA, and GJB3, were screened using a DNA microarray platform. Of the 180,469 infants, 1,915 (1.061%) were referred bilaterally or unilaterally for hearing screening; 8,136 (4.508%) were positive for genetic screening (heterozygote, homozygote, or compound heterozygote and mtDNA homoplasmy or heteroplasmy), among whom 7,896 (4.375%) passed hearing screening. Forty (0.022%) infants carried two variants in GJB2 or SLC26A4 (homozygote or compound heterozygote) and 10 of those infants passed newborn hearing screening. In total, 409 (0.227%) infants carried the mtDNA 12S rRNA variant (m.1555A>G or m.1494C>T), and 405 of them passed newborn hearing screening. In this cohort study, 25% of infants with pathogenic combinations of GJB2 or SLC26A4 variants and 99% of infants with an m.1555A>G or m.1494C>T variant passed routine newborn hearing screening, indicating that concurrent screening provides a more comprehensive approach for management of congenital deafness and prevention of ototoxicity.

9.
Small ; : e1903739, 2019 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565845

RESUMO

Single-cell analysis offers unprecedented resolution for the investigation of cellular heterogeneity and the capture of rare cells from large populations. Here, described is a simple method named interfacial nanoinjection (INJ), which can miniaturize various single-cell assays to be performed in nanoliter water-in-oil droplets on standard microwell plates. The INJ droplet handler can adjust droplet volumes for multistep reactions on demand with high precision and excellent monodispersity, and consequently enables a wide range of single-cell assays. Importantly, INJ can be coupled with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), which is currently the most effective and accurate single-cell sorting and isolation method. FACS-INJ pipelines for high-throughput plate well-based single-cell analyses, including single-cell proliferation, drug-resistance testing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse-transcription PCR, and whole-genome sequencing are introduced. This FACS-INJ pipeline is compatible with a wide range of samples and can be extended to various single-cell analysis applications in microbiology, cell biology, and biomedical diagnostics.

10.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595698

RESUMO

In plants, submergence from flooding causes hypoxia, which impairs energy production and affects plant growth, productivity, and survival. In Arabidopsis, hypoxia induces nuclear localization of the group VII ethylene-responsive transcription factor RELATED TO AP2.12 (RAP2.12), following its dissociation from the plasma membrane-anchored ACYL-COA-BINDING PROTEIN1 (ACBP1) and ACBP2. Here, we show that polyunsaturated linolenoyl-CoA (18:3-CoA) regulates RAP2.12 release from the plasma membrane. Submergence caused a significant increase in 18:3-CoA, but a significant decrease in 18:0-, 18:1-, and 18:2-CoA. Application of 18:3-CoA promoted nuclear accumulation of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions RAP2.12-GFP, HYPOXIA-RESPONSIVE ERF1-GFP, and RAP2.3-GFP, and enhanced transcript levels of hypoxia-responsive genes. Plants with decreased ACBP1 and ACBP2 (acbp1 ACBP2-RNAi, produced by ACBP2 RNA interference in the acbp1 mutant) had reduced tolerance to hypoxia and impaired 18:3-CoA-induced expression of hypoxia-related genes. In knockout mutants and overexpression lines of LONG-CHAIN ACYL-COA SYNTHASE2 (LACS2) and FATTY ACID DESATURASE 3 (FAD3), the acyl-CoA pool size and 18:3-CoA levels were closely related to ERF-VII-mediated signaling and hypoxia tolerance. These findings demonstrate that polyunsaturation of long-chain acyl-CoAs functions as important mechanism in the regulation of plant hypoxia signaling, by modulating ACBP-ERF-VII dynamics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587054

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To date, few studies have assessed the quality of life following congenital cardiac surgery. In this study, we aimed at determining the quality of life after truncus arteriosus (TA) repair using the Short Form 36 questionnaire in adult survivors. METHODS: Seventy-three patients (age >18 years) who underwent TA repair at the Royal Children's Hospital, Australia were identified for the study. Of these, 42 patients (58%, 42/73) participated in the study and completed the Short Form 36 questionnaire. The results of the 8 domains and the derived health state summary score (Short Form Six Dimension, SF-6D) were compared with age-matched Australian population controls, and with patients who underwent the arterial switch operation (ASO). RESULTS: Compared with the age-matched Australian population, 18- to 24-year-old TA patients (31%, 13/42) had lower scores in 6 of 8 domains; 25- to 34-year-old TA patients (36%, 15/42) scored lower in 5 of 8 domains; and 35- to 44-year-old TA patients (33%, 14/42) scored lower in 4 of 8 domains. SF-6D scores were not significantly different between TA patients and the age-matched Australian population. Compared with patients who underwent ASO, 18-to 24-year-old TA patients scored lower in 3 of 8 domains; and 25- to 34-year-old TA patients scored lower in 2 of 8 domains. There was no significant difference in SF-6D scores between TA and patients who underwent the ASO. CONCLUSIONS: Adult survivors of TA have similar quality of life compared with age-matched Australian controls measured by SF-6D. Despite a higher reoperation rate in TA patients, they have similar quality of life compared with ASO patients.

12.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(3): 397-407, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596251

RESUMO

In this work, the study of copper particles deposition on to carbon felt was presented by pulse electrodeposition method to electrochemically degrade methyl iodide (CH3I, 1 mg L-1) in aqueous solution. In order to solve the problems linked to the heterogeneous potential distribution in the 3-D porous structure, which lead to the so-called 'black core', we successfully used low concentration of copper salt (1 mM) and negative deposition potential (-2.5 V) to obtain Cu-nanoparticles/carbon felt (Cu-nano/CF) electrode, the copper coating improved the specific surface area of carbon felt from ∼0.07 to 0.7 m2 g-1 with high catalytic activity. Results show that 98.1% of CH3I can be removed with the Cu-nano/CF electrode in 120 min.


Assuntos
Cobre , Hidrocarbonetos Iodados/química , Resíduos Radioativos , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/química , Carbono/química , Fibra de Carbono/química , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Patients with RA and SLE have an excess cardiovascular risk. We aimed to evaluate outcomes of acute cardiovascular events in these patients. METHODS: Using a nationwide database of Taiwan, we identified adult patients who experienced first-time acute myocardial infarction (n = 191 008), intracranial haemorrhage (n = 169 923) and ischaemic stroke (n = 486 890) over a 13-year period. Odds ratios (ORs) of in-hospital mortality and hazard ratios (HRs) of overall mortality and adverse outcomes during long-term follow-up in relation to RA and SLE were estimated with adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: In each cohort, 748, 410 and 1419 patients had established RA; 256, 292 and 622 patients had SLE. Among acute myocardial infarction patients, RA and SLE were associated with in-hospital mortality (RA: OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.33, 1.95; SLE: OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.62, 3.28) and overall mortality. Additionally, RA (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.18, 1.38) and SLE (HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.27, 1.69) increased the risk of major adverse cardiac events. After intracranial haemorrhage, patients with RA and SLE had higher risks of in-hospital mortality (RA: OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.26, 2.06; SLE: OR 3.00, 95% CI 2.33, 3.86) and overall mortality. After ischaemic stroke, RA and SLE increased in-hospital mortality (RA: OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.15, 1.83; SLE: OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.57, 3.02), overall mortality and recurrent cerebrovascular events (RA: HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.002, 1.21; SLE: HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.14, 1.51), among which ischaemic stroke (HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.19, 1.62) was more likely to recur in SLE patients. CONCLUSION: Both RA and SLE are consistently associated with adverse outcomes following acute cardiovascular events, highlighting the necessity of integrated care for affected patients.

14.
Toxicol Lett ; 317: 110-119, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618666

RESUMO

Trichloroethylene (TCE), a commonly used industrial solvent and degreasing agent, is known to cause trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome (THS) with multi-system damage, including skin, liver and kidney. Clinical evidence have shown that the kidney injury occurs in THS and our previous studies suggested that the terminal complement complex C5b-9 deposited in impaired renal tubules induced by TCE with unclear mechanisms. In the present study, we questioned whether activation of the complement system with renal deposition of C5b-9 contributes to TCE-induced kidney injury in THS. We established a BALB/c mouse model of TCE sensitization with or without pretreatment of exogenous CD59, a C5b-9 inhibitory protein. H&E staining, PAS staining, and biochemical detection of urinary proteins were performed to assess renal function. Deposition of C5b-9 and expression of CD59 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Sub-lytic effects of C5b-9 in tubular epithelial cells were assessed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cytotoxicity assay. Expression of endocytosis receptors megalin and cubilin on proximal tubules were assessed by immunofluorescence and qRT-PCR. We found that TCE sensitization induced structural and functional changes of renal tubules in mice, associated with the deposition of sub-lytic C5b-9 on proximal tubular epithelial cells. TCE sensitization decreased proximal tubule uptake of filtered proteins and renal expression of megalin and cubilin, phenotypes that were attenuated by pretreatment with exogenous CD59. Overall, our findings reveal a novel mechanism underlying sub-lytic C5b-9 acting on megalin and cubilin, contributes to the renal tubules damage by TCE exposure.

15.
Life Sci ; : 116931, 2019 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618610

RESUMO

AIMS: With the improvement of the survival rates in children acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), some children ALL survivors show impaired cognitive function. Methotrexate (MTX), an essential component in ALL treatment, has been reported to be related to neurologic sequelae and to increased oxidative stress through its interactions with enzymes in the folate pathway. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is the main endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, and increased ADMA may result from increased oxidants. Melatonin is an antioxidant; however, its role in MTX neuropathy is not well studied. We developed a rat model mimicking child ALL treatment to explore peripheral and central homocysteine and ADMA regulation after MTX and found potential treatment choice. MAIN METHODS: Preweaning male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Experiment 1 evaluated spatial performance in rats with intrathecal (IT) MTX, intraperitoneal (IP) MTX, or combined IT and IP MTX, protocols mimicking ALL treatment in children. Experiment 2 focused on rats with combined IT and IP MTX, evaluating spatial performance and plasma and dorsal hippocampal homocysteine and ADMA levels, their regulation, and the protective effect of melatonin. KEY FINDINGS: Combined IT and IP MTX treatment caused in spatial deficits in developing rats, and melatonin restored the spatial performance. Alterations in peripheral and central homocysteine and ADMA concentrations and their regulation were found and could be alleviated by melatonin treatment. SIGNIFICANCES: Combined IP and IT MTX treatment caused spatial deficits in developing rats. Melatonin could restore spatial performance through alleviating the effects on the imbalance of oxidative stress.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610916

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized with articular cartilage degradation, and monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-treated chondrocyte is the most commonly used model for mimicking OA progression. Zinc protects chondrocytes from MIA-induced damage. Here, we explored the protective effects of 25 µM zinc on 5 µM MIA-treated SW1353 cells (human chondrosarcoma cell line) through the analysis of energy metabolism- and autophagy-related parameters. We found that the exposure of SW1353 cells to MIA decreased ATP levels, expression of glycolysis-related proteins, including glucose transporter 1, hexokinase 2, and pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit alpha, and the levels of mitochondrial complex I, II, IV, and V subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation pathway. MIA treatment also decreased the expression of autophagy-related proteins, including autophagic elongation protein 5 (ATG5), ATG7, and microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B light chain 3B (LC3-II) and mitophagy-related proteins, including phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), ubiquitin, and p62. These results indicate that MIA interferes with energy metabolism and the autophagic clearance of dysfunctional mitochondria (so called mitophagy). Interestingly, zinc exposure could almost completely reverse the effects of MIA, suggesting its potential protective role against OA progression.

17.
Proc Biol Sci ; 286(1914): 20191576, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662082

RESUMO

Pathogens represent a significant threat to human health leading to the emergence of strategies designed to help manage their negative impact. We examined how spiritual beliefs developed to explain and predict the devastating effects of pathogens and spread of infectious disease. Analysis of existing data in studies 1 and 2 suggests that moral vitalism (beliefs about spiritual forces of evil) is higher in geographical regions characterized by historical higher levels of pathogens. Furthermore, drawing on a sample of 3140 participants from 28 countries in study 3, we found that historical higher levels of pathogens were associated with stronger endorsement of moral vitalistic beliefs. Furthermore, endorsement of moral vitalistic beliefs statistically mediated the previously reported relationship between pathogen prevalence and conservative ideologies, suggesting these beliefs reinforce behavioural strategies which function to prevent infection. We conclude that moral vitalism may be adaptive: by emphasizing concerns over contagion, it provided an explanatory model that enabled human groups to reduce rates of contagious disease.

18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(19)2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569708

RESUMO

Male-sterile plants provide an important breeding tool for the heterosis of hybrid crops, such as Brassicaceae. In the last decade, circular RNAs (circRNAs), as a novel class of covalently closed and single-stranded endogenous non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), have received much attention because of their functions as "microRNA (miRNA) sponges" and "competing endogenous RNAs" (ceRNAs). However, the information about circRNAs in the regulation of male-sterility and anther development is limited. In this study, we established the Polima cytoplasm male sterility (CMS) line "Bcpol97-05A", and the fertile line, "Bcajh97-01B", in Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino, syn. B. rapa ssp. chinensis, and performed RNA expression profiling comparisons between the flower buds of the sterile line and fertile line by whole-transcriptome sequencing. A total of 31 differentially expressed (DE) circRNAs, 47 DE miRNAs, and 4779 DE mRNAs were identified. By using Cytoscape, the miRNA-mediated regulatory network and ceRNA network were constructed, and the circRNA A02:23507399|23531438 was hypothesized to be an important circRNA regulating anther development at the post-transcriptional level. The gene ontology (GO) analysis demonstrated that miRNAs and circRNAs could regulate the orderly secretion and deposition of cellulose, sporopollenin, pectin, and tryphine; the timely degradation of lipids; and the programmed cell death (PCD) of tapetum cells, which play key roles in anther development. Our study revealed a new circRNA-miRNA-mRNA network, which is involved in the anther development of B. campestris, which enriched the understanding of CMS in flowering plants, and laid a foundation for further study on the functions of circRNAs and miRNAs during anther development.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623306

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the association between environmental exposure to tobacco smoke (ETS) during early life and astigmatism in Chinese preschool children. In this cross-sectional study, information concerning prenatal and postnatal ETS exposure at three stages of early life (during pregnancy, from birth to one year and from one to three years), visual problems of children and parents (including a confirmed diagnosis of astigmatism), socio-demographics and perinatal characteristics were obtained from 27,890 parent-reported questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were undertaken to yield adjusted odds ratios (OR) for assessing their associations. After adjusting for the potential confounders, children were more likely to exhibit astigmatism when they were exposed to ETS during pregnancy + from one to three years [OR (95% CI) = 1.37 (1.02, 1.84)], or from birth to one year + from one to three years [OR (95% CI) = 1.36 (1.11, 1.66)], or during pregnancy + from birth to one year + from one to three years old [OR (95% CI) = 1.29 (1.16, 1.45)], compared to children without ETS exposure at any stage of early life. In Chinese preschool children, prenatal and postnatal astigmatism was associated with ETS exposure; the greater the ETS dose, the greater the astigmatism risk.

20.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 8(1): 92, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The barriers to access diagnosis and receive treatment, in addition to insufficient case identification and reporting, lead to tuberculosis (TB) spreads in communities, especially among hard-to-reach populations. This study evaluated a community-based active case finding (ACF) strategy for the detection of tuberculosis cases among high-risk groups and general population in China between 2013 and 2015. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study conducted an ACF in ten communities of Dongchuan County, located in northeast Yunnan Province between 2013 and 2015; and compared to 136 communities that had passive case finding (PCF). The algorithm for ACF was: 1) screen for TB symptoms among community enrolled residents by home visits, 2) those with positive symptoms along with defined high-risk groups underwent chest X-ray (CXR), followed by sputum microscopy confirmation. TB incidence proportion and the number needed to screen (NNS) to detect one case were calculated to evaluate the ACF strategy compared to PCF, chi-square test was applied to compare the incidence proportion of TB cases' demography and the characteristics for detected cases under different strategies. Thereafter, the incidence rate ratio (IRR) and multiple Fisher's exact test were applied to compare the incidence proportion between general population and high-risk groups. Patient and diagnostic delays for ACF and PCF were compared by Wilcoxon rank sum test. RESULTS: A total of 97 521 enrolled residents were visited with the ACF cumulatively, 12.3% were defined as high-risk groups or had TB symptoms. Sixty-six new TB patients were detected by ACF. There was no significant difference between the cumulative TB incidence proportion for ACF (67.7/100000 population) and the prevalence for PCF (62.6/100000 population) during 2013 to 2015, though the incidence proportion in ACF communities decreased after three rounds active screening, concurrent with the remained stable prevalence in PCF communities. The cumulative NNS were 34, 39 and 29 in HIV/AIDS infected individuals, people with positive TB symptoms and history of previous TB, respectively, compared to 1478 in the general population. The median patient delay under ACF was 1 day (Interquartile range, IQR: 0-27) compared to PCF with 30 days (IQR: 14-61). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed that massive ACF was not effective in general population in a moderate TB prevalence setting. The priority should be the definition and targeting of high-risk groups in the community before the screening process is launched. The shorter time interval of ACF between TB symptoms onset and linkage to healthcare service may decrease the risk of TB community transmission. Furthermore, integrated ACF strategy in the National Project of Basic Public Health Service may have long term public health impact.

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