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1.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the complication of infective endocarditis (IE), embolic events (EE) are associated with increased mortality and morbidity. However, there are no reliable indicators to predict embolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as a biomarker to identify IE patients at high risk of embolism. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study of IE patients from January 2018 to December 2020. Plasma NGAL levels were measured in 88 IE patients (37 patients with EE and 51 patients without EE), 91 noninfectious heart valve disease (HVD) patients, and 20 healthy blood donors by ELISA. Native valve tissue was obtained from 16 IE patients and 16 HVD patients. Western blot and immunohistochemical staining were performed to detect NGAL and matrix metalloproteinas-9 (MMP-9). RESULTS: Higher levels of NGAL were observed in IE patients than HVD patients (P<0.001) or healthy blood donors (P<0.01). In addition, NGAL levels were higher in IE patients with EE compared to those without EE (P<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that NGAL acted as a potential EE predictor with the cutoff value of 166.78 ng/ml. IE patients with higher NGAL levels were significantly related to more severe native valve morphologic changes. NGAL was co-localized with MMP-9, and their expression in the valves of IE patients was higher than those of HVD patients. CONCLUSIONS: NGAL is a potential predictor of EE in IE. This may be attributed to its potency of increasing the proteolytic activity of MMP-9, which leads to valve morphologic impairment.

2.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949525

RESUMO

Herein, we report an N-alkylation of pyrroles triggered by an unprecedented selective ring-expansive migration of the spiro-2H-pyrrole intermediates obtained via Ir-catalyzed asymmetric allylic dearomatization. The reaction affords a series of tetrahydropyrrolo[1,2-c]pyrimidine derivatives in good yields (up to 88%) with excellent enantioselectivity (up to >99% ee). The proposed reaction mechanism is supported by DFT calculations and the characterization of the key intermediate.

3.
J Cell Physiol ; 2021 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934358

RESUMO

Various cells within the adrenal microenvironment are important in maintaining the body homeostasis. However, our understanding of adrenal disease pathogenesis is limited by an incomplete molecular characterization of the cell types responsible for the organ's multiple homeostatic functions. We report a cellular landscape of the human adrenal gland using single-cell RNA sequencing. We reveal characteristic features of cell types within the human adrenal microenvironment and found immune activation of nonimmune cells in the adrenal endothelial cells. We also reveal that abundant immune cells occupied a lot of space in adrenal gland. Additionally, Sex-related diversity in the adrenocortical cells and different gene expression profiles between the left and right adrenal gland are also observed at single-cell resolution. Together, at single-cell resolution, the transcriptomic map presents a comprehensive view of the human adrenal gland, which serves as a fundamental baseline description of this organ and paves a way for the further studies of adrenal diseases.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(18): e25545, 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a common malignant tumor in women. In recent years, its incidence is increasing year by year, and its morbidity and mortality rank the first place among female malignant tumors. Some key enzymes and intermediates in glycolysis are closely related to tumor development. Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is an important rate-limiting enzyme in glycolysis pathway. Meanwhile, it is highly expressed in proliferative cells, especially in tumor cells, and plays an important role in the formation of Warburg effect and tumorigenesis. Previous studies have explored the effects of PKM2 expression on the prognosis and clinical significance of breast cancer patients, while the results are contradictory and uncertain. This study uses controversial data for meta-analysis to accurately evaluate the problem. We collected relevant Oncomine and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data to further verify the results. Through bioinformatics analysis, the mechanism and related pathways of PKM2 in breast cancer are explored. METHODS: We searched Wanfang, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Chongqing VIP Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases from inception to March 2021. The language restrictions are Chinese and English. The published literatures on PKM2 expression and prognosis or clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer patients were statistically analyzed. Combined hazard ratios (HRs), odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to evaluate the effects of PKM2 on the prognosis and clinicopathological features of breast cancer. Stata 14.0 software was applied for meta-analysis. Oncomine and TCGA databases were used to meta-analyze the differences of PKM2 mRNA expression between breast cancer and normal breast tissues. The expression of PKM2 protein was verified by Human Protein Atlas (HPA) database. The relationship between the gene and the survival of breast cancer patients was analyzed by Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA). The relationship between PKM2 gene and clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed by using LinkedOmics, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment pathway analysis was performed by using Metascape. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed by String website. RESULTS: The results of this meta-analysis will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal for publication. CONCLUSION: This study provides high-quality medical evidence for the correlation between the expression of PKM2 and the prognosis and clinicopathological features of breast cancer. Through bioinformatics analysis, this study further deepens the understanding of the mechanism and related pathways of PKM2 in breast cancer. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The private information from individuals will not be published. This systematic review also should not damage participants' rights. Ethical approval is not available. The results may be published in a peer-reviewed journal or disseminated in relevant conferences. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/W52HB.

5.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 121: 104107, 2021 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878363

RESUMO

IL-22, a multifunctional cytokine, acts as an important regulator in host immunity in mammals. IL-22 homologues have been characterized in several species of fish, with its expression found in multiple tissues/cells in fish, but its target cells have not been fully analyzed. In the present research, different organ/tissue isolated cells were examined for the expression of IL-22 and the induced IL-22 responses in mandarin fish. The mandarin fish IL-22 was found to be expressed in all these tested cells with high basal expression in intestinal cells. The HKLs showed low basal expression but significant increase in expression of IL-22 after LPS treatment or bacterial infection. Only intestinal cells showed response to IL-22 by enhanced expression of hepcidin, LEAP2 and IL-22BP, with unresponsiveness observed in other tested cells, which indicated the cell-specificity of IL-22 bioactivity in mandarin fish. One of the heterodimeric receptor components for IL-22, the IL-22RA1, was cloned in mandarin fish, with four tandem fibronectin type III (FNIII) domains identified in its extracellular part. IL-22RA1 exhibited an intestinal cell-specific expression pattern, although another receptor component of IL-22, IL-10R2, displayed constitutive expressions in all these tested cells. The present study reveals that the mandarin fish IL-22 exhibits its bioactivity in a cell-specific manner in intestinal cells, which is reflected in the restrictive expression of its receptor unit, IL-22RA1.

6.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 183: 113217, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862395

RESUMO

Organic mercury including methyl-mercury and ethyl-mercury (CH3Hg+ and C2H5Hg+) has high toxicity and bio-accumulation, and thus is easy to generate bio-amplification in food chain. Hence, the specific detection of organic mercury has great significance for objectively assessing the health risk of mercury in seafood. We herein designed an aptamer (AS-T7), which consists of a silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) scaffold sequence (AS) and a T-rich sequence (AT7), for simultaneously synthetizing DNA-templated AgNCs and recognizing organic mercury, and further developed a label-free fluorescent method for the sensitive and specific determination of organic mercury (CH3Hg+ and C2H5Hg+ total concentration) by using DNA-templated AgNCs as signal. Without organic mercury, Ag+ in the mixture of aptamer and Ag+ was bond on AS of aptamer to form AS-templated AgNCs after reduction, and thus emitted strong fluorescence. Whereas, in the presence of organic mercury, CH3Hg+/C2H5Hg+ was bond on AT7 of aptamer to generate photoinduced electron transfer (PET) between CH3Hg+/C2H5Hg+ and AS-templated AgNCs, and thus results in fluorescence quenching of AS-templated AgNCs. The fluorescent method could be used to rapidly detect organic mercury with a detection limit of 5.0 nM (i.e. 1.01 ng Hg/g), which meets the U.S. EPA standard of 0.3 mg/kg (wet). The method was successfully used to detect organic mercury in water and fish muscle with a recovery of 96%-104% and an inter-days RSD (n = 5) < 7%. The success of the study promised a reliable method for rapid and specific detection of organic mercury in environmental and biological samples.

7.
Chemosphere ; 278: 130397, 2021 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823355

RESUMO

Aluminum (Al), a neurotoxin agent, is universal in the earth crust, but its bioavailability and toxicity are manifested under acidic conditions. Up to 60% of the acid soils are distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, where crops simultaneously experience heat-shock stress. Here, we investigated the effects of heat shock-priming on Al tolerance in two different wheat genotypes. Conditioning of wheat seedlings with short period high temperature significantly alleviated Al-induced root growth inhibition, but did not significantly affect Al accumulation. However, we observed that heat shock-primed roots maintained lower levels of lipid peroxidation and higher cell viability. These priming-triggered effects were associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis. Furthermore, conditioning of plants with high temperature increased the contents of reduced ascorbate and glutathione, and ratios of reduced to oxidized forms of these molecules in wheat roots. However, ascorbate or glutathione biosynthesis inhibitors markedly prevented heat shock priming-induced ROS reduction accompanied by aggravated root elongation. Moreover, heat shock-priming enhanced the metabolic intensity of ascorbate-glutathione cycle, as activities of the cycle-allied enzymes were significantly increased. These results suggest that heat-shock induces cross adaptation to Al toxicity through sustaining efficient ascorbate-glutathione cycle operation in wheat plants.

8.
Bioorg Chem ; 112: 104863, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823405

RESUMO

The chemoenzymatic remodeled monoclonal antidodies with well-defined glycan structure at the Fc domain display improved biological activities, such as ADCC and ADCP, and are more likely to yield a better safety profile by eliminating the non-human glycans derived from CHO cell culture. We covalently immobilize wild type endoglycosidase S (EndoS), fucosidase, and EndoS2 mutant on magnetic beads through a linker to efficiently generate homogeneous antibody glycoforms without additional purification step to remove endoglycosidase and fucosidase. We also used the biotinylated wild type EndoS2 and EndoS2 mutant in combination with covalently immobilized fucosidase on magnetic beads to allow the sequential removal of endoglycosidases and fucosidase for efficient glyco-engineering and isolation of antibodies without purifying deglycosylated antibody intermediate. Notably, the relatively expensive fucosidase can be recovered to reduce the cost, and the strong affinity of streptavidin to biotin would complete the isolation of biotinylated enzymes. We used Trastuzumab as a model to demonstrate both approaches were reliable for the large-scale production and isolation of antibodies without the residual contamination of endoglycosidase to avoid deglycosylation over storage time.

9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 275: 114126, 2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872749

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Triangle grass is a liliaceous Chlorophytum perennial herb of ChlorophytumlaxumR.Br. It is distributed mainly in Guangdong and Guangxi Provinces of China. The initial use of triangle grass was mainly to treat bone pain and swelling caused by a fall injury. Triangle grass tablets (NO. Z20070544) are also used as a preparation in our hospital because of their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-snake venom and microcirculation improvement properties and other pharmacological effects (Mei et al., 2006). Triangle grass tablets have been widely used in our hospital to treat patients with bone pain from chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). However, the effects and mechanism of triangle grass on bone metabolism in chronic kidney disease complicated with mineral and bone abnormalities are unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a triangle grass decoction on bone metabolism in CKD-MBD rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CKD-MBD model rats were subjected to 5/6 nephrectomy combined with 0.5 g NaH2PO4/rat. Serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels were measured with an automatic biochemical analyser. Bone mineral density was determined with a Viva CT 40 system. Bone morphogenetic protein 7(BMP-7),runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and Osterix protein levels were measured by Western blot analysis. Kidney, vertebra and thoracic aorta tissue samples were assessed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC). RESULTS: The degrees of membrane thickening, necrosis, swelling and cast deposition were significantly reduced in high-dose rats and Low-dose rats. Serum BUN levels were significantly reduced in the Pre-H group (P < 0.05). Hypocalcaemia and hyperphos phataemia were detected in triangle grass (P < 0.05, P < 0.05). In addition, iPTH levels were significantly increased in the Pre-H group (P < 0.05). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)levels were significantly decreased in the Pre-H group (P < 0.05). The bone mineral density was improved in the Pre-H and Pre-L groups. BMP-7 protein levels were significantly increased in the Pre-H group (P < 0.05). The pathological changes in muscle fibres in the thoracic aorta middle membranes were significantly alleviated in rats in the Pre-H and Pre-L groups. Changes in SM22α and SMα-act in protein levels were significantly attenuated in the Pre-H group (P < 0.05, P < 0.05). Changes in Runx2 and Osterix protein levels were also significantly attenuated in the Pre-H and Pre-L groups (P < 0.05, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Triangle grass can simultaneously ameliorate vertebral bone loss and abnormal calcification in the thoracic aorta. Triangle grass has a definite effect on bone metabolism disorder in CKD-MBD rats.

10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(16): e25589, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879719

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) is a clinicoradiological phenomenon first observed 2 decades ago. Reversibility is the hallmark of this rare clinical phenomenon once the triggering pathology is aptly and adequately treated. Tinnitus preceding bilateral hearing loss as a symptomatology of RPLS has not been reported in the literature. Furthermore, chronic obstructive ureteric calculus with superimposed infections as a cause of RPLS has not been reported in the literature. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 57-year-old female was admitted at our facility because of 2 days history of hearing loss in both ears. She experienced tinnitus in both ears 2 weeks prior to the hearing loss. She is a known hypertensive. She has also undergone multiple surgical treatments for urinary calculi. DIAGNOSIS: Computed tomography (CT) scan of the urinary system revealed a calculus at the right ureter. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed abnormal signals at both temporo-parieto-occipital (TPO) cortices, the subcortical area, as well as the left hippocampus which was consistent with the diagnosis of RPLS. INTERVENTIONS: While on antibiotics for treatment of infections, the patient went into hypertensive encephalopathy and pneumonia was also established necessitating intensive care. OUTCOMES: We observed a resolution of the patient's temperature and hypertension when the right ureteric stone finally descended into the bladder. Also, we observed disappearance of the abnormal signals at both TPO cortices, the subcortical area, as well as the left hippocampus. Two years follow-up revealed no recurrence of her symptomatology. LESIONS: Patients who present with hypertensive encephalopathy maybe more prone to developing RPLS. Renal insufficiency alone or hypertension alone may not be single predisposing entities to RPLS but rather multiple predisposing factors.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Bilateral/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome da Leucoencefalopatia Posterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Zumbido/diagnóstico por imagem , Cálculos Urinários/complicações , Infecções Urinárias/complicações , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Perda Auditiva Bilateral/etiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome da Leucoencefalopatia Posterior/etiologia , Zumbido/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ureter/diagnóstico por imagem , Cálculos Urinários/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(17): 3622-3639, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871513

RESUMO

Low molecular weight compounds play an important role in encoding the current physiological state of an individual. Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI MS) offers high sensitivity with low cost for molecular detection, but it is not able to cover small molecules due to the drawbacks of the conventional matrix. Advanced materials are better alternatives, showing little background interference and high LDI efficiency. Herein, we first classify the current materials with a summary of compositions and structures. Matrix preparation protocols are then reviewed, to enhance the selectivity and reproducibility of MS data better. Finally, we highlight the biomedical applications of material-assisted LDI MS, at the tissue, bio-fluid, and cellular levels. We foresee that the advanced materials will bring far-reaching implications in LDI MS towards real-case applications, especially in clinical settings.

12.
Mycoses ; 2021 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33896064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Voriconazole primary metabolism is catalyzed by CYP2C19. A large variability of trough concentrations in patients with invasive fungal infection treated with voriconazole has been observed in clinical practice. It remains controversial whether the CYP2C19 polymorphisms are responsible for voriconazole metabolism in the individual variation. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to assess the effect of CYP2C19 polymorphisms on voriconazole trough concentrations. METHODS: Following a systematic literature review, we performed a meta-analysis for mean differences (MD) of voriconazole trough concentrations (Cmin ), voriconazole dosage adjusted trough concentrations (Cmin /D) and for risk ratio (RR) of the proportion of patients in the target therapeutic range between pairwise comparisons of CYP2C19 phenotypes. RESULTS: Compared with normal metabolizers (NMs), intermediate metabolizers (IMs) (MD: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.57~1.07, I2 =44%, p<0.00001) or poor metabolizers (PMs) (MD: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.14~2.05, I2 =46%, p<0.00001) had significantly higher voriconazole Cmin (µg·ml-1 ), while rapid metabolizers (RMs) had significantly lower voriconazole Cmin (MD: -0,87, 95% CI: -1.35~-0.38, I2 =0%, p=0.0004). In addition, IMs had significantly lower Cmin than PMs (MD: -0.59, 95% CI: -0.97~-0.20, I2 =22%, p=0.003). Similarly, the Cmin /D (µg·kg·ml-1 ·mg-1 ) was significantly higher in IMs (MD: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.05~0.22, I2 =0%, p=0.002) and PMs (MD: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.07~0.34, I2 =0%, p=0.003) than that in NMs, and also IMs had significantly lower Cmin /D than PMs (MD: -0.11, 95% CI: -0.14~-0.08, I2 =0%, p<0.00001). Furthermore, PMs had a significantly higher proportion of the target therapeutic range than NMs (RR: 1.34, 95%CI: 1.09~1.64, I2 =50%, p=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to NMs, IMs and PMs had higher voriconazole trough concentrations, especially in Asians, while RMs had lower voriconazole trough concentrations. In addition, PMs had a higher proportion of the target therapeutic range than NMs, especially in Asians. CYP2C19 genotyping is expected to be used to preemptively guide the individualization of voriconazole in clinical practice.

13.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm ; : 1-33, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650446

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed at improving the water solubility and oral bioavailability of Chl by self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (Chl-SMEDDS). METHODS: Compatibility experiments, pseudo-ternary phase diagram and central composite design were used to optimize the formulation. The selected systems were further evaluated for physical characteristics, including particle size, zeta potential, and appearance. The stability, in vitro dispersion test, and in vivo intestinal perfusion experiments were used to evaluate the SMEDDS. RESULTS: The optimal composition of Chl-SMEDDS included: Labrafil M 1944 CS (35%), kolliphor RH 40 (46%), Transcutol HP (19%) and 60 mg/g Chl. The appearance of water emulsified Chl-SMEDDS was green and transparent. The particle size, ζ-potential, and transmission electron microscopy studies showed that spherical globules of Chl-SMEDDS with a size of about 22.82 ± 1.29 nm and a negative surface charge of -24.21 ± 3.45 mV were obtained. Chl-SMEDDS could remain stable at 25 °C and 4 °C for at least 6 months. The dispersion test showed that Chl-SMEDDS dispersed spontaneously to form microemulsion after disintegration of capsule shell and 90% drug dispersed in just 30 min in pH 1.2 HCl without any drug precipitation during the test period. In vivo intestinal perfusion experiment revealed that the main absorption site for Chl-SMEDDS was duodenum. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that SMEDDS formulation could be an effective strategy for the oral administration of Chl.

14.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 79, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sha-Shen-Mai-Dong decoction (SSMD) is a classical prescription widely used in primary Sjogren's Syndrome (pSS) therapy. This study aims to explore the potential pharmacological mechanism of SSMD on pSS. METHODS: Active components of SSMD were obtained from Traditional Chinese Medicine Integrative Database and Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology databases and targets of SSMD were predicted by Pharmmapper and STITCH database. Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis were carried out to explore the function characteristics of SSMD. The expression matrix of microarray of pSS was obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus and we obtained 162 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were constructed to identify the hub targets. Principal component analysis (PCA) and molecular docking were conducted to further elucidate the possibility of SSMD for pSS. RESULTS: SSMD contained a total of 1056 active components, corresponding to 88 targets, among which peripheral myelin protein 2(PMP2), androgen receptor (AR) and glutamic acid decarboxylase 1(GAD1) are associated with multiple active components in SSMD and may be the core targets. Moreover, these targets were closely related to tissue pathological injury in SS, such as lacrimal gland, salivary gland and nervous system injury. GO and KEGG analysis showed that 88 targets enriched in REDOX process, transcriptional regulation and negative regulation of apoptosis process. Besides, SSMD may influence the cell proliferation, gene transcription through regulating Ras and cAMP-related signaling pathways. In addition, SSMD may show effects on immune regulation, such as macrophage differentiation, Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway and T-helper 1 in SS. Moreover, PPI network suggested that FN1, MMP-9 may be the hub targets in SSMD. Result of PCA and molecular docking analysis further determined the feasibility of SSMD in treating pSS. CONCLUSION: SSMD can regulate multiple biological processes by virtue of its multiple active components, thus showing prominent advantage in the treatment of pSS. The discovery of active ingredients and targets in SSMD provides valuable resources for drug research and development for pSS.

15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(14): 16106-16117, 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787211

RESUMO

The nerve guidance conduit (NGC) is a promising clinical strategy for regenerating the critical-sized peripheral nerve injury. In this study, the polysaccharide chitin is used to fabricate the hydrogel film for inducing the impaired sciatic nerve regeneration through incorporating the conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanoparticles (PEDOT NPs) and modifying with cell adhesive tetrapeptide Cys-Arg-Gly-Asp (CRGD) (ChT-PEDOT-p). The partial deacetylation process of chitin for exposing the amino groups is performed to (i) improve the electrostatic interaction between chitin and the negatively charged PEDOT for enhancing the composite hydrogel strength and (ii) offer the active sites for peptide modification. The as-prepared hydrogel remarkably promotes the in vitro RSC-96 cell adhesion and proliferation, as well as the Schwann cell activity-related gene S100, NF-200, and myelin basic protein (MBP) expression. Function of gastrocnemius muscle and thickness of myelinated axon in chitin/PEDOT groups are analogous to the autograft in 10 mm rat sciatic nerve defect. Immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and toluidine blue staining analyses on the regenerated sciatic nerve explain that the attachment and proliferation enhancement of Schwann cells and angiogenesis are the vital factors for the chitin/PEDOT composite to facilitate the nerve regeneration. This work provides an applicable chitin-based NGC material for accelerating the peripheral nerve restoration.

16.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-10, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745500

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Short stature may reflect health in early life and be an enduring disability. How birth weight, gender, household, elementary schooling and diet play a role in associations between stature and overall school competence (OSC) have been assessed. DESIGN: The 2001-2002 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) for elementary schoolchildren (n 2274, 52·1 % boys) was linked to birth records. It provided sociodemographic, dietary quality, body compositional and school performance (as Scale for Assessing Emotional Disturbance, SAED; OSC as an SAED subscale) data. Lower birth weight was ≤15th percentile: 2850 g for boys and 2700 g for girls, and stature as z-scores for Taiwanese. Multivariable linear regression was used for relationships between OSC and stature. Trends in OSC by stature and school grade were assessed. SETTING: The 2001-2002 NAHSIT for elementary schoolchildren. PARTICIPANTS: Totally, 2274 schoolchildren aged 6-13 years. RESULTS: Compared to normal height (-2< height for age z-score (HAZ) <2), shorter girls (HAZ ≤ -2) had a lower OSC (8·87 v. 10·5, P < 0·05) and taller girls (HAZ ≥ 2) had a better OSC (12·3 v. 10·5, P < 0·001). Maternal education and household income each contributed more than 5 % of OSC variance. OSC and HAZ among girls were positively associated and emotional disturbance negatively associated. Shortness-associated lower OSC underwent remediation with advancing school grade. Stature and OSC were not evidently related in boys. CONCLUSIONS: Shorter stature can compromise OSC among school girls. The major determinants in shorter girls are less household income and limited parental education.

17.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 27(5): 587-602, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650764

RESUMO

AIMS: Mild cognitive impairment due to semantic dementia represents the preclinical stage, involving cognitive decline dominated by semantic impairment below the semantic dementia standard. Therefore, studying mild cognitive impairment due to semantic dementia may identify changes in patients before progression to dementia. However, whether changes in local functional activity occur in preclinical stages of semantic dementia remains unknown. Here, we explored local functional changes in patients with mild cognitive impairment due to semantic dementia using resting-state functional MRI. METHODS: We administered a battery of neuropsychological tests to twenty-two patients with mild cognitive impairment due to semantic dementia (MCI-SD group) and nineteen healthy controls (HC group). We performed structural MRI to compare gray matter volumes, and resting-state functional MRI with multiple sub-bands and indicators to evaluate functional activity. RESULTS: Neuropsychological tests revealed a significant decline in semantic performance in the MCI-SD group, but no decline in other cognitive domains. Resting-state functional MRI revealed local functional changes in multiple brain regions in the MCI-SD group, distributed in different sub-bands and indicators. In the normal band, local functional changes were only in the gray matter atrophic area. In the other sub-bands, more regions with local functional changes outside atrophic areas were found across various indicators. Among these, the degree centrality of the left precuneus in the MCI-SD group was positively correlated with general semantic tasks (oral sound naming, word-picture verification). CONCLUSION: Our study revealed local functional changes in mild cognitive impairment due to semantic dementia, some of which were located outside the atrophic gray matter. Driven by functional connectivity changes, the left precuneus might play a role in preclinical semantic dementia. The study proved the value of frequency-dependent sub-bands, especially the slow-2 and slow-3 sub-bands.

18.
Adv Mater ; 33(17): e2007978, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742513

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) is a multifactorial process, accompanied by alterations in metabolic pathways. Non-invasive metabolic profiling facilitates GC diagnosis at early stage leading to an improved prognostic outcome. Herein, mesoporous PdPtAu alloys are designed to characterize the metabolic profiles in human blood. The elemental composition is optimized with heterogeneous surface plasmonic resonance, offering preferred charge transfer for photoinduced desorption/ionization and enhanced photothermal conversion for thermally driven desorption. The surface structure of PdPtAu is further tuned with controlled mesopores, accommodating metabolites only, rather than large interfering compounds. Consequently, the optimized PdPtAu alloy yields direct metabolic fingerprints by laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry in seconds, consuming 500 nL of native plasma. A distinct metabolic phenotype is revealed for early GC by sparse learning, resulting in precise GC diagnosis with an area under the curve of 0.942. It is envisioned that the plasmonic alloy will open up a new era of minimally invasive blood analysis to improve the surveillance of cancer patients in the clinical setting.

19.
New Phytol ; 230(5): 1940-1952, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651378

RESUMO

Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS), the germination of grain before harvest, is a serious problem resulting in wheat yield and quality losses. Here, we mapped the PHS resistance gene PHS-3D from synthetic hexaploid wheat to a 2.4 Mb presence-absence variation (PAV) region and found that its resistance effect was attributed to the pleiotropic Myb10-D by integrated omics and functional analyses. Three haplotypes were detected in this PAV region among 262 worldwide wheat lines and 16 Aegilops tauschii, and the germination percentages of wheat lines containing Myb10-D was approximately 40% lower than that of the other lines. Transcriptome and metabolome profiling indicated that Myb10-D affected the transcription of genes in both the flavonoid and abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis pathways, which resulted in increases in flavonoids and ABA in transgenic wheat lines. Myb10-D activates 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) by biding the secondary wall MYB-responsive element (SMRE) to promote ABA biosynthesis in early wheat seed development stages. We revealed that the newly discovered function of Myb10-D confers PHS resistance by enhancing ABA biosynthesis to delay germination in wheat. The PAV harboring Myb10-D associated with grain color and PHS will be useful for understanding and selecting white grained PHS resistant wheat cultivars.

20.
Food Chem ; 351: 129324, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647694

RESUMO

Conjugation between peptides and polyphenols could improve their bioactive and functional properties. The improvement effects of anchovy protein hydrolysates (APH) -polyphenol (catechin (CA), gallic acid (GA), tannic acid (TA)) conjugates were investigated. The content of protein and polyphenols and ratio of polyphenols/peptides in conjugates increased as the number of OH group increased with TA > CA > GA. Results showed that APH-CA and APH-GA exhibited the highest ORAC and ABTS+ scavenging capacity, respectively. Mass spectrometry analysis suggested the highest number of bioactive peptides were identified in APH-CA 5:1 (APH/polyphenols). The physical stability of fish oil emulsions during storage was significantly enhanced by TA 5:1 conjugate followed by CA 5:1 conjugate. The oxidative stability was remarkably elevated by APH-GA 10:1. This was due to the antioxidant capacity and the peptides adsorbed at the interfacial. This study demonstrated that APH-polyphenol conjugates could bring the possibility of utilizing peptides-polyphenols in the nutraceutical and functional food ingredient fields.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Óleos de Peixe/química , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Polifenóis/química , Animais , Catequina/química , Emulsões , Hidrólise , Oxirredução , Taninos/química
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