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1.
BMC Med Educ ; 20(1): 155, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies (CC) in general medicine-based primary care are essential for junior medical trainees. In this country, a regular faculty development (FD) program aimed at training faculty in instructing (teaching and assessing) these CC had operated. However, leadership was not emphasized. In a new intervention module, the roles and associated responsibilities of clinical instructors to conduct, design, and lead CC-based education were emphasis. AIMS: This follow-up explanatory case study compares the effectiveness of intervention module with that of the previous regular module. METHODS: The regular group (n = 28) comprised clinical instructors who participated in the FD module during the 2013-2014 year while the intervention group (n = 28) was composed of 2015-2016 participants. Prior to the formal (hands-on) training, participants in the intervention group were asked to study the online materials of the regular module. These participants then received a 30-h hands-on training in conducting, designing, and leading skills. Finally, they prepared a 10-h reflective end-of-module presentation of their real-world practices. RESULTS: Following the training, a higher degree improvement in participants self-reported familiarity with CC education, self-confidence in their ability to deliver CC education and sustained involve CC education were noted among the intervention FD group, compared with the regular FD group. In the intervention group, senior academicians (associate and full professor) are more substantially involved in designing and leading CC-based courses than junior academicians (lecturers and assistant professors). Among non-teaching award winners of in the intervention FD group, the follow-up degree of sustained involvement in delivering, designing and leading CC-based courses was significantly higher than that of the regular group. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that leadership training in the intervention FD modules substantially motivated clinical instructors to become leaders in CC education.

2.
Adv Biosyst ; 4(5): e2000044, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402127

RESUMO

Aging of the circulatory system correlates with the pathogenesis of a large spectrum of diseases. However, it is largely unknown which factors drive the age-dependent or pathological decline of the vasculature and how vascular defects relate to tissue aging. The goal of the study is to design a multianalytical approach to identify how the cellular microenvironment (i.e., fibroblasts) and serum from healthy donors of different ages or Alzheimer disease (AD) patients can modulate the functionality of organ-specific vascular endothelial cells (VECs). Long-living human microvascular networks embedding VECs and fibroblasts from skin biopsies are generated. RNA-seq, secretome analyses, and microfluidic assays demonstrate that fibroblasts from young donors restore the functionality of aged endothelial cells, an effect also achieved by serum from young donors. New biomarkers of vascular aging are validated in human biopsies and it is shown that young serum induces angiopoietin-like-4, which can restore compromised vascular barriers. This strategy is then employed to characterize transcriptional/functional changes induced on the blood-brain barrier by AD serum, demonstrating the importance of PTP4A3 in the regulation of permeability. Features of vascular degeneration during aging and AD are recapitulated, and a tool to identify novel biomarkers that can be exploited to develop future therapeutics modulating vascular function is established.

3.
Neuron ; 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396852

RESUMO

Single-cell transcriptomics of neocortical neurons have revealed more than 100 clusters corresponding to putative cell types. For inhibitory and subcortical projection neurons (SCPNs), there is a strong concordance between clusters and anatomical descriptions of cell types. In contrast, cortico-cortical projection neurons (CCPNs) separate into surprisingly few transcriptomic clusters, despite their diverse anatomical projection types. We used projection-dependent single-cell transcriptomic analyses and monosynaptic rabies tracing to compare mouse primary visual cortex CCPNs projecting to different higher visual areas. We find that layer 2/3 CCPNs with different anatomical projections differ systematically in their gene expressions, despite forming only a single genetic cluster. Furthermore, these neurons receive feedback selectively from the same areas to which they project. These findings demonstrate that gene-expression analysis in isolation is insufficient to identify neuron types and have important implications for understanding the functional role of cortical feedback circuits.

4.
Mol Med Rep ; 22(1): 227-238, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377715

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) and exosomes are involved in the pathological process of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the pathological changes of which are usually first observed in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the measurement of plasma exosomal lncRNA combined with image data of the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus could be used as a biomarker of AD. A total of 72 patients with AD and 62 controls were recruited, and the expression levels of several lncRNAs were assessed. Of the recruited participants, 22 patients and 26 controls received brain 3D­BRAVO sequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, which were analyzed using an automated analysis tool. The plasma exosomal ß­site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme­1­antisense transcript (BACE1­AS) levels in patients with AD were significantly higher compared with the controls (P<0.005). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.761 for BACE1­AS, the sensitivity was 87.5%, and the specificity was 61.3%. Analysis of MRI images indicated that the right entorhinal cortex volume (P=0.015) and thickness (P=0.022) in patients with AD were significantly smaller. The AUC was 0.688 for the right entorhinal cortex volume, with a sensitivity of 59.1%, and the specificity was 84.6%. The AUC was 0.689 for right entorhinal cortex thickness, with a sensitivity of 80.8%, and the specificity was 59.1%. A series­parallel test which integrated the BACE1­AS with the right entorhinal cortex volume and thickness, raised the specificity and sensitivity to 96.15 and 90.91%, respectively. A logistic regression model demonstrated that combination of the 3 indices provided improved sensitivity and specificity simultaneously, particularly when adjusting for age and sex (AUC, 0.819; sensitivity, 81%; specificity, 73.1%). The results of the present study demonstrated that detection of plasma exosomal BACE1­AS levels combined with the volume and thickness of the right entorhinal cortex may be used as a novel biomarker of AD.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 732: 139282, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413621

RESUMO

The outbreak of COVID-19 has spreaded rapidly across the world. To control the rapid dispersion of the virus, China has imposed national lockdown policies to practise social distancing. This has led to reduced human activities and hence primary air pollutant emissions, which caused improvement of air quality as a side-product. To investigate the air quality changes during the COVID-19 lockdown over the YRD Region, we apply the WRF-CAMx modelling system together with monitoring data to investigate the impact of human activity pattern changes on air quality. Results show that human activities were lowered significantly during the period: industrial operations, VKT, constructions in operation, etc. were significantly reduced, leading to lowered SO2, NOx, PM2.5 and VOCs emissions by approximately 16-26%, 29-47%, 27-46% and 37-57% during the Level I and Level II response periods respectively. These emission reduction has played a significant role in the improvement of air quality. Concentrations of PM2.5, NO2 and SO2 decreased by 31.8%, 45.1% and 20.4% during the Level I period; and 33.2%, 27.2% and 7.6% during the Level II period compared with 2019. However, ozone did not show any reduction and increased greatly. Our results also show that even during the lockdown, with primary emissions reduction of 15%-61%, the daily average PM2.5 concentrations range between 15 and 79 µg m-3, which shows that background and residual pollutions are still high. Source apportionment results indicate that the residual pollution of PM2.5 comes from industry (32.2-61.1%), mobile (3.9-8.1%), dust (2.6-7.7%), residential sources (2.1-28.5%) in YRD and 14.0-28.6% contribution from long-range transport coming from northern China. This indicates that in spite of the extreme reductions in primary emissions, it cannot fully tackle the current air pollution. Re-organisation of the energy and industrial strategy together with trans-regional joint-control for a full long-term air pollution plan need to be further taken into account.

7.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441103

RESUMO

Two new antimony fluoride sulfates named A6Sb4F12(SO4)3 (A = Rb, Cs) with unique crown-like clusters have been successfully synthesized by introducing Sb3+ with a stereochemically active lone pair in the sulfate system through a facile hydrothermal method. The structure regulation induced by the cation sizes results in the symmetry difference in these two title compounds, i.e., Rb6Sb4F12(SO4)3 crystallizing in the polar noncentrosymmetric (NCS) space group of P3 and Cs6Sb4F12(SO4)3 in the centrosymmetric (CS) space group of P1̅. Detailed characterizations, including XRD, thermal behaviors, optical properties, and the theoretical calculations, for these two compounds have been performed. The discovery of the unique crown-like clusters observed in A6Sb4F12(SO4)3 (A = Rb, Cs) enriches the diversity of structures for antimony sulfates systems. Simultaneously, a summary and comparison for all reported antimony halide sulfates has been made to illustrate the synergistic effect of the stoichiometric ratio and cation sizes on the macroscopic centricity and the framework structure, which will guide the systematical discovery of antimony(III)-based functional materials in future.

8.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 451, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the current study was to report a single-institution experience using breast-conserving surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), focusing on the association between microscopic resection margin status and locoregional recurrence (LRR). METHODS: Our institutional prospectively maintained database was reviewed to identify patients who were treated with NACT between January 2008 and April 2018. RESULTS: Among the main partial mastectomy specimens available for analysis (n = 161), 28 had margins < 1 mm, 21 had margin width of 1-2 mm and the remaining 112 had margins > 2 mm. LRR occurred in 16 patients (9.9%) and distant metastases were detected in 27 (16.8%) patients. There was no significant difference in the LRR between the > 2 mm margin group with a 60-month cumulative survival of 85.2% compared with 76.2% for the ≤2 mm group (P = 0.335) in the Kaplan-Meier analysis. When we stratified patients by margin widths of ≥1 mm or <  1 mm, there was no LRR-free survival benefit observed for the ≥1 mm pathologic excision margin group in the univariate analysis (hazard ratio = 0.443; 95% confidence interval = 0.142-1.383; P = 0.161) with a 60-month cumulative LRR-free survival of 84.9% compared with 69.5% for the < 1 mm margin cohort (P = 0.150). CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of multiple scattered microscopic tumour foci, a negative margin of no ink on tumour maybe sufficient for stage I-III invasive breast cancer treated with NACT and breast-conserving surgery.

9.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(5): 512-518, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434650

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the expression and effect of Pim1 in primary cortical neurons after hypoxic-ischemic injury. METHODS: Cortical neurons were isolated from 1-day-old C57BL/6 mice and cultured in neurobasal medium. On the 8th day of neuron culture, cells were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygen (OGD/R) treatment to mimic in vivo hypoxic injury of neurons. Briefly, medium were changed to DMEM medium, and cells were cultured in 1% O2 for 3 hours and then changed back to normal medium and conditions. Cells were collected at 0 hour, 6 hours, 12 hours and 24 hours after OGD/R. Primary neurons were transfected with Pim1 overexpression plasmid or mock plasmid, and then were exposed to normal conditions or OGD/R treatment. They were named as Pim1 group, control group, OGD/R group and OGD/R+Pim1 group respectively. Real-time PCR was used to detect Pim1 mRNA expression. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of Pim1 and apoptotic related protein cleaved caspase 3 (CC3). TUNEL staining was used to detect cell apoptosis. RESULTS: Real-time PCR and Western blot results showed that Pim1 mRNA and protein were significantly decreased in neurons after OGD/R. They began to decrease at 0 hour after OGD/R, reached to the lowest at 12 hours after OGD/R, and remained at a lower level at 24 hours after OGD/R (P<0.01). Overexpression of Pim1 significantly upregulated the protein level of Pim1. Under OGD/R conditions, the CC3 expression and the apoptosis rate in cells of the Pim1 group were significantly lower than in un-transfected cells (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Hypoxic-ischemic injury may decrease Pim1 expression in neurons. Overexpressed Pim1 may inhibit apoptosis induced by OGD/R.

10.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amide proton transfer-weighted imaging (APTWI) and intravoxel incoherent motion imaging (IVIM) are valuable MRI techniques applied to cancer. PURPOSE: To compare APTWI and IVIM in the diagnosis of benign and malignant breast lesions and to evaluate the correlations between different parameters (MTRasym [3.5 ppm], D, D*, and f) and prognostic factors for breast cancer. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. POPULATION: In all, 123 breast lesions were studied before treatment, including 58 benign lesions and 65 malignant lesions. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: Conventional MRI (T1 WI, T2 WI, and diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI]), APTWI, and IVIM MRI at 3T. ASSESSMENT: The magnetization transfer ratio asymmetry at 3.5 ppm (MTRasym [3.5 ppm]), diffusion coefficient (D), pseudo diffusion coefficient (D*), and perfusion fraction (f) values were compared between the benign and malignant groups and between groups with different expression levels of prognostic factors. STATISTICAL TESTS: Individual sample t-test, χ2 test, Spearman correlation, logistic regression, and the Delong test. RESULTS: The D and MTRasym (3.5 ppm) values of the malignant group were lower than those of the benign group; however, D* and f values were higher than those of the benign group (all P < 0.05). The areas under the curve (AUCs) of D, MTRasym (3.5 ppm), D*, and f were 0.809, 0.778, 0.670, and 0.766, respectively; however, only the difference between AUC (D) and AUC (D*) was significant (Z = 2.374, P < 0.05). The D value showed a low correlation with the pathological grade and Ki-67 expression (| r | = 0.294, 0.367); the f value showed a low correlation with estrogen receptor (ER) expression (| r | = 0.382); and the MTRasym (3.5 ppm) value showed a low correlation with pathological grade (| r | = 0.371). DATA CONCLUSION: This analysis revealed that both IVIM and APTWI could be used for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant breast lesions, and APTWI-derived MTRasym (3.5 ppm), IVIM-derived D, D*, and f values showed correlations with some prognostic factors for breast cancer. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 2.

11.
Elife ; 92020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436842

RESUMO

Antennae are often considered to be the nostrils of insects. Here, we sequenced the transcriptome of the pheromone gland-ovipositor complex of Helicoverpa assulta and discovered that an odorant receptor (OR) gene, HassOR31, had much higher expression in the ovipositor than in antennae or other tissues. To determine whether the ovipositor was involved in odorant detection, we co-expressed HassOR31 and its co-receptor, HassORco, in a Xenopus oocyte model system, and demonstrated that the OR was responsive to 12 plant odorants, especially Z-3-hexenyl butyrate. These odorants elicited electrophysiological responses of some sensilla in the ovipositor, and HassOR31 and HassORco were co-expressed within ovipositor sensilla. Two oviposition preference experiments showed that female moths lacking antennae still preferentially selected oviposition sites containing plant volatiles. We suggest that the expression of HassOR31 in the ovipositor of H. assulta helps females to determine precise egg-laying sites in host plants.

12.
ACS Sens ; 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337979

RESUMO

Precise pH measurements in the immediate environment of receptors is essential for elucidating the mechanisms through which local pH changes associated with diseased phenotypes manifest into aberrant receptor function. However, current pH sensors lack the ability to localize and target specific receptor molecules required to make these measurements. Herein we present the Litmus-body, our recombinant protein-based pH sensor, which through fusion to an anti-IgG nanobody is capable of piggybacking on IgG antibodies for molecular targeting to specific proteins on the cell surface. By normalizing a pH-dependent green fluorescent protein to a long Stokes shift red fluorophore or fluorescent protein, we readily report pH independent of sensor concentration using a single 488 nm excitation. Our Litmus-body showed excellent responsiveness in solution, with a greater than 50-fold change across the regime of physiological pH. The sensor was further validated for use on live cells and shown to be specific to the protein of interest. In complex with our Litmus-body, cetuximab therapeutic antibody retained its functionality in binding and inhibiting ligand interaction of its target epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), triggering receptor-mediated endocytosis that allowed tracking of local pH from the cell surface through the endocytic pathway.

13.
Food Funct ; 11(4): 3393-3409, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232300

RESUMO

Vascular calcification (VC) is a common pathological manifestation in patients with cardiovascular diseases, leading to high mortality in patients with chronic kidney diseases. The deposition of hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystals on vascular smooth muscle cells leads to cell damage, which promotes osteogenic transformation. In this study, four different molecular weights (MWs ) of Porphyra yezoensis polysaccharides (PYP1, PYP2, PYP3, and PYP4 with MWs of 576, 49.5, 12.6, and 4.02 kDa, respectively) were used to coat HAP, and the differences in toxicity and calcification of HAP on A7R5 cells before and after coating were studied. The results showed that PYPs could effectively reduce HAP damage to the A7R5 cells. Under the protection of PYPs, cell viability increased and lactate dehydrogenase release, active oxygen level, and cell necrosis rate decreased; also, the amount of the HAP crystals adhering to cell surfaces and entering cells decreased. PYPs with low molecular weights presented better protective effects than high-molecular-weight PYPs. PYPs also inhibited the osteogenic transformation of the A7R5 cells induced by HAP and decreased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and expressions of bone/chondrocyte phenotype genes (runt-related factor 2, ALP, osteopontin, and osteocalcin). In the adenine-induced chronic renal failure (CRF) mouse VC model, PYP4 was found to obviously inhibit the aortic calcium level, and it also inhibited the serum creatinine, serum phosphorus and serum BUN levels. PYP4 (least molecular weight) showed the best inhibitory effect on calcification and may be considered as a candidate drug with therapeutic potential for inhibiting cellular damage and osteoblast differentiation induced by the HAP crystals.

14.
Curr Protoc Immunol ; 129(1): e95, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294319

RESUMO

Multispecific antibodies bind two or more different antigens and enable new therapeutic applications that cannot be replicated with conventional monoclonal antibodies, such as bridging different cells or bringing soluble proteins in close proximity. The DART and TRIDENT platforms enable the engineering of such antibodies. A DART molecule combines two independent antigen-binding sites in a stabilized, diabody-like structure. A DART molecule can be expressed with or without an Fc domain and thus can be tailored to have a long or short half-life in vivo and to induce or ablate effector function. Linking two DART units or a DART unit and a Fab domain (the latter structure is called TRIDENT format) via an Fc domain creates a monospecific, bispecific, trispecific, or tetraspecific molecule with up to tetravalent targeting of antigens. This article focuses on the design of DART and TRIDENT molecules that target two or three different antigens. © 2020 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Basic Protocol 1: Design and generation of expression plasmids encoding DART and TRIDENT molecules Basic Protocol 2: Expression of DART and TRIDENT molecules by transient transfection of CHO cells Basic Protocol 3: Purification of DART and TRIDENT molecules from CHO cell supernatants.

15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(15): e19690, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282723

RESUMO

Both Taiwan and Korea are developed countries with different cultures. When encountering the issue of dementia, such sociobehavioral factors have various and different impacts on dementia. We aim to assess the cross-national difference of sociobehavioral impact on cognitive preservation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) between Taiwan and Korea.A uniformed data set was administered regarding AD. We evaluated annual cognitive function using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating sum of box (CDR-SB), and CDR for 2 continuous years. Annual change of scores compared with the baseline indicated cognitive change as preservation or decline. We recorded the sociodemographic variables of interest, including education duration, level of independence, living situation, and marital status. Step-wise regression analyses were performed to determine the independent factors for cognitive preservation.In total, 503 participants in Taiwan and 77 participants in Korea were recruited from 2011 to 2014. The baseline demographic characteristics were different in levels of education, living situation, level of independence, and dementia severity between the 2 countries. With follow-up for 2 years, cognitive preservation was associated with CDR staging at baseline and independence [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.657, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.109-2.477, P = .014] in the Taiwanese population, whereas cognitive preservation was related to living alone (adjusted OR = 3.316, 95% CI = 1.135-9.687, P = .028) in the Korean population. The levels of education showed inconsistency in cognitive preservation in both countries.Cognitive preservation was associated with independence in the Taiwanese population, whereas cognitive preservation was related to living alone in the Korean population. By practicing relevant socioeconomic support, this might contribute to lessening the negative impact of dementia and preserving cognition in different countries.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Demência/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Classe Social , Taiwan/epidemiologia
16.
Dalton Trans ; 49(17): 5440-5444, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314753

RESUMO

Two new metal phosphates, namely, Zn(HPO4)(C6H11NO2) (1) and (C5H10NO2)Ga4(PO4)4F·3H2O (2), were prepared under surfactant-thermal conditions. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that compound 1 has a zigzag-chain structure decorated with homoproline and compound 2 has a three-dimensional zeolite-like structure templated by proline. Notably, compound 2 remains stable in both boiling water and aqueous solutions with a pH range of 2-12. It shows a proton conductivity of 8.89 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 85 °C and 95% relative humidity.

17.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(38): 5131-5134, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250373

RESUMO

We report a general strategy for the fabrication of binder-free, flexible and weavable transition-metal dichalcogenide nanosheet-based hybrid fibers by using well-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes as hosts. The resulting hybrid fibers are used as electrodes for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution, showing excellent performance in both acidic and basic environments, and excellent long-term stability.

18.
Dalton Trans ; 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242571

RESUMO

KTiOPO4 (KTP) is a classic commercial nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal, but its narrow bandgap (3.52 eV) prevents its practical application in the ultraviolet (UV) region. Many trials to widen the narrow bandgap of KTP have failed in the past few decades. A chemical cosubstitution strategy was implemented to design new members of the KTP-type family as potential UV NLO materials. First, a novel centrosymmetric KTP-type compound NH4SbFPO4·H2O with a sharply enlarged bandgap (5.01 eV) was obtained through three-site aliovalent substitution. Second, the noncentrosymmetric NH4SbF2SO4 was synthesized by the introduction of more F- anions to destroy the crystal symmetry and SO42- to replace PO43- for balancing the charge in NH4SbFPO4·H2O, which realized the transformation from a visible phosphate system to solar blind UV sulfate system for KTP-type family NLO materials. The preliminary experimental results indicated that NH4SbF2SO4 is a promising solar blind UV NLO material. The first-principles calculations revealed that the sharply enlarged bandgap resulted from the substitution of the transition metal cations with the main group metal cations and the introduction of F- anions with high electronegativity.

19.
Nat Chem Biol ; 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251410

RESUMO

Doublecortin like kinase 1 (DCLK1) is an understudied kinase that is upregulated in a wide range of cancers, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, little is known about its potential as a therapeutic target. We used chemoproteomic profiling and structure-based design to develop a selective, in vivo-compatible chemical probe of the DCLK1 kinase domain, DCLK1-IN-1. We demonstrate activity of DCLK1-IN-1 against clinically relevant patient-derived PDAC organoid models and use a combination of RNA-sequencing, proteomics and phosphoproteomics analysis to reveal that DCLK1 inhibition modulates proteins and pathways associated with cell motility in this context. DCLK1-IN-1 will serve as a versatile tool to investigate DCLK1 biology and establish its role in cancer.

20.
J Food Sci ; 85(4): 1027-1036, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180223

RESUMO

Variations in the taste quality of no-added-nitrite Chinese bacon (unsmoked) during processing were investigated using 1 H-NMR and multivariate data analysis. The results showed that 21 metabolites were dominant during processing, which involved marinating, air-drying, fermentation, and baking, including amino acids, sugars, organic acids, nucleic acids and their derivatives, and alkaloids. The contents of isoleucine, leucine, valine, alanine, acetate, glutamate, succinate, glycine, sucrose, tyrosine, and phenylalanine increased continuously throughout the process. The lactate, creatine, carnosine, betaine, taurine, hypoxanthine, and AMP contents all significantly increased after baking; the inosine content significantly increased after fermentation and then decreased; the histamine content significantly increased after air-drying and then decreased; and the histidine content decreased. Each processing treatment promoted taste formation in no-added-nitrite Chinese bacon (unsmoked), especially baking. The baking point owned relatively higher levels of metabolites and sensory evaluation compared to other treatments. Sensory evaluation revealed that the ultimate taste of Chinese bacon (unsmoked) at the end of baking tended toward umami (glutamate), sweetness (AMP), and sourness (lactate). The first and second principal components explained 74.0% and 13.4% of the variables, respectively. These findings indicated the potential of NMR-based metabolomics for assessing the taste quality of no-added-nitrite Chinese bacon (unsmoked), which could contribute to a better understanding of taste compound changes in meat products. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Nitrite is commonly used in Chinese bacon (unsmoked), but excessive intake is not good for human health. Nitrite has been replaced with nitrite substitutes to prepare no-added-nitrite Chinese bacon (unsmoked). The metabolites of no-added-nitrite Chinese bacon (unsmoked) were detected to determine the key treatment that contributes to the formation of taste during processing. This study determined the main taste components of no-added-nitrite Chinese bacon (unsmoked) and its formation process, which provides new insight into the production and characteristics of flavor in Chinese bacon (unsmoked).

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