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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 781: 146694, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812109

RESUMO

Decentralized blackwater treatment by anaerobic digestion is being considered as a sustainable sanitation concept. However, the low biodegradability and complex composition restrictedly limited the treatability of blackwater, resulting in requirements of low operational organic loading rates (OLRs). In this study, a microbial electrolysis cell assisted anaerobic digester (MEC-AD) treating vacuum toilet blackwater was successfully operated for 420 days at OLRs ranging from 0.77 to 3.03 g COD/L-d in 6 stages (including an open-circuit Stage 5) at ambient temperature. Based on the steady-state results from different stages, the highest methane yield (42.4% out of 45% biochemical methane potential value) was achieved in Stage 1 with an OLR of 0.77 g COD/L-d. At the same OLR of ~3.0 g COD/L-d, Stage 4 (32.4%) and Stage 6 (35.2%) showed significantly higher methane yield (p < 0.01) than open-circuit Stage 5 (24.1%). The lowest COD removal efficiency of 31.8% was observed in Stage 5 with short-chain volatile fatty acids (SCVFAs) accumulated to ~1000 mg/L, which was more than double the values of Stage 4 and 6. The microbial community analysis revealed that the applied potential did not significantly affect archaeal diversity but largely increased the archaeal abundance on the cathode, and led the bacterial community shift with the enrichment of specific electroactive bacteria. Microbial co-occurrence network analysis further confirmed the positive correlations between known electroactive bacteria and electrotrophic methanogens. Moreover, electric energy consumed by the MEC-AD system was fully recovered as biomethane.

2.
Seizure ; 88: 45-52, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812307

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify prognostic factors and long-term seizure outcomes for patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) who underwent resective treatment for epilepsy. METHODS: We enrolled 81 patients with TSC who had undergone resective epilepsy surgery at Sanbo Brain Hospital, Capital Medical University, between April 2004 and June 2019. We estimated cumulative probability of remaining seizure-free and plotted survival curves. Variables were compared using Mann-Whitney U, Pearson's correlation, continuity correction, and Fisher's exact chi-square tests. Prognostic predictors were analysed using log-rank (Mantel-Cox) tests and Cox regression models. RESULTS: At the last follow-up, 48 (59.3%) patients were classified as International League Against Epilepsy Class 1 (including 14 patients who had seizures <3 times postoperatively on the same or different day and were seizure-free at all other times). The estimated cumulative probability of remaining seizure-free postoperatively was 69.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 58.8-79.2%), 61.9% (95% CI 51.1-72.7%), and 55.0% (95% CI 42.8-67.2%) at 2, 5, and 10 years, respectively. The mean time of remaining seizure-free was 7.24 ± 0.634 years (95% CI 6.00-8.49); en bloc resection was an essential positive predictor of postoperative seizure freedom, as was age at seizure onset, regional interictal video-electroencephalography pattern, and temporal lobe surgery. The longer the seizure-free time, the less likely a relapse. Patients who postoperatively experienced seizures remained likely to recover. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the efficacy of surgical treatment for patients with TSC and intractable epilepsy. Detailed perioperative tests are a reliable predictor of postoperative seizure freedom.

3.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(2(A)): 440-445, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819224

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of post-traumatic acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) on poor prognosis, and provide a theoretical basis for the treatment of patients with post-traumatic ARDS in clinical practice. Methods: This was a retrospective study including trauma victims in the intensive care unit (ICU) of Daping Hospital. The patients were classified as having ARDS or non-ARDS, according to the Berlin definition. Subsequently, these patients were divided into subgroups, according to age, gender and injury site. The relationship between ARDS and prognosis was analyzed, including mechanical ventilation days, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, infection, sepsis, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and death. RESULTS: There were 507 trauma patients, out of which 287 (56.61%) cases were with ARDS. The duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU stay and hospital stay in the ARDS group was significantly longer than that in the non-ARDS group (5 days vs 3 days, 10 days vs 4 days, 30 days vs 27 days, respectively). In addition, ARDS was associated with an increased risk of nfection (p<0.05; OR=4.17; 95%CI=2.72-6.41), sepsis (p<0.05; OR=3.45; 95%CI=2.28-5.22), and MODS (p<0.05; OR=2.82; 95% CI=1.67-4.72), but had no significant association with mortality (p>0.05). Similar results were found in the subgroup analyses. Conclusion: In conclusion, the prognosis of the patients with post-traumatic ARDS was worse; however, ARDS had little effect on death.

4.
Cancer ; 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The potential role of occupational exposures in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains unclear, particularly in high-incidence areas. METHODS: The authors conducted a population-based case-control study, consisting of 2514 incident NPC cases and 2586 randomly selected population controls, in southern China from 2010 to 2014. Occupational history and other covariates were self-reported using a questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of NPC associated with occupational exposures. Restricted cubic splines were used to evaluate potentially nonlinear duration-response relations. RESULTS: Individuals who had exposure to occupational dusts (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.26-1.68), chemical vapors (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.17-1.61), exhausts/smokes (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.25-1.60), or acids/alkalis (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.30-1.89) in the workplace had an increased NPC risk compared with those who were unexposed. Risk estimates for all 4 categories of occupational exposures appeared to linearly increase with increasing duration. Within these categories, occupational exposure to 14 subtypes of agents conferred significantly higher risks of NPC, with ORs ranging from 1.30 to 2.29, including dust from metals, textiles, cement, or coal; vapor from formaldehyde, organic solvents, or dyes; exhaust or smoke from diesel, firewood, asphalt/tar, vehicles, or welding; and sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, and concentrated alkali/ammonia. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational exposures to dusts, chemical vapors, exhausts/smokes, or acids/alkalis are associated with an excess risk of NPC. If the current results are causal, then the amelioration of workplace conditions might alleviate the burden of NPC in endemic areas. LAY SUMMARY: The role of occupational exposures in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains unclear, particularly in high-incidence areas. The authors conducted a population-based study with 2514 incident NPC cases and 2586 population controls in southern China and observed that occupational exposures were associated with an increased risk of NPC. Duration-response trends were observed with increasing duration of exposure. These findings provide new evidence supporting an etiologic role of occupational exposures for NPC in a high-incidence region.

5.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 171, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691785

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Renal interstitial fibrosis, an important pathological feature of kidney aging and chronic renal failure, is regulated by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We have previously demonstrated low expression of miR-133b in MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs) in aged rats. However, miR-133b can mediate the inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of renal tubules induced by transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1). We investigated the effect of miR-133b for the treatment of geriatric renal interstitial fibrosis and evaluated its target genes. METHODS: We performed real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect miR-133b expression induced during EMT of HK2 cells by TGF-ß1 at different concentrations (0, 6, 8, and 10 ng/mL) and at different time points (0, 24, 48, and 72 h). The target genes of miR-133b were validated using the dual-luciferase reporter assay. In vitro experiments were performed to evaluate mRNA and protein expression of miR-133b targets, E-cadherin, α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), fibronectin, and collagen 3A1 (Col3A1), in HK2 cells transfected with miR-133b under TGF-ß1 stimulation. A 24-month-old unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mouse model was established and injected with transfection reagent and miR-133b into the caudal vein. The target gene of miR-133b and other parameters mentioned above such as mRNA and protein expression levels and renal interstitial fibrosis were detected at 7 and 14 days. RESULTS: miR-133b expression gradually decreased with an increase in TGF-ß1 concentration and treatment time, and the miR-133b mimic downregulated connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression. The dual-luciferase reporter assay confirmed CTGF as a direct target of miR-133b. Transfection of the miR-133b mimic inhibited TGF-ß1-induced EMT of HK2 cells; this effect was reversed by CTGF overexpression. miRNA-133b expression significantly increased (approximately 70-100 times) in mouse kidney tissues after injection of the miRNA-133b overexpression complex, which significantly alleviated renal interstitial fibrosis in mice with UUO. CONCLUSION: miR-133b exerted targeted inhibitory effects on CTGF expression, which consequently reduced TGF-ß1-induced EMT of HK2 cells and renal interstitial fibrosis in aged mice with UUO.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779205

RESUMO

LuxR-type transcriptional regulators are essential for many physiological processes in bacteria, including pathogenesis. Acidovorax citrulli is a seedborne bacterial pathogen responsible for bacterial fruit blotch, which causes great losses in melon and watermelon worldwide. However, the LuxR-type transcriptional factors in A. citrulli have not been well studied, except the previously reported LuxR-type regulatory protein, AcrR, involved inregulating virulence and motility. Here, we characterized a second LuxR-type regulator, AclR, in the group II strain Aac-5 of A. citrulli by mutagenesis, virulence and motility assays, and transcriptomic analysis. Deletion of aclR resulted in impaired twitching and swimming motility and flagellar formation and diminished virulence but increased biofilm formation. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that 1379 genes were differentially expressed in the aclR-mutant strain, including 29 genes involved in flagellar assembly and 3 involved in pili formation, suggesting a regulatory role for AclR in multiple important biological functions of A. citrulli. Together, our results not only indicate that AclR plays a global role in transcriptional regulation in A. citrulli influencing motility, biofilm formation, and virulence, but also provide perspective regarding the regulatory network of biological functions in A. citrulli.

7.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(3): e1008719, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661889

RESUMO

The enzyme nitrogenase reduces dinitrogen to ammonia utilizing electrons, protons, and energy obtained from the hydrolysis of ATP. Mo-dependent nitrogenase is a symmetric dimer, with each half comprising an ATP-dependent reductase, termed the Fe Protein, and a catalytic protein, known as the MoFe protein, which hosts the electron transfer P-cluster and the active-site metal cofactor (FeMo-co). A series of synchronized events for the electron transfer have been characterized experimentally, in which electron delivery is coupled to nucleotide hydrolysis and regulated by an intricate allosteric network. We report a graph theory analysis of the mechanical coupling in the nitrogenase complex as a key step to understanding the dynamics of allosteric regulation of nitrogen reduction. This analysis shows that regions near the active sites undergo large-scale, large-amplitude correlated motions that enable communications within each half and between the two halves of the complex. Computational predictions of mechanically regions were validated against an analysis of the solution phase dynamics of the nitrogenase complex via hydrogen-deuterium exchange. These regions include the P-loops and the switch regions in the Fe proteins, the loop containing the residue ß-188Ser adjacent to the P-cluster in the MoFe protein, and the residues near the protein-protein interface. In particular, it is found that: (i) within each Fe protein, the switch regions I and II are coupled to the [4Fe-4S] cluster; (ii) within each half of the complex, the switch regions I and II are coupled to the loop containing ß-188Ser; (iii) between the two halves of the complex, the regions near the nucleotide binding pockets of the two Fe proteins (in particular the P-loops, located over 130 Å apart) are also mechanically coupled. Notably, we found that residues next to the P-cluster (in particular the loop containing ß-188Ser) are important for communication between the two halves.

8.
J Gastroenterol ; 2021 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess whether residual hepatitis B virus (HBV) viraemia is associated with HCC development. METHODS: This is a case-control study of 104 patients [52 HCC and 52 non-HCC (matched with age, gender, cirrhosis and treatment duration)] on ≥ 3 years entecavir (ETV) with unquantifiable HBV DNA by Cobas Taqman assay v2.0 (Roche Diagnostics; lower limit of quantification [LLOQ] 20 IU/mL). Serial sera within 1, 1-2, and > 2 years prior to HCC diagnosis or last follow-up (LFU) were measured for HBV DNA and pre-genomic (pg) RNA using a highly sensitive semi-quantitative PCR assay with lower limit of detection of 10 IU/mL and LLOQ of 51.5 IU/mL, respectively. RESULTS: Among the 104 patients (80.8% male, median age 61.2 years old, 38.5% cirrhosis, median duration of ETV 45.5 months), 38.5% and 9.6% HCC patients had undetectable serum DNA and pgRNA, respectively, compared to 65.4% and 36.5% in non-HCC patients; P = 0.005 & 0.001, respectively, at the time of HCC diagnosis/LFU. Detectable HBV DNA and pgRNA were associated with a higher 2-year risk of HCC development (HR 2.79, 95% CI 1.424-5.468 & HR 4.544, 95% CI 1.07-19.289, respectively). No significant differences were observed for qHBsAg levels between HCC and non-HCC patients. CONCLUSIONS: More than 50% CHB patients on ETV with HBV DNA < LLOQ by standard assay had persistent viraemia as determined by a more sensitive assay. Detectable HBV DNA or pgRNA by more sensitive assays was associated with HCC development. More potent viral suppression is required to further reduce the risk of HCC.

9.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(9): 815-834, 2021 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our previous studies confirmed that abdominal paracentesis drainage (APD) attenuates intestinal mucosal injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), and improves administration of enteral nutrition in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). However, the underlying mechanisms of the beneficial effects of APD remain poorly understood. AIM: To evaluate the effect of APD on intestinal inflammation and accompanying apoptosis induced by SAP in rats, and its potential mechanisms. METHODS: SAP was induced in male adult Sprague-Dawley rats by 5% sodium taurocholate. Mild AP was induced by intraperitoneal injections of cerulein (20 µg/kg body weight, six consecutive injections). Following SAP induction, a drainage tube connected to a vacuum ball was placed into the lower right abdomen of the rats to build APD. Morphological changes, serum inflammatory mediators, serum and ascites high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1), intestinal barrier function indices, apoptosis and associated proteins, and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling molecules in intestinal tissue were assessed. RESULTS: APD significantly alleviated intestinal mucosal injury induced by SAP, as demonstrated by decreased pathological scores, serum levels of D-lactate, diamine oxidase and endotoxin. APD reduced intestinal inflammation and accompanying apoptosis of mucosal cells, and normalized the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins in intestinal tissues. APD significantly suppressed activation of the intestinal TLR4 signaling pathway mediated by HMGB1, thus exerting protective effects against SAP-associated intestinal injury. CONCLUSION: APD improved intestinal barrier function, intestinal inflammatory response and accompanying mucosal cell apoptosis in SAP rats. The beneficial effects are potentially due to inhibition of HMGB1-mediated TLR4 signaling.

10.
Neurotherapeutics ; 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786807

RESUMO

Brain capillaries are crucial for cognitive functions by supplying oxygen and other nutrients to and removing metabolic wastes from the brain. Recent studies have demonstrated that constriction of brain capillaries is triggered by beta-amyloid (Aß) oligomers via endothelin-1 (ET1)-mediated action on the ET1 receptor A (ETRA), potentially exacerbating Aß plaque deposition, the primary pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, direct evidence is still lacking whether changes in brain capillaries are causally involved in the pathophysiology of AD. Using APP/PS1 mouse model of AD (AD mice) relative to age-matched negative littermates, we identified that reductions of density and diameter of hippocampal capillaries occurred from 4 to 7 months old while Aß plaque deposition and spatial memory deficit developed at 7 months old. Notably, the injection of ET1 into the hippocampus induced early Aß plaque deposition at 5 months old in AD mice. Conversely, treatment of ferulic acid against the ETRA to counteract the ET1-mediated vasoconstriction for 30 days prevented reductions of density and diameter of hippocampal capillaries as well as ameliorated Aß plaque deposition and spatial memory deficit at 7 months old in AD mice. Thus, these data suggest that reductions of density and diameter of hippocampal capillaries are crucial for initiating Aß plaque deposition and spatial memory deficit at the early stages, implicating the development of new therapies for halting or curing memory decline in AD.

11.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 148, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bridge to elective surgery (BTS) using self-expanding metal stents (SEMSs) is a common alternative to emergency surgery (ES) for acute malignant left-sided colonic obstruction (AMLCO). However, studies regarding the long-term impact of BTS are limited and have reported unclear results. METHODS: A multicenter observational study was performed at three hospitals from April 2012 to December 2019. Propensity score matching (PSM) was introduced to minimize selection bias. The primary endpoint was overall survival. The secondary endpoints included surgical approaches, primary resection types, total stent-related adverse effects (AEs), surgical AEs, length of hospital stay, 30-day mortality and tumor recurrence. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients in both the BTS and ES groups were matched. Patients in the BTS group more often underwent laparoscopic resection [31 (63.3%) vs. 8 (16.3%), p < 0.001], were less likely to have a primary stoma [13 (26.5%) vs. 26 (53.1%), p = 0.007] and more often had perineural invasion [25 (51.0 %) vs. 13 (26.5 %), p = 0.013]. The median overall survival was significantly lower in patients with stent insertion (41 vs. 65 months, p = 0.041). The 3-year overall survival (53.0 vs. 77.2%, p = 0.039) and 5-year overall survival (30.6 vs. 55.0%, p = 0.025) were significantly less favorable in the BTS group. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, stenting (hazard ratio(HR) = 2.309(1.052-5.066), p = 0.037), surgical AEs (HR = 1.394 (1.053-1.845), p = 0.020) and pTNM stage (HR = 1.706 (1.116-2.607), p = 0.014) were positively correlated with overall survival in matched patients. CONCLUSIONS: Self-expanding metal stents as "a bridge to surgery" are associated with more perineural invasion, a higher recurrence rate and worse overall survival in patients with acute malignant left-sided colonic obstruction compared with emergency surgery.


Assuntos
Doenças do Colo , Tratamento de Emergência , Obstrução Intestinal , Stents , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças do Colo/cirurgia , Doenças do Colo/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Obstrução Intestinal/cirurgia , Obstrução Intestinal/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 8818363, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33747256

RESUMO

Background: The lncRNA taurine upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) is a recently identified potential biomarker in cancer. However, its prognostic role in various cancers is inconsistent among published data. We conducted this meta-analysis to comprehensively confirm the prognostic effect of TUG1 in malignant tumors. Methods: We systemically analyzed the prognostic-predictive capacity of TUG1 through amplifying sample sizes and cancer types. STATA 12.0 was applied for this meta-analysis. Results: A total of 57 eligible studies were included in our meta-analysis. The pooled results suggested that overexpression of TUG1 was significantly correlated with unfavorable overall survival (OS) (HR = 1.70, p < 0.001), shorter recurrence-free survival (RFS) (HR = 2.40, p ≤ 0.001), and shorter event-free survival (EFS) (HR = 1.88, p < 0.001) in patients with cancer. In the subgroup analysis by cancer type, elevated TUG1 expression was associated with poorer survival in patients with gastrointestinal cancer, urinary tumors, gynecological tumors, hematological tumors, and osteosarcoma. However, high expression of TUG1 in respiratory tumors indicated a better prognosis. There was no correlation between high TUG1 expression and OS in patients with head and neck neoplasms or melanoma. Additionally, overexpression of TUG1 was found to be correlated with low-grade tumor differentiation, advanced tumor stage, positive lymphatic metastasis, and positive distant metastasis. Conclusions: High TUG1 expression correlates with poor prognosis and advanced clinicopathological features, verifying the prognostic-predictive capacity of TUG1 in tumors, especially in gastrointestinal cancer, urinary tumors, gynecological tumors, hematological tumors, and osteosarcoma. Meanwhile, the prognostic role of TUG1 in respiratory tumor may be opposite to other tumors.

13.
Environ Int ; 151: 106455, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652252

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Given the role of exposures related to residence in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has not been well explored, present study aims to investigate the magnitude and pattern of associations for NPC with lifelong residential exposures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We carried out a multi-center, population-based case-control study with 2533 incident NPC cases and 2597 randomly selected population controls in southern China between 2010 and 2014. We performed multivariate logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of NPC associated with residential exposures. RESULTS: Compared with those living in a building over lifetime, risk of NPC was higher for individuals living in a cottage (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.34-1.81) or in a boat (3.87; 2.07-7.21). NPC risk was also increased in individuals using wood (1.34; 1.03-1.75), coal (1.70; 1.17-2.47), or kerosene (3.58; 1.75-7.36) vs. using gas/electricity as cooking fuel; using well water (1.57; 1.34-1.83), river water (1.80; 1.47-2.21), or spring/pond/stream water (2.03; 1.70-2.41) vs. tap water for source of drinking water; living in houses with smaller-sized vs. larger windows in the bedroom (3.08; 2.46-3.86), hall (1.89; 1.55-2.31) or kitchen (1.67; 1.34-2.08); and increasing exposure to cooking smoke [(1.53; 1.20-1.94) for high exposure)] or burned incense [(1.59; 1.31-1.95) for daily use)]. Weighted Cox regression analysis corroborated these results. CONCLUSION: Poorer residential conditions and household air pollution are associated with an increased risk of NPC. Large-scale studies in other populations or longitudinal studies are warranted to further corroborate these findings.

15.
Sci Adv ; 7(2)2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523968

RESUMO

Little is known about the mechanisms regulating the transition of circulating monocytes into pro- or anti-inflammatory macrophages in chronic inflammation. Here, we took advantage of our novel mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis, in which Flip is deleted under the control of a CD11c promoter (HUPO mice). During synovial tissue homeostasis, both monocyte-derived F4/80int and self-renewing F4/80hi tissue-resident, macrophage populations were identified. However, in HUPO mice, decreased synovial tissue-resident macrophages preceded chronic arthritis, opened a niche permitting the influx of activated monocytes, with impaired ability to differentiate into F4/80hi tissue-resident macrophages. In contrast, Flip-replete monocytes entered the vacated niche and differentiated into tissue-resident macrophages, which suppressed arthritis. Genes important in macrophage tissue residency were reduced in HUPO F4/80hi macrophages and in leukocyte-rich rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue monocytes. Our observations demonstrate that the macrophage tissue-resident niche is necessary for suppression of chronic inflammation and may contribute to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.

16.
BMC Chem ; 15(1): 9, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546740

RESUMO

This work presents an investigation on the composition and structure of polysaccharides from the roots of Tetrastigma hemsleyanum (THP) and its associated antioxidant activity. It further explores the protective effect of THP on RAW264.7 cells against cytotoxicity induced by H2O2. Ion chromatography (IC) revealed that THP contained glucose, arabinose, mannose, glucuronic acid, galactose and galacturonic acid, in different molar ratios. Furthermore, gel permeation chromatography-refractive index-multiangle laser light scattering (GPC-RI-MALS) was employed to deduce the relative molecular mass (Mw) of the polysaccharide, which was 177.1 ± 1.8 kDa. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Congo red binding assay highlighted that the THP had a steady α-triple helix conformation. Similarly, assays of antioxidant activity disclosed that THP had reasonable concentration-dependent hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical scavenging activities, peroxidation inhibition ability and ferrous ion chelating potency, in addition to a significant 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity. Moreover, THP could protect RAW264.7 cells against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity by decreasing intracellular ROS levels, reducing catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, increasing lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and increment in malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Data retrieved from the in vitro models explicitly established the antioxidant capability of polysaccharides from T. hemsleyanum root extracts.

17.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 137: 111353, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mastitis is a common disease occurs in breast-feeding mothers, but published data are poor. This study aimed to study the effects of Tanshinones on treating mastitis. METHODS: Clinical trials performed in 58 breast-feeding mothers were carried out. B-ultrasound and blood test were used to measure the size of breast mass and the change of blood cell counts. BALB/c mice were injected with LPS and then treated by Tanshinone I or Tanshinone IIA/B. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and the release of inflammatory cytokines were tested by MPO kit, RT-qPCR and ELISA. Mouse mammary epithelial cells (mMECs) were isolated and the effects of Tanshinones were measured by conducting CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry, RT-qPCR and ELISA. RESULTS: Patients treated by Cefprozil combined with Tanshinone got better outcomes than patients treated by Cefprozil alone. In animal trials, Tanshinone I and Tanshinone IIA/B significantly reduced MPO activity, and the levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6 in serum and mammary gland tissues. In mMECs, Tanshinone I and Tanshinone IIA/B attenuated LPS-induced viability loss and apoptosis. And they effectively inhibited the release of TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6. Also, Tanshinone I and Tanshinone IIA/B significantly attenuated LPS-evoked NF-κB activation. CONCLUSION: Tanshinone I and Tanshinone IIA/B have potentials in treating mastitis. The beneficial effects might be through regulating NF-κB activation.

19.
Sci Adv ; 7(5)2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571124

RESUMO

Lung adenocarcinomas (LUAD) that radiologically display as subsolid nodules (SSNs) exhibit more indolent biological behavior than solid LUAD. The transcriptomic features and tumor microenvironment (TME) of SSN remain poorly understood. Here, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing analyses of 16 SSN samples, 6 adjacent normal lung tissues (nLung), and 9 primary LUAD with lymph node metastasis (mLUAD). Approximately 0.6 billion unique transcripts were obtained from 118,293 cells. We found that cytotoxic natural killer/T cells were dominant in the TME of SSN, and malignant cells in SSN undergo a strong metabolic reprogram and immune stress. In SSN, the subtype composition of endothelial cells was similar to that in mLUAD, while the subtype distribution of fibroblasts was more like that in nLung. Our study provides single-cell transcriptomic profiling of SSN and their TME. This resource provides deeper insight into the indolent nature of SSN and will be helpful in advancing lung cancer immunotherapy.

20.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(3): 361-369, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443541

RESUMO

Importance: There is no current consensus on the role of chemotherapy in addition to radiation for postoperative adjuvant treatment of patients with early-stage cervical cancer with adverse pathological factors. Objective: To evaluate the clinical benefits of sequential chemoradiation (SCRT) and concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) compared with radiation alone (RT) as a postoperative adjuvant treatment in early-stage cervical cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: After radical hysterectomy at 1 of 8 participating hospitals in China, patients with FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage IB to IIA cervical cancer with adverse pathological factors were randomized 1:1:1 to receive adjuvant RT, CCRT, or SCRT. Data were collected from February 2008 to December 2018. Interventions: Patients received adjuvant RT (total dose, 45-50 Gy), CCRT (weekly cisplatin, 30-40 mg/m2), or SCRT (cisplatin, 60-75 mg/m2, plus paclitaxel, 135-175 mg/m2) in a 21-day cycle, given 2 cycles before and 2 cycles after radiotherapy, respectively. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the rate of disease-free survival (DFS) at 3 years. Results: A total of 1048 women (median [range] age, 48 [23-65] years) were included in the analysis (350 in the RT group, 345 in the CCRT group, and 353 in the SCRT group). Baseline demographic and disease characteristics were balanced among the treatment groups except that the rate of lymph node involvement was lowest in the RT group (18.3%). In the intention-to-treat population, SCRT was associated with a higher rate of DFS than RT (3-year rate, 90.0% vs 82.0%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.52; 95% CI, 0.35-0.76) and CCRT (90.0% vs 85.0%; HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.44-0.96). Treatment with SCRT also decreased cancer death risk compared with RT (5-year rate, 92.0% vs 88.0%; HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.35-0.95) after adjustment for lymph node involvement. However, neither DFS nor cancer death risk was different among patients treated with CCRT or RT. Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, conducted in a postoperative adjuvant treatment setting, SCRT, rather than CCRT, resulted in a higher DFS and lower risk of cancer death than RT among women with early-stage cervical cancer. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00806117.

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