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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141958, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892054

RESUMO

Biochar addition can reduce methane (CH4) emissions from paddy soils while the mechanisms involved are not entirely clear. Here, we studied the effect of biochar addition on CH4 emissions, and the abundance and community composition of methanogens and methanotrophs over two rice cultivation seasons. The experiment had the following five treatments: control (CK), chemical fertilizer application only (BC0), and 0.5% (w/w) (BC1), 1% (BC2), and 2% of biochar applied with chemical fertilizers (BC3). The season-wide CH4 emissions were decreased (P < 0.05) by 22.2-95.7% in biochar application compared with BC0 in the two rice seasons (2017 and 2018). In 2017, biochar application decreased methanogenic archaea (mcrA) but increased methanotrophic bacteria (pmoA) abundances, and decreased the ratio of mcrA/pmoA, as compared with BC0 (P < 0.05). In 2018, the abundance of mcrA was lower in BC2 and BC3 than in BC0 (P < 0.05) but was not different between BC0 and BC1, and the abundance of pmoA was lower in BC1, BC2 and BC3 than in BC0 (P < 0.05). The CH4 emissions were positively related to abundances of the mcrA gene (P < 0.01) but not to that of the pmoA gene in two rice seasons. Rice grain yield was increased by 62.2-94.1% in biochar addition treatments compared with BC0 in the first year (P < 0.01) and by 29.9-37.6% in BC2 and BC3 compared with BC0 in the second year (P < 0.05). Biochar application decreased CH4 emissions by reducing methanogenic archaea abundance in the studied flooded paddy soil.


Assuntos
Oryza , Solo , Archaea/genética , Carvão Vegetal , Metano , Microbiologia do Solo
2.
Diabetes ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199363

RESUMO

Pancreatic ß cell dysfunction plays a decisive role in progression of type 2 diabetes. Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a prominent adipokine in type 2 diabetes while its effect on ß cell function remains elusive and the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we found that elevated circulating RBP4 levels were inversely correlated with pancreatic ß cell function in db/db mice across different glycemic stages. RBP4 directly suppressed glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in primary isolated islets and INS-1E cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. RBP4-transgenic overexpressing mice (RBP4-Tg) showed a dynamic decrease of GSIS which appeared as early as 8-week-old preceding the impairment of insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. Islets isolated from RBP4-Tg mice showed a significant decrease of GSIS. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that the stimulated by retinoic acid 6(STRA6), RBP4's only known specific membrane receptor, is expressed in ß cells and mediates the inhibitory effect of RBP4 on insulin synthesis via JAK2/STAT1/ISL-1 pathway. Moreover, decreasing circulating RBP4 level could effectively restore ß cell dysfunction and ameliorate hyperglycemia in db/db mice. These observations revealed a role of RBP4 in pancreatic ß cell dysfunction which provided new insight into the diabetogenic effect of RBP4.

3.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153224

RESUMO

Flavonoids and isoflavonoids are polyphenolic secondary metabolites usually produced by plants adapting to changing ecological environments over a long period of time. Therefore, their biosynthesis pathways are considered as the most distinctive natural product pathway in plants. Seemingly, the flavonoids and isoflavones from fungi and actinomycetes have been relatively overlooked. In this review, we summarized and classified the isoflavones and flavonoids derived from fungi and actinomycetes and described their biological activities. Increasing attention has been paid to bioactive substances derived from microorganism whole-cell biotransformation. Additionally, we described the utilization of isoflavones and flavonoids as substrates by fungi and actinomycetes for biotransformation through hydroxylation, methylation, halogenation, glycosylation, dehydrogenation, cyclisation, and hydrogenation reactions to obtain rare and highly active biofunctional derivatives. Overall, among all microorganisms, actinomycetes are the main producers of flavonoids. In our review, we also summarized the functional genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis.

4.
Chem Biodivers ; 2020 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188535

RESUMO

A novel pH-activatable fluorescent probe L-1 based on ß-carboline derivatives has been developed, which displays significant fluorescent response toward pH variation with high selectivity, good photo-stability and favorable pKa value. Moreover, L-1 can dynamically monitor the release of protons during ester hydrolysis reaction in consistent with enzymatic kinetics manner.

5.
Mol Med Rep ; 22(6): 5339-5347, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174007

RESUMO

Wound healing is a complex physiological process in which fibrocytes serve a vital role. However, the mechanism underlying the recruitment of fibrocytes during wound healing remains largely unknown. The present study aimed to investigate whether endothelial cells are involved in the recruitment of fibrocytes in wound healing. To mimic the in vivo angiogenic process, a co­culture system consisting of endothelial cells and fibrocytes was achieved using a permeable Transwell co­culture system. The expression of chemokines produced by endothelial cells with or without co­culture was then measured using a gene chip. Based on the dataset from chip analysis, chemokine ligand 15 (CCL15) produced by endothelial cells was identified, which likely serves a regulatory role in mediating the transmigration of fibrocytes. Overexpression of CCL15 in endothelial cells or chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) in fibrocytes promoted the transmigration of fibrocytes, whilst silencing the expression of CCL15 in endothelial cells or that of CCR1 in fibrocytes attenuated the transmigration of fibrocytes. Results from the present study suggested that the CCL15­CCR1 axis between endothelial cells and fibrocytes serves a vital role in mediating the recruitment of fibrocytes during wound healing.

6.
J Mater Chem B ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169776

RESUMO

An in-depth understanding of the mechanisms of cellular uptake and efflux would facilitate the design of metal complexes with not only better functionality and targeted theranostic efficiency, but also with controlled toxicity. Here we find, unexpectedly, that the DNA "light-switching" Ru(ii)-polypyridyl complex [Ru(phen)2(dppz)]2+ already delivered to the nucleus via ion-pairing with chlorophenolate counter-anions can gradually efflux to the cytoplasm when the cells were washed and incubated with fresh culture-medium. Interestingly, [Ru(phen)2(dppz)]2+ effluxed to the cytoplasm can be redirected back to the nucleus when the chlorophenolate counter-anions were added again. The efflux of nuclear [Ru(phen)2(dppz)]2+ was found to be mediated mainly via ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins. Analogous reversible, but enantio-selective nuclear uptake and efflux were observed with the two pure chiral forms of [Ru(phen)2(dppz)]Cl2. This represents the first report of reversible and controllable nuclear uptake and efflux of a DNA "light-switching" Ru(ii)-complex in living-cells via ion-pairing, which should provide novel insights for future research on using ion-pairing as an effective approach to control the cellular uptake and redistribution of other potential theranostic metal complexes.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a major subtype of esophageal cancers. The Five-year survival rate of ESCC is low and molecular targets for ESCC treatment and prognosis assessment are very limited. T cells are critical for clearance of cancer cells and blockade of co-inhibitory molecules for T cell activation has emerged as a promising therapy to treat cancer patients. However, in ESCC patients such co-inhibitory molecules regulating T cell activation is poorly documented. OBJECTIVE: We aim to evaluate how the presence of inhibitory check-point molecules in T cells could impact survival of patients. METHODS: We performed follow-up study of 161 patients undergoing resection of esophageal carcinoma from February 2014 to December 2015, by immunohistochemical staining of six co-inhibitory molecules for T cell activation, namely PD-1, CTLA-4, TIM-3, LAG-3, BTLA and A2AR. Expression of each of the six co-inhibitory molecules was analyzed for its correlation with patient survival by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. We also applied Kaplan-Meier analyses to evaluate concomitant expression of co-inhibitory molecules and their correlation with patient survival. RESULTS: We found that levels of PD-1, TIM-3 and BTLA can be used as independent prognostic factors for overall survival of patients with ESCC. More importantly, our study found that the co-expression of PD-1 and TIM-3, PD-1 and BTLA, TIM-3 and BTLA significantly reduced the survival of patients with ESCC (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Therefore, our results suggest the necessity of evaluating the tumor tissue expression of co-inhibitory molecules and targeting co-expressed molecules in immunotherapies for ESCC patients.

8.
BMC Med Educ ; 20(1): 436, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dementia care requires inter-disciplinary collaboration starting from formal health professional education. Yet, little is known about how undergraduate medical and nursing students perceive dementia care in China. The aim of this study was to investigate undergraduate medical and nursing students' dementia knowledge, attitudes and care approach in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Students enrolled in a 5-year Bachelor of Medicine Program and a 4-year Bachelor of Nursing Program from four universities with campuses across Eastern, Western, Southern and Northern China were recruited into the study. Three validated instruments, Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS), Dementia Care Attitude Scale (DCAS) and Approach to Advanced Dementia Care Questionnaire (ADCQ), were used to examine students' dementia knowledge, attitudes and perceived care approach. Data were collected using a self-administered survey. RESULTS: The number of medical and nursing students completing the survey was 526 and 467 respectively. Students' overall knowledge about dementia was poor, but attitudes were generally positive. The overall mean score of students' dementia knowledge examined by the ADKS was 19.49 (SD = 2.82) out of 30, students' attitudes to dementia was 29.92(SD = 3.35) out of 40, and students' person-centred care approach of dementia was 5.42 (SD = 2.20) out of 13. Medical students demonstrated higher dementia knowledge scores and showed less positive attitude scores than nursing students (p < 0.05). Students would not apply a person-centred care approach. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean scores of ADCQ between nursing students and medical students. CONCLUSIONS: Study results highlight the urgent need to implement an inter-disciplinary approach to increasing dementia education among Chinese medical and nursing students, and ensuring that students have adequate knowledge, attitudes and experience in the care of people with dementia.

9.
Mol Immunol ; 128: 219-226, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157351

RESUMO

NF-κB activation is essential in mediating the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and also plays a key role in regulating the inflammatory response through intricate mechanisms. In this study, loss of Gfi1 was found to be associated with transcriptomic profiles related to NF-κB activation, including an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines. Genetically inactivating the IKK/NF-κB signaling pathway in macrophages showed that Gfi1 deficiency led to pro-inflammatory cytokine production requiring NF-κB activation. More importantly, we revealed that one of the under-researched mechanisms, involving Gfi1 and Zc3h12c exerted negative regulation on NF-κB activation. Both Gfi1 and Zc3h12c were found to inhibit NF-κB activation, and double knockout exhibited additive roles of Gfi1 and Zc3h12c in preventing proinflammatory cytokine production. The loss of Gfi1 upregulated Zc3h12c which in turn inhibited NF-κB activation. Therefore, this study delineates the function of Zc3h12c in enhancing the negative regulation of Gfi1 through NF-κB activation during inflammation in macrophages.

10.
J Food Biochem ; : e13565, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219537

RESUMO

Allium cepa is used for the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia-related diseases such as atherosclerosis in the folk. This study was mainly aimed at investigating the effects of A. cepa extract (ACE) enriched in polyphenols on hyperlipidemia Sprague-Dawley (SD) experiment rat models. The levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), malondialdehyde (MDA), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in serum and liver were measured using ELISA kits. In addition, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) technique was used to observe the liver and the aortic arch pathology. Moreover, western blotting (WB) method was applied to analyze LDL receptor (LDLR) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase (HMGCR) in liver. As a result, quercetin (2.42 mg/g DW) and isoquercitrin (4.60 mg/g DW) were the main constituents of ACE using HPLC analysis. Furthermore, ACE reduced the levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, and MDA, and increased HDL levels and elevated SOD activity both in serum and liver in hyperlipidemic SD rats (p < .05). HE results showed that liver fat drops of the rats in ACE group were obviously decreased, and the lipid and foam cells of the aortic arch of the rats in ACE group were markedly ameliorated. WB results showed that ACE promoted the degradation of HMGCR and increased LDLR expression in liver (p < .05). In conclusion, ACE alleviated hyperlipidemia with downregulation of HMGCR and upregulation of LDLR. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Atherosclerosis, a major cardiovascular disease, is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the developed countries. Moreover, accumulating data indicate that, during atherosclerosis development, hyperlipidemia is an important risk factor. To date, hyperlipidemia is mainly treated with hyperlipidemic agents including statins, in spite of the side effects and poor tolerance in some patients. In addition, Allium cepa is a medicinal and edible plant. Furthermore, A. cepa is used for the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia-related diseases such as atherosclerosis in the folk. But the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In fact, this research showed that A. cepa extract (ACE) alleviated hyperlipidemia with downregulation of HMGCR and upregulation of LDLR, suggesting that ACE might be a potential option for hyperlipidemia as non-statin lipid-lowering agent.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230074

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), the most common eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease (EGID), is associated with lamina propria (LP) fibrosis. The relationship of EoE to other EGIDs is still unclear. We frequently observe cases of concurrent esophageal eosinophilia and extra-esophageal mucosal eosinophilia. The purpose of this study was to compare clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features, as well as the prevalence of esophageal LP fibrosis in children with EGID and concurrent esophageal eosinophilia to children with EoE. We also examine the current practices of pathologists in evaluating fibrosis. METHODS:: We reviewed esophageal biopsies from index cases of EoE (N = 38), EGID with significant esophageal eosinophilia (≥15 eos/hpf) (EGID-SEE, N = 38), EGID with mild esophageal eosinophilia (1-14 eos/hpf) (EGID-MEE, N = 12), and EGID with no esophageal eosinophilia (EGID-NEE, N = 12) for LP presence, adequacy, and fibrosis. RESULTS: EoE and EGID-SEE cases share similar demographics, esophageal endoscopic features, and symptoms. A majority of EGID-SEE cases (71%) had adequate LP for the evaluation of fibrosis, similar to EoE cases (87%). The prevalence of esophageal fibrosis in EoE (79%) and EGID-SEE (55%) cases were similar, whereas no fibrosis was detected in the EGID-MEE and EGID-NEE cases. The fibrosis was patchy and often detected in the distal esophagus. Fourteen cases were reclassified from their original clinical diagnosis as having fibrosis by the study pathologists. CONCLUSIONS: Cases of EGID-SEE have overlapping features with EoE, suggesting that all EGIDs are part of a disease continuum. A consensus for the evaluation of LP fibrosis is needed.

12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(43): 26985-26995, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046653

RESUMO

Current models emphasize that membrane voltage (Vm) depolarization-induced Ca2+ influx triggers the fusion of vesicles to the plasma membrane. In sympathetic adrenal chromaffin cells, activation of a variety of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) can inhibit quantal size (QS) through the direct interaction of G protein Gißγ subunits with exocytosis fusion proteins. Here we report that, independently from Ca2+, Vm (action potential) per se regulates the amount of catecholamine released from each vesicle, the QS. The Vm regulation of QS was through ATP-activated GPCR-P2Y12 receptors. D76 and D127 in P2Y12 were the voltage-sensing sites. Finally, we revealed the relevance of the Vm dependence of QS for tuning autoinhibition and target cell functions. Together, membrane voltage per se increases the quantal size of dense-core vesicle release of catecholamine via Vm → P2Y12(D76/D127) → Gißγ → QS → myocyte contractility, offering a universal Vm-GPCR signaling pathway for its functions in the nervous system and other systems containing GPCRs.

13.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 11: 567955, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33117283

RESUMO

Fetuin-A is a multifunctional glycoprotein that has been implicated in insulin resistance and bone metabolism. We assessed whether fetuin-A is associated with poor or excessive fetal growth. In the Shanghai Birth Cohort, we conducted a nested case-control study of 60 trios of small-for-gestational-age (SGA, birth weight <10th percentile), optimal-for-gestational-age (OGA, 25-75th, the reference) and large-for-gestational-age (LGA, >90th percentile) infants matched by sex and gestational age. Cord plasma concentrations of fetuin-A and fetal growth factors [insulin, proinsulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II] were measured. Cord plasma fetuin-A concentrations were higher in SGA (809.4 ± 306.9 µg/ml, P = 0.026) and LGA (924.2 ± 375.9 µg/ml, P < 0.001) relative to OGA (680.7 ± 262.1 µg/ml) newborns, and were not correlated to insulin, proinsulin, IGF-I and IGF-II (all P > 0.2). Higher fetuin-A concentrations were associated with increased risks of SGA [OR = 1.67 (1.08-2.58) per SD increment, P = 0.024] and LGA [OR = 2.36 (1.53-3.66), P < 0.001]. Adjusting for maternal and neonatal characteristics and fetal growth factors, the elevated risk changed little for LGA [adjusted OR = 2.28 (1.29-4.01), P = 0.005], but became non-significant for SGA (P = 0.202). Our study is the first to demonstrate that fetuin-A may be involved in excessive fetal growth. This association is independent of fetal growth factors.

14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119303

RESUMO

Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to value-added fuels is a promising route to reduce global warming and enhance energy supply. However, poor selectivity and low efficiency of catalysts are usually the limiting factor of their applicability. Herein, a photoinduction method was developed to achieve the formation of Cu single atoms on a UiO-66-NH2 support (Cu SAs/UiO-66-NH2) that could significantly boost the photoreduction of CO2 to liquid fuels. Notably, the developed Cu SAs/UiO-66-NH2 achieved the solar-driven conversion of CO2 to methanol and ethanol with an evolution rate of 5.33 and 4.22 µmol h-1 g-1, respectively. These yields were much higher than those of pristine UiO-66-NH2 and Cu nanoparticles/UiO-66-NH2 composites. Theoretical calculations revealed that the introduction of the Cu SAs on the UiO-66-NH2 greatly facilitates the conversion of CO2 to CHO* and CO* intermediates, leading to excellent selectivity toward methanol and ethanol. This study provides new insights for designing high-performance catalyst for photocatalytic reduction of CO2 at the atomic scale.

15.
Org Lett ; 22(21): 8210-8214, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108199

RESUMO

This study aimed to develop a novel protocol for the synthesis of 2H-pyrrolo[1,2-a]imidazol-7(3H)-ones (PIDOs) from heterocyclic ketene aminals (HKAs) through an unprecedented cascade reaction by refluxing. Consequently, a series of PIDOs was produced through an amazing oxidative dimerization, followed by sequential cleavage of the C-N and C-C bonds in dimeric HKAs. This formation of PIDOs was accompanied by the formation and cleavage of many bonds. This method is suitable for the parallel construction of bicyclic pyrrolidone-like products.

16.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 28(23): 115793, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039798

RESUMO

Methods that site-specifically attach payloads to an antibody with controlled DAR (Drug-Antibody Ratio) are highly desirable for the generation of homogeneous antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). We describe the use of N-phenyl-divinylsulfonamide scaffold as a linker platform to site-specifically construct homogeneous DAR four ADCs through a disulfide re-bridging approach. Several monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE)-linkers were synthesized and the drug-linkers that contain electron-donating groups on the phenyl of the linker showed high stability. Her2-targeted MMAE-linker-herceptin and EGFR targeted MMAE-linker-cetuximab conjugates were prepared. The conjugates demonstrated high efficacy and selectivity for killing target-positive cancer cells in vitro. The EGFR-targeted conjugates also showed significant antitumor activities in vivo.

17.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(12): 23, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104163

RESUMO

Purpose: Irreversible retina ganglion cell (RGC) loss is a key process during glaucoma progression. Down syndrome critical region 1 (DSCR1) has been shown to have protective effects against neuronal death. In this study, we aimed to investigate the neuroprotective mechanisms of DSCR1 on RGCs. Methods: DBA/2J mice and optic nerve crush (ONC) rat model were used for vivo assays. Oxidative stress model of primary RGCs was carried out with in vitro transduction. DSCR1 protein localization was assessed by immunofluorescence. Differential protein expression was validated by Western blot, and gene expression was detected by real-time PCR. TUNEL was used to identify cell apoptosis, and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide was used to analyze cell viability. Results: Significant upregulation of DSCR1 was observed in DBA/2J mice, ONC rat model, and RGCs treated with H2O2, reaching peaks at the age of 6 months in DBA/2J mice, 5 days after ONC in rats, and 24 hours after H2O2 treatment in RGCs, respectively. DSCR1 was shown to be expressed in the ganglion cell layer. In vitro, overexpressed DSCR1 significantly promoted phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) expression, and RGC survival rate while reducing cleaved caspase 3 expression in H2O2-treated RGCs. On the other hand, the opposite effects were shown after knockdown of DSCR1. In addition, silencing of CREB inhibited expression of DSCR1. Conclusions: Our results suggested that DSCR1 might protect the RGCs against oxidative stress via the CREB-Bcl-2 pathway, which may provide a theoretical basis for future treatments of glaucoma.

18.
Bioresour Technol ; 320(Pt A): 124303, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126132

RESUMO

To investigate biohythane production and microbial behavior during temperature-phased (TP) anaerobic co-digestion (AcD) of rice straw (RS) and pig manure (PM), a mesophilic-thermophilic (M1-T1) AcD system and a thermophilic-mesophilic (T2-M2) AcD system were continuously operated for 95 days in parallel. The maximal ratio (8.44%v/v) of produced hydrogen to methane demonstrated the feasibility of biohythane production by co-digestion of RS and PM. T2-M2 exhibited higher hydrogen (16.68 ± 1.88 mL/gVS) and methane (197.73 ± 11.77 mL/gVS) yields than M1-T1 (3.08 ± 0.39 and 109.03 ± 4.97 mL/gVS, respectively). Methanobrevibacter (75.62%, a hydrogenotrophic methanogen) dominated in the M1 reactor, resulting in low hydrogen production. Hydrogen-producing bacteria (Thermoanaerobacterium 32.06% and Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1 27.33%) dominated in T2, but the abundance of hydrolytic bacteria was low, indicating that hydrolysis could be a rate-limiting step. The thermophilic acid-producing phase provided effective selective pressure for hydrogen-consuming microbes, and the high diversity of microbes in M2 implied a more efficient pathway of methane production.

19.
Cancer Med ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low-grade gangliogliomas (GGs) are rare tumors of the central nervous system in adults. This study aims to define their characteristics, prognostic factors, and the impact of different treatment patterns on survival. METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was used to investigate the potential clinicopathological factors of low-grade GGs in adult patients (age ≥18 years). Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model were utilized to evaluate the associations between variables and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: A total of 703 adult patients diagnosed with low-grade GGs were identified between 2004 and 2016, with a median follow-up period of 60.0 months. The median age at diagnosis was 32.0 years, with 50.1% of patients being male, 84.2% white people, and 40.2% of married status. The predominant tumor site was located in temporal lobe (38.8%). The median OS time for the whole cohort was not reached. The 5- and 10-year OS rates for patients underwent gross total resection (GTR) were 92.5% and 87.2%, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed age, gender, tumor site, and treatment pattern were significant factors for OS. The employment of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) and/or chemotherapy would significantly shorten OS time. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest retrospective study of adult low-grade GGs up to date. Younger age, female gender, temporal lobe location, and GTR indicated better survival. Adjuvant RT and/or chemotherapy should not be considered after whatever surgery in adult patients with low-grade GGs, unless the malignant transformation has been confirmed.

20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4971, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009408

RESUMO

Assembly of different metal-organic framework (MOF) building blocks into hybrid MOF-on-MOF heterostructures is promising in chemistry and materials science, however the development of ternary MOF-on-MOF heterostructures with controllable architectural and compositional complexity is challenging. Here we report the synthesis of three types of ternary MOF-on-MOF heterostructures via a multiple selective assembly strategy. This strategy relies on the choice of one host MOF with more than one facet that can arrange the growth of a guest MOF, where the arrangement is site-selective without homogenous growth of guest MOF or homogenous coating of guest on host MOF. The growth of guest MOF on a selected site of host MOF in each step provides the opportunity to further vary the combinations of arrangements in multiple steps, leading to ternary MOF-on-MOF heterostructures with tunable complexity. The developed strategy paves the way towards the rational design of intricate and unprecedented MOF-based superstructures for various applications.

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