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1.
Adv Healthc Mater ; : e2303720, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626388

RESUMO

Lymph nodes (LNs) are organs of the immune system, critical for maintenance of homeostasis and initiation of immune responses, yet there are few models that accurately recapitulate LN functions in vitro. To tackle this issue, an engineered murine LN (eLN) was developed, replicating key cellular components of the mouse LN; incorporating primary murine lymphocytes, fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs), and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). T and B cells compartments are incorporated within the eLN that mimic LN cortex and paracortex architectures. When challenged, the eLN elicits both robust inflammatory responses and antigen-specific immune activation, showing that the system can differentiate between non-specific and antigen-specific responses and can be monitored in real-time. Beyond immune responses, this model also enables interrogation of changes in stromal cells, thus permitting investigations of all LN cellular components in homeostasis and different disease settings, such as cancer. Here, we present how LN behavior can be influenced by murine melanoma-derived factors. In conclusion, the eLN model presents a promising platform for in vitro study of LN biology that will enhance understanding of stromal and immune responses in the murine LN, and in doing so will enable development of novel therapeutic strategies to improve LN responses in disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Plant Cell ; 2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299379

RESUMO

The flower-infecting fungus Ustilaginoidea virens causes rice false smut, which is a severe emerging disease threatening rice (Oryza sativa) production worldwide. False smut not only reduces yield, but more importantly produces toxins on grains, posing a great threat to food safety. U. virens invades spikelets via the gap between the two bracts (lemma and palea) enclosing the floret and specifically infects the stamen and pistil. Molecular mechanisms for the U. virens-rice interaction are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that rice flowers predominantly employ chitin-triggered immunity against U. virens in the lemma and palea, rather than in the stamen and pistil. We identify a crucial U. virens virulence factor, named UvGH18.1, which carries glycoside hydrolase activity. Mechanistically, UvGH18.1 functions by binding to and hydrolyzing immune elicitor chitin and interacting with the chitin receptor CHITIN ELICITOR BINDING PROTEIN (OsCEBiP) and co-receptor CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE1 (OsCERK1) to impair their chitin-induced dimerization, suppressing host immunity exerted at the lemma and palea for gaining access to the stamen and pistil. Conversely, pretreatment on spikelets with chitin induces a defense response in the lemma and palea, promoting resistance against U. virens. Collectively, our data uncover a mechanism for a U. virens virulence factor and the critical location of the host-pathogen interaction in flowers and provide a potential strategy to control rice false smut disease.

3.
Rice (N Y) ; 17(1): 1, 2024 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38170415

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as a group of signaling molecules in rice functioning in regulation of development and stress responses. Respiratory burst oxidase homologues (Rbohs) are key enzymes in generation of ROS. However, the role of the nine Rboh family members was not fully understood in rice multiple disease resistance and yield traits. In this study, we constructed mutants of each Rboh genes and detected their requirement in rice multiple disease resistance and yield traits. Our results revealed that mutations of five Rboh genes (RbohA, RbohB, RbohE, RbohH, and RbohI) lead to compromised rice blast disease resistance in a disease nursery and lab conditions; mutations of five Rbohs (RbohA, RbohB, RbohC, RbohE, and RbohH) result in suppressed rice sheath blight resistance in a disease nursery and lab conditions; mutations of six Rbohs (RbohA, RbohB, RbohC, RbohE, RbohH and RbohI) lead to decreased rice leaf blight resistance in a paddy yard and ROS production induced by PAMPs and pathogen. Moreover, all Rboh genes participate in the regulation of rice yield traits, for all rboh mutants display one or more compromised yield traits, such as panicle number, grain number per panicle, seed setting rate, and grain weight, resulting in reduced yield per plant except rbohb and rbohf. Our results identified the Rboh family members involved in the regulation of rice resistance against multiple pathogens that caused the most serious diseases worldwide and provide theoretical supporting for breeding application of these Rbohs to coordinate rice disease resistance and yield traits.

4.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 22(1): 116-130, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37752622

RESUMO

Arabidopsis RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW 8.1 (RPW8.1) is an important tool for engineering broad-spectrum disease resistance against multiple pathogens. Ectopic expression of RPW8.1 leads to enhanced disease resistance with cell death at leaves and compromised plant growth, implying a regulatory mechanism balancing RPW8.1-mediated resistance and growth. Here, we show that RPW8.1 constitutively enhances the expression of transcription factor WRKY51 and activates salicylic acid and ethylene signalling pathways; WRKY51 in turn suppresses RPW8.1 expression, forming a feedback regulation loop. RPW8.1 and WRKY51 are both induced by pathogen infection and pathogen-/microbe-associated molecular patterns. In ectopic expression of RPW8.1 background (R1Y4), overexpression of WRKY51 not only rescues the growth suppression and cell death caused by RPW8.1, but also suppresses RPW8.1-mediated broad-spectrum disease resistance and pattern-triggered immunity. Mechanistically, WRKY51 directly binds to and represses RPW8.1 promoter, thus limiting the expression amplitude of RPW8.1. Moreover, WRKY6, WRKY28 and WRKY41 play a role redundant to WRKY51 in the suppression of RPW8.1 expression and are constitutively upregulated in R1Y4 plants with WRKY51 being knocked out (wrky51 R1Y4) plants. Notably, WRKY51 has no significant effects on disease resistance or plant growth in wild type without RPW8.1, indicating a specific role in RPW8.1-mediated disease resistance. Altogether, our results reveal a regulatory circuit controlling the accumulation of RPW8.1 to an appropriate level to precisely balance growth and disease resistance during pathogen invasion.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença/genética , Retroalimentação , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Morte Celular , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38109220

RESUMO

Building two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) micro- and nanofibril structures with designable patterns and functionalities will offer exciting prospects for numerous applications spanning from permeable bioelectronics to tissue engineering scaffolds. This Spotlight on Applications highlights recent technological advances in fiber printing and patterning with functional materials for biointerfacing applications. We first introduce the current state of development of micro- and nanofibers with applications in biology and medical wearables. We then describe our contributions in developing a series of fiber printing techniques that enable the patterning of functional fiber architectures in three dimensions. These fiber printing techniques expand the material library and device designs, which underpin technological capabilities from enabling fundamental studies in cell migration to customizable and ecofriendly fabrication of sensors. Finally, we provide an outlook on the strategic pathways for developing the next-generation bioelectronics and "Fiber-of-Things" (FoT) using nano/micro-fibers as architectural building blocks.

6.
Foods ; 12(22)2023 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38002208

RESUMO

Novel hierarchical metal-organic framework/chitosan aerogel composites were developed for oil bleaching. UiO-66-COOH-type metal organic frameworks (Zr-MOFs) were synthesized and integrated onto a chitosan matrix with different contents and named MOF-aerogel-1 and MOF-aerogel-2. Due to the compatibility of chitosan, the carboxylic zirconium MOF-aerogels not only maintained the inherent chemical accessibility of UiO-66-COOH, but the unique crystallization and structural characteristics of these MOF nanoparticles were also preserved. Through 3-dimensional reconstructed images, aggregation of the UiO-66-COOH particles was observed in MOF-aerogel-1, while the MOF was homogeneously distributed on the surface of the chitosan lamellae in MOF-aerogel-2. All aerogels, with or without immobilized MOF nanoparticles, were capable of removing carotenoids during oil bleaching. MOF-aerogel-2 showed the most satisfying removal proportions of 26.6%, 36.5%, and 47.2% at 50 °C, 75 °C, and 100 °C, respectively, and its performance was very similar to that of commercial activated clay. The reuse performance of MOF-aerogel-2 was tested, and the results showed its exceptional sustainability for carotenoid removal. These findings suggested the effectiveness of the MOFaerogel for potential utilization in oil bleaching treatments.

7.
Nat Mater ; 22(11): 1294-1303, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37500958

RESUMO

Textiles represent a fundamental material format that is extensively integrated into our everyday lives. The quest for more versatile and body-compatible wearable electronics has led to the rise of electronic textiles (e-textiles). By enhancing textiles with electronic functionalities, e-textiles define a new frontier of wearable platforms for human augmentation. To realize the transformational impact of wearable e-textiles, materials innovations can pave the way for effective user adoption and the creation of a sustainable circular economy. We propose a repair, recycle, replacement and reduction circular e-textile paradigm. We envisage a systematic design framework embodying material selection and biofabrication concepts that can unify environmental friendliness, market viability, supply-chain resilience and user experience quality. This framework establishes a set of actionable principles for the industrialization and commercialization of future sustainable e-textile products.

8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 248: 125871, 2023 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37473896

RESUMO

Microcapsules could improve the protection of probiotics in the lyophilization and gastrointestinal digestion process. The purpose of this study was to prepare Lactiplantibacillus plantarum DMDL 9010 (LP9010) microcapsules by cross-linking chitosan with genipin and to determine the encapsulation efficiency, morphological characterization, storage stability and the application of the microcapsules in fermentation. The results showed that the LP9010 microcapsules embedded in 1.00 wt% genipin cross-linked chitosan were in a uniform spherical shape with a smooth surface and satisfying agglomeration. The LP9010 microcapsules demonstrated the reasonable thermal stability and persistence of biological activity in the range of -20 °C to 25 °C. Additionally, yogurt obtained from the ST + LB + ELP9010 strain formulation with the addition of microencapsulated LP9010 had smaller particles, better taste, and better stability compared with the yogurt obtained from other strain formulations. As detected by GC-MS, the yogurt formulated with ST + LB + ELP9010 as a strain retained more flavor substances and the content of flavor substances was greater than that of the yogurt obtained from other strain formulations. Therefore, genipin cross-link chitosan could be a suitable microencapsulated material for producing yogurt fermentation strains.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Iogurte , Cápsulas , Fermentação
9.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 3266, 2023 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37277340

RESUMO

Embryonic tissues undergoing shape change draw mechanical input from extraembryonic substrates. In avian eggs, the early blastoderm disk is under the tension of the vitelline membrane (VM). Here we report that the chicken VM characteristically downregulates tension and stiffness to facilitate stage-specific embryo morphogenesis. Experimental relaxation of the VM early in development impairs blastoderm expansion, while maintaining VM tension in later stages resists the convergence of the posterior body causing stalled elongation, failure of neural tube closure, and axis rupture. Biochemical and structural analysis shows that VM weakening is associated with the reduction of outer-layer glycoprotein fibers, which is caused by an increasing albumen pH due to CO2 release from the egg. Our results identify a previously unrecognized potential cause of body axis defects through mis-regulation of extraembryonic tissue tension.


Assuntos
Blastoderma , Galinhas , Animais , Regulação para Baixo , Blastoderma/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética
10.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 102(6): 657-668, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37078454

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adenomyosis prevalence among women with infertility is increasing; their management during in vitro fertilization is usually based on ultrasound diagnosis alone. Herein, we summarize the latest evidence on the impact of ultrasound-diagnosed adenomyosis on in vitro fertilization outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was registered with The International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42022355584). We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases from inception to January 31, 2023, for cohort studies on the impact of adenomyosis on in vitro fertilization outcomes. Fertility outcomes were compared according to the presence of adenomyosis as diagnosed by ultrasound, concurrent endometriosis and adenomyosis, and MRI-based or MRI- and ultrasound-based adenomyosis diagnosis. Live birth rate was the primary outcome while clinical pregnancy and miscarriage rates were secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Women diagnosed with adenomyosis by ultrasound had lower live birth (odds ratio [OR] = 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.53-0.82, grade: very low), lower clinical pregnancy (OR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.53-0.77, grade: very low), and higher miscarriage (OR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.35-2.44, grade: very low) rates than those without adenomyosis. Notably, symptomatic and diffuse, but not asymptomatic adenomyosis as diagnosed by ultrasound, adversely affected in vitro fertilization outcomes, with lower live birth (OR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.34-0.96, grade: very low), clinical pregnancy (OR = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.57-0.85, grade: low), and miscarriage (OR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.28-4.82, grade: low) rates; and lower live birth (OR = 0.37; 95% CI: 0.23-0.59, grade: low) and clinical pregnancy (OR = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.34-0.75, grade: low), but not miscarriage rate (OR = 2.18; 95% CI: 0.72-6.62, grade: very low), respectively. Concurrent adenomyosis in endometriosis is associated with a significantly lower live birth rate (OR = 0.44; 95% CI: 0.26-0.75, grade: low) than endometriosis alone. Finally, the use of MRI-based or MRI- and ultrasound-based adenomyosis diagnosis showed no significant association with in vitro fertilization outcomes (grade: very low for all outcomes). CONCLUSIONS: Considering ultrasound findings, symptoms, and different subtypes of adenomyosis may aid in offering personalized counseling, improving treatment decisions, and achieving better outcomes of in vitro fertilization.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Adenomiose , Endometriose , Infertilidade Feminina , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Endometriose/diagnóstico por imagem , Endometriose/complicações , Adenomiose/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenomiose/complicações , Taxa de Gravidez , Infertilidade Feminina/diagnóstico por imagem , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Infertilidade Feminina/terapia , Fertilização In Vitro , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Nascido Vivo/epidemiologia
11.
Molecules ; 28(3)2023 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36770908

RESUMO

Food allergies are a serious food safety and public health issue. Soybean, dairy, aquatic, poultry, and nut products are common allergens inducing allergic reactions and adverse symptoms such as atopic dermatitis, allergic eczema, allergic asthma, and allergic rhinitis. Probiotics are assumed as an essential ingredient in maintaining intestinal microorganisms' composition. They have unique physiological roles and therapeutic effects in maintaining the mucosal barrier, immune function, and gastrointestinal tract, inhibiting the invasion of pathogenic bacteria, and preventing diarrhea and food allergies. Multiple pieces of evidence reveal a significant disruptive effect of probiotics on food allergy pathology and progression mechanisms. Thus, this review describes the allergenic proteins as an entry point and briefly describes the application of probiotics in allergenic foods. Then, the role of probiotics in preventing and curing allergic diseases by regulating human immunity through intestinal flora and intestinal barrier, modulating host immune active cells, and improving host amino acid metabolism are described in detail. The anti-allergic role of probiotics in the function and metabolism of the gastrointestinal tract has been comprehensively explored to furnish insights for relieving food allergy symptoms and preventing food allergy.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Probióticos , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Alérgenos/uso terapêutico , Probióticos/farmacologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Imunidade , Imunomodulação
12.
Biodes Manuf ; 6(1): 1-11, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36644556

RESUMO

Extrusion-based cell deposition has become a prominent technique for expanding bioprinting applications. However, the associated print resolution in the order of nanolitre or above has been a limiting factor. The demand for improving print resolution towards the scale of a single cell has driven the development of precision nozzle extrusion, although the benefits gained remain ambiguous. Here, aided by in situ imaging, we investigated the dynamics of cell organisation through an extrusion-based microcapillary tip with picolitre precision through in-air or immersion deposition. The microcapillary extrusion setup, termed 'Picodis', was demonstrated by generating droplets of colouring inks immersed in an immiscible medium. Next, using 3T3 fibroblast cells as an experimental model, we demonstrated the deposition of cell suspension, and pre-aggregated cell pellets. Then, the dynamic organisation of cells within the microcapillary tip was described, along with cell ejection and deposition upon exiting the tip opening. The vision-assisted approach revealed that when dispersed in a culture medium, the movements of cells were distinctive based on the flow profiles and were purely driven by laminar fluid flow within a narrow tip. The primary process limitations were cell sedimentation, aggregation and compaction, along with trapped air bubbles. The use of picolitre-level resolution microcapillary extrusion, although it provides some level of control for a small number of cells, does not necessarily offer a reliable method when a specified number of cells are required. Our study provides insights into the process limitations of high-resolution cell ink extrusion, which may be useful for optimising biofabrication processes of cell-laden constructs for biomedical research. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s42242-022-00205-3.

13.
Nat Plants ; 9(2): 228-237, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36646829

RESUMO

Crops with broad-spectrum resistance loci are highly desirable in agricultural production because these loci often confer resistance to most races of a pathogen or multiple pathogen species. Here we discover a natural allele of proteasome maturation factor in rice, UMP1R2115, that confers broad-spectrum resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae, Rhizoctonia solani, Ustilaginoidea virens and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Mechanistically, this allele increases proteasome abundance and activity to promote the degradation of reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzymes including peroxidase and catalase upon pathogen infection, leading to elevation of H2O2 accumulation for defence. In contrast, inhibition of proteasome function or overexpression of peroxidase/catalase-encoding genes compromises UMP1R2115-mediated resistance. More importantly, introduction of UMP1R2115 into a disease-susceptible rice variety does not penalize grain yield while promoting disease resistance. Our work thus uncovers a broad-spectrum resistance pathway integrating de-repression of plant immunity and provides a valuable genetic resource for breeding high-yield rice with multi-disease resistance.


Assuntos
Magnaporthe , Oryza , Resistência à Doença/genética , Oryza/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Catalase/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Alelos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Magnaporthe/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
14.
Biofabrication ; 15(2)2023 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36626838

RESUMO

Realizing the translational impacts of three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting for cancer research necessitates innovation in bioprinting workflows which integrate affordability, user-friendliness, and biological relevance. Herein, we demonstrate 'BioArm', a simple, yet highly effective extrusion bioprinting platform, which can be folded into a carry-on pack, and rapidly deployed between bio-facilities. BioArm enabled the reconstruction of compartmental tumoroids with cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), forming the shell of each tumoroid. The 3D printed core-shell tumoroids showedde novosynthesized extracellular matrices, and enhanced cellular proliferation compared to the tumour alone 3D printed spheroid culture. Further, thein vivophenotypes of CAFs normally lost after conventional 2D co-culture re-emerged in the bioprinted model. Embedding the 3D printed tumoroids in an immune cell-laden collagen matrix permitted tracking of the interaction between immune cells and tumoroids, and subsequent simulated immunotherapy treatments. Our deployable extrusion bioprinting workflow could significantly widen the accessibility of 3D bioprinting for replicating multi-compartmental architectures of tumour microenvironment, and for developing strategies in cancer drug testing in the future.


Assuntos
Bioimpressão , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer , Neoplasias , Humanos , Bioimpressão/métodos , Comunicação Celular , Colágeno , Hidrogéis , Neoplasias/terapia , Impressão Tridimensional , Tecidos Suporte , Microambiente Tumoral
15.
New Phytol ; 238(1): 367-382, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36522832

RESUMO

Arabidopsis RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW 8.2 (RPW8.2) is specifically induced by the powdery mildew (PM) fungus (Golovinomyces cichoracearum) in the infected epidermal cells to activate immunity. However, the mechanism of RPW8.2-induction is not well understood. Here, we identify a G. cichoracearum effector that interacts with RPW8.2, named Gc-RPW8.2 interacting protein 1 (GcR8IP1), by a yeast two-hybrid screen of an Arabidopsis cDNA library. GcR8IP1 is physically associated with RPW8.2 with its REALLY INTERESTING NEW GENE finger domain that is essential and sufficient for the association. GcR8IP1 was secreted and translocated into the nucleus of host cell infected with PM. Association of GcR8IP1 with RPW8.2 led to an increase in RPW8.2 in the nucleus. In turn, the nucleus-localized RPW8.2 promoted the activity of the RPW8.2 promoter, resulting in transcriptional self-amplification of RPW8.2 to boost immunity at infection sites. Additionally, ectopic expression or host-induced gene silencing of GcR8IP1 supported its role as a virulence factor in PM. Altogether, our results reveal a mechanism of RPW8.2-dependent defense strengthening via altered partitioning of RPW8.2 and transcriptional self-amplification triggered by a PM fungal effector, which exemplifies an atypical form of effector-triggered immunity.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Ascomicetos , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
16.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 962507, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36452932

RESUMO

Polymyxin A1 was a rarely investigated member in the polymyxins family produced by Bacillus aerosporus. As a cyclic non-ribosomal lipopeptide, it was purified from Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus for the first time. The producing strain SY20 was screened from Chinese natural fermented bamboo shoots and identified as P. thiaminolyticus SY20 using 16S rRNA homology along with whole genome sequencing. The optimum incubation time was 32 h by the growth kinetics of antimicrobial agent production. The proteinaceous nature of antimicrobial agents was characterized according to the physicochemical properties of the cell-free supernatant. Subsequently, the active antimicrobial agent was purified from the supernatant using ammonium sulfate-graded precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, and C18-H chromatography. The active agent was identified as polymyxin A1 with a molecular weight 1156.7 Da and antimicrobial activity mainly against Gram-negative bacteria. The molecular structure, a cyclic heptapeptide and a tripeptide side chain acylated by a fatty acid at the amino terminus, was elucidated using the combination of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), amino acid analysis, and whole genome mining tool. Meanwhile, the biosynthetic gene cluster of polymyxin A1 including five open reading frames (ORFs) was demonstrated in the genome. The compound should be further explored for its efficacy and toxicity in vivo to develop its application.

17.
Front Nutr ; 9: 1073071, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36570157

RESUMO

This study investigated the structural, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory activities of acidic exopolysaccharide (EPS-LP2) isolated from Lactiplantibacillus plantarum DMDL 9010. EPS-LP2 is composed of fucose (Fuc), arabinose (Ara), galactose (Gal), glucose (Glc), mannose (Man), and D-fructose (Fru) with a molar ratio of 0.13: 0.69: 8.32: 27.57: 62.07: 0.58: 0.46, respectively. Structural analysis of EPS-LP2 exhibited a smooth irregular lamellar surface, rod-like structure with swollen ends and slippery surfaces, and good thermal stability. Based on the methylation and NMR analysis, sugar residues including t-Manp, t-Glcp, 2-Manp, 6-Galp, 6-Glcp, and 4-Glcp were found to exist in EPS-LP2. In the 50∼400 µg/ml range, EPS-LP2 showed negligible neurotoxicity to RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, EPS-LP2 could protect RAW264.7 cells from oxidative injury by lowering the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and the secretion of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). In contrast, an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and the concentrations of glutathione (GSH) were observed. Immunoreactivity assays showed that EPS-LP2 could suppress the expression of NO, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) and inhibit the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/nuclear factor-κB-gene binding (NF-κB) cell pathway. Conclusively, EPS-LP2 could be a potential natural antioxidant and immunomodulatory agent in functional foods and medicines.

18.
Regen Biomater ; 9: rbac079, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36338176

RESUMO

The occurrence of various liver diseases can lead to organ failure of the liver, which is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Liver tissue engineering see the potential for replacing liver transplantation and drug toxicity studies facing donor shortages. The basic elements in liver tissue engineering are cells and biomaterials. Both mature hepatocytes and differentiated stem cells can be used as the main source of cells to construct spheroids and organoids, achieving improved cell function. To mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) environment, biomaterials need to be biocompatible and bioactive, which also help support cell proliferation and differentiation and allow ECM deposition and vascularized structures formation. In addition, advanced manufacturing approaches are required to construct the extracellular microenvironment, and it has been proved that the structured three-dimensional culture system can help to improve the activity of hepatocytes and the characterization of specific proteins. In summary, we review biomaterials for liver tissue engineering, including natural hydrogels and synthetic polymers, and advanced processing techniques for building vascularized microenvironments, including bioassembly, bioprinting and microfluidic methods. We then summarize the application fields including transplant and regeneration, disease models and drug cytotoxicity analysis. In the end, we put the challenges and prospects of vascularized liver tissue engineering.

19.
Mol Plant ; 15(11): 1790-1806, 2022 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36245122

RESUMO

Grain formation is fundamental for crop yield but is vulnerable to abiotic and biotic stresses. Rice grain production is threatened by the false smut fungus Ustilaginoidea virens, which specifically infects rice floral organs, disrupting fertilization and seed formation. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the U. virens-rice interaction and the genetic basis of floral resistance. Here, we report that U. virens secretes a cytoplasmic effector, UvCBP1, to facilitate infection of rice flowers. Mechanistically, UvCBP1 interacts with the rice scaffold protein OsRACK1A and competes its interaction with the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase OsRBOHB, leading to inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Although the analysis of natural variation revealed no OsRACK1A variants that could avoid being targeted by UvCBP1, expression levels of OsRACK1A are correlated with field resistance against U. virens in rice germplasm. Overproduction of OsRACK1A restores the OsRACK1A-OsRBOHB association and promotes OsRBOHB phosphorylation to enhance ROS production, conferring rice floral resistance to U. virens without yield penalty. Taken together, our findings reveal a new pathogenic mechanism mediated by an essential effector from a flower-specific pathogen and provide a valuable genetic resource for balancing disease resistance and crop yield.


Assuntos
Oryza , Oryza/genética , Oryza/microbiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Flores/genética , Flores/microbiologia , Sementes
20.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 382: 109930, 2022 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122481

RESUMO

The previous study indicated that cuminaldehyde (CUM) could be used as an antibacterial agent in sauced beef to reduce the propagation of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). This research took sauced beef treated with 0.4 µL/mL CUM as the research object. Transcriptomic and proteomic methods were used to comprehensively analyze the changes in genes and proteins of S. aureus under CUM stress. A total of 258 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, 178 up-regulated and 80 down-regulated) and 384 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs, 61 up-regulated and 323 down-regulated) were found. It was observed that CUM destroyed the cell wall and cell membrane by inhibiting the synthesis of peptidoglycan and fatty acid. Low energy consumption strategies were formed by reducing glycolysis and ribosome de novo synthesis. The levels of genes and proteins associated with the glycine, serine, threonine, methionine, cysteine, and branched-chain amino acids were dramatically changed, which impaired protein synthesis and reduced bacterial viability. In addition, the up-regulated DEGs and DEFs involved in DNA replication, recombination and single-stranded DNA-binding contributed to DNA repair. Moreover, ATP-binding cassettes (ABC) transporters were also perturbed, such as the uptake of betaine and iron were inhibited. Thus, this study revealed the response mechanism of S. aureus under the stress of CUM, and provided a theoretical basis for the application of CUM in meat products.


Assuntos
Infecções Estafilocócicas , Staphylococcus aureus , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Benzaldeídos , Betaína/metabolismo , Bovinos , Cimenos , Cisteína , DNA de Cadeia Simples/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Glicina/genética , Glicina/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Metionina/genética , Metionina/metabolismo , Peptidoglicano/genética , Proteômica , Serina/genética , Serina/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Treonina/genética , Treonina/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
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