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1.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 126: 104254, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478777

RESUMO

Spätzle, an extracellular ligand of the Toll receptor, is involved in the innate immunity of crustaceans. In this study, four Spätzle genes were cloned from Macrobrachium nipponense and designed as MnSpz1, MnSpz2, MnSpz2-isoform, and MnSpz3. The coding region of the four Spätzle genes all contained one intron and two exons, and they were predicted to be produced by gene duplication based on sequence similarities and phylogenetic tree. The predicted MnSpz1, MnSpz2, and MnSpz3 proteins all contained a signal peptide and a Spätzle domain. No signal peptide but a Spätzle domain existed in MnSpz2-isoform because of frameshift mutation caused by 50 bp nucleotide deletion compared with MnSpz2. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis showed that MnSpz1, MnSpz2, and MnSpz3 were expressed in all the detected tissues of M. nipponense, and MnSpz2 was found to be the major isoform in the heart, gills, stomach, and intestine. After stimulation by Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, or White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the expression levels of MnSpz1, MnSpz2, and MnSpz3 changed. Given the high similarities among MnSpz1-3, RNA interference (RNAi) using dsRNA of MnSpz1 inhibited the expression of the three Spätzle genes (MnSpz1, MnSpz2 and MnSpz3). Silencing of MnSpz1-3 down-regulated the expression levels of nine antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes in M. nipponense. After Knockdown of MnSpzs, the number of V. parahaemolyticus, S. aureus and WSSV copies in M. nipponense increased significantly in vivo. Our results suggest that Spätzles are involved in the innate immunity of M. nipponense. The expansion of MnSpz genes through gene duplication is beneficial to enhance the innate immune defense ability of M. nipponense.

2.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 607(Pt 1): 192-202, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500418

RESUMO

Strong absorption and large bandwidth are two contributors to materials' absorbing performance. In this work, a series of multi-element core-shell magnetic nano-particle composite layered graphene absorbing materials CoFe2O4@C/rGO (CCr) were prepared by adjusting carbon shell thickness. The CCr at a low thickness achieved strong microwave absorption and a wide effective absorption bandwidth. Not only the core-shell structure of the magnetic nanoparticle CoFe2O4@C (CFO@C) increases the interface loss, but both the coating carbon shell and the core CoFe2O4 (CFO) are beneficial to improve impedance matching. Due to the synergistic effect of the dielectric and magnetic properties of graphene and ferrite, CCr possessed high absorption performance, and its minimum reflection loss reached (RLmin) -52.5 dB when the thickness was only 2 mm. At the same time, the effective absorption bandwidth (EAB) was 5.68 GHz when the thickness was only 1.7 mm. The chemically stable core-shell dielectric nanocomposite provided a new solution for preparing materials with excellent chemical structure and high absorbing properties.

3.
Bioact Mater ; 7: 364-376, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466738

RESUMO

Endothelial tip cell outgrowth of blood-vessel sprouts marks the initiation of angiogenesis which is critical in physiological and pathophysiological procedures. However, how mechanical characteristics of extracellular matrix (ECM) modulates tip cell formation has been largely neglected. In this study, we found enhanced CD31 expression in the stiffening outer layer of hepatocellular carcinoma than in surrounding soft tissues. Stiffened matrix promoted sprouting from endothelial cell (EC) spheroids and upregulated expressions of tip cell-enriched genes in vitro. Moreover, tip cells showed increased cellular stiffness, more actin cytoskeleton organization and enhanced YAP nuclear transfer than stalk and phalanx ECs. We further uncovered that substrate stiffness regulates FAK and Paxillin phosphorylation in focal adhesion of ECs promoting Rac1 transition from inactive to active state. YAP is subsequently activated and translocated into nucleus, leading to increased tip cell specification. p-Paxillin can also loosen the intercellular connection which also facilitates tip cell specification. Collectively our present study shows that matrix stiffness modulates tip cell formation through p-PXN-Rac1-YAP signaling axis, shedding light on the role of mechanotransduction in tip cell formation. This is of special significance in biomaterial design and treatment of some pathological situations.

4.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 127: 104288, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624358

RESUMO

Calnexin (Cnx) is a membrane-bound lectin chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum. In this study, a novel Cnx homologue from the obscure puffer Takifugu obscurus was characterized, tentatively named ToCnx. The cDNA of ToCnx was 1803 bp, and it contained an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 600 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 67.5 kDa. Multiple alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences of ToCnx and other related fish Cnxs revealed that ToCnx had typical characteristics of fish Cnxs. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that ToCnx had the closest relationship with Cnxs from Takifugu flavidus and Takifugu rubripes. ToCnx transcripts were detected in all the tissues examined, and they were mainly expressed in the liver, kidney, and intestine. Upon Vibrio harveyi, Edwardsiella tarda, and Aeromonas hydrophila infection, ToCnx transcripts were all significantly upregulated in the kidneys. The recombinant calreticulin domain of ToCnx (rToCnx) was prepared by prokaryotic expression. In the absence of calcium, rToCnx was able to bind three Gram-negative bacteria (V. harveyi, E. tarda, and A. hydrophila) and two bacterial saccharides, such as lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan. In the presence of calcium, rToCnx could agglutinate all the detected microorganisms. In addition, rToCnx possessed the effect of inhibiting the growth of three microbe strains. These observations suggested that ToCnx is an important participant in host immune defense against bacteria.

5.
J Hazard Mater ; 422: 126865, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449345

RESUMO

Considering the inhomogeneity of plastisphere and surrounding soil, it is plausible that the microbial community colonizing it also varies, affecting soil services and sustainability. Herein, we analyzed the soil and film residue from fifty-five plastic-mulching croplands in the subtropical areas of China. Based on the outcomes of this analysis, we explored the diversity and functions of the associated bacterial communities. Alpha-diversity and phylogenetic diversity of the plastisphere bacterial community was significantly lower than the surrounding soil. The average net relatedness and net nearest taxa indices of samples were less than zero. Four phyla and twenty genera were enriched in the plastisphere compared to the surrounding soil. Ecological networks of the plastisphere community showed multiple nodes, but fewer interactions, and the members of Bradyrhizobium, Rhodospirillaceae, and Bacillus were indicated as the hub species. Predicted pathways related to human disease, as well as the metabolisms of cofactors, vitamins, amino acids, and xenobiotic biodegradation, were reinforced in the plastisphere, and meanwhile, accompanied by an increase in abundance of genes related to carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles. These results demonstrated the diversity and functions of the plastisphere microbiome and highlighted the necessity for exploring the ecological and health risks of plastic residue in croplands.

6.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118317, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634407

RESUMO

Neonicotinoids have been often detected in aquatic environment with high concentrations; however, little is known about their risk and fate to/in fish. This study systematically investigated the bio-uptake, tissue distribution and metabolism of neonicotinoids in zebrafish, taking clothianidin (CLO) as an example. The results revealed the uptake and elimination kinetics of CLO in whole fish and different tissues was very similar, and its bioconcentration factor (<1) indicates the low bioaccumulation potential in zebrafish. The highest accumulative tissues for CLO were found to be intestine and liver. Eight biotransformation products were identified in intestine and liver, and the metabolic pathways were found to be N-demethylation and nitro-reduction. The metabolic kinetics of two products (desmethyl clothianidin and clothianidin urea) revealed the metabolism of CLO mainly occurred in liver and intestine. This suggested that the hepatobiliary system played an important role in the metabolism and elimination of CLO. This study provides a comprehensive evaluation of the toxicokinetics of CLO in zebrafish, and these results can contribute to its ecological risk assessment.

7.
Front Oncol ; 11: 765378, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722320

RESUMO

Background/Objective: We aimed to compare the 10-year survival outcomes of induction docetaxel plus cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (TPF), docetaxel plus cisplatin (TP), and cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil (PF) regimens additional to concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: Eligible patients with newly diagnosed stage III-IVA NPC were included. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to balance prognostic covariates. Survival outcomes and toxicities between different groups were compared. Results: A total of 855 patients between 2009 and 2012 were included, with 395 (46.2%), 258 (30.2%), and 202 (23.6%) receiving TPF plus CRT, TP plus CRT, and PF plus CRT regimens, respectively. After a median follow-up of 111.8 months, multivariate analysis both in the whole cohort and PSM selected 202 pairs showed that TPF plus CRT and TP plus CRT achieved significantly better 10-year overall survival (OS) than PF plus CRT. Sensitivity analysis after excluding patients with T3-4N0 disease demonstrated that TPF plus CRT still achieved significantly better OS than PF plus CRT (HR, 0.580; 95% CI, 0.395-0.852; P = 0.005), while the difference between TP plus CRT and PF plus CRT was marginally significant (HR, 0.712; 95% CI, 0.503-1.008; P = 0.056). With regard to toxicity profile, PF regimen achieved the lowest grade 3-5 toxicities (27.3%). Conclusion: TPF plus CRT and TP plus CRT were better than PF plus CRT in improving the 10-year OS of patients with stage III-IVA NPC.

8.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 761203, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777062

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a complex and devastating disorder with unclear pathogenesis. Electroencephalogram (EEG) microstates have been suggested as a potential endophenotype for this disorder. However, no clear dynamic pattern of microstates has been found. This study aims to identify the dynamics of EEG microstates in schizophrenia and to test whether schizophrenia patients with altered clinical symptoms severity showed different microstates abnormalities compared with healthy controls. Resting-state EEG data in 46 individuals who met the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia and 39 healthy controls was recorded. The patients with schizophrenia were divided into subgroups based on the level of their negative or positive symptoms assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Microstate parameters (contribution, occurrence, and duration) of four prototypical microstate classes (A-D) were investigated. Compared with healthy controls, individuals with schizophrenia showed increased duration and contribution of microstate class C, decreased contribution and occurrence of microstate class B. Different microstate patterns were found between subgroups and healthy controls. Results in this study support the consistent observation of abnormal EEG microstates patterns in patients with schizophrenia and highlight the necessity to divide subjects into subgroups according to their clinical symptoms.

9.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 125: 104977, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814078

RESUMO

Current generation of bioresorbable coronary scaffolds (BRS) posed thrombogenicity and deployment issues owing to its thick struts and overall profile. To this end, we hypothesize that the use of nanocomposite materials is able to provide improved material properties and sufficient radial strength for the intended application even at reduced strut thickness. The nanocomposite formulations of tantalum dioxide (Ta2O5), L-lactide functionalized (LA)-Ta2O5, hydroxyapatite (HA) and LA-HA with poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) were evaluated in this study. Results showed that tensile modulus and strength were enhanced with non-functionalized nanofillers up until 15 wt% loading, whereas ductility was compromised. On the other hand, functionalized nanofillers/PLLA exhibited improved nanofiller dispersion which resulted higher tensile modulus, strength, and ductility. Selected nanocomposite formulations were evaluated using finite element analysis (FEA) of a stent with varying strut thickness (80, 100 and 150 µm). FEA data has shown that nanocomposite BRS with thinner struts (80-100 µm) made with 15 wt% LA-Ta2O5/PLLA and 10 wt% LA-HA/PLLA have increased radial strength, stiffness and reduced recoil compared to PLLA BRS at 150 µm. The reduced strut thickness can potentially mitigate issues such as scaffold thrombosis and promote re-endothelialisation of the vessel.

10.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 762247, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805229

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), which can enhance antitumor immunity and inhibit cancer growth, have revolutionized the treatment of multiple cancers and dramatically decreased mortality. However, treatment with ICIs is directly associated with immune-related adverse events (irAEs) because of inflammation in off-target organs and autoimmunity resulting from non-specific immune activation. These irAEs can cause rheumatic diseases and manifestations such as inflammatory arthritis, polymyalgia rheumatica, myositis, vasculitis, Sicca and Sjogen's syndrome, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Early diagnosis and treatment of these adverse events will improve outcomes and quality of life for cancer patients. The treatment of rheumatic diseases induced by ICIs requires multidisciplinary cooperation among physicians. Furthermore, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood and it is difficult to predict and evaluate these side effects precisely. In this review, we summarize available studies and findings about rheumatic irAEs, focusing mainly on the clinical manifestations, epidemiology, possible mechanisms, and guiding principles for treating these irAEs.

11.
Exp Cell Res ; : 112943, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808131

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammation mediated by autoimmune responses. HOTTIP, a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), participates in cell proliferation and invasion. However, the correlation between HOTTIP and RA remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify how HOTTIP works in RA and to investigate its role in the development of RA. Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle progression. Binding between HOTTIP, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and miR-1908-5p was demonstrated by dual-luciferase assays. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to measure the expression of T cell differentiation-related proteins. We found that HOTTIP was upregulated in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs). HOTTIP directly bound to miR-1908-5p and negatively modulated miR-1908-5p expression while positively regulating STAT3. The effects of HOTTIP overexpression on regulating the balance of the Th17/Treg cell ratio were partly reversed by miR-1908-5p overexpression. In addition, in vivo experiments demonstrated that overexpression of HOTTIP aggravated inflammation in RA mice, which was demonstrated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and the increased expression levels of CD4+ interleukin (IL)-17+, forkhead Box P3 (FOXP3) and retinoid-related orphan receptor gamma-t (RORγt). In summary, our study suggests that HOTTIP plays a damaging role in RA by promoting inflammation, which may be related to the regulation of miR-1908-5p expression and the STAT3 signaling pathway. These results suggest that the regulation of HOTTIP may be a promising therapeutic strategy for RA.

12.
Plant Physiol ; 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747475

RESUMO

Infection cycles of viruses are highly dependent on membrane-associated host factors. To uncover the infection cycle of Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) in detail, we purified the membrane-associated viral complexes from infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants and analyzed the involved host factors. Four isoforms of voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) proteins on the outer membrane of mitochondria were identified due to their upregulated expression in the BaMV complex-enriched membranous fraction. Results from loss- and gain-of-function experiments indicated that NbVDAC2, -3 and -4 are essential for efficient BaMV accumulation. During BaMV infection, all NbVDACs concentrated into larger aggregates, which overlapped and trafficked with BaMV virions to the structure designated as the "dynamic BaMV-induced complex". Besides the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, BaMV replicase and double-stranded RNAs were also found in this complex, suggesting the dynamic BaMV-induced complex is a replication complex. Yeast two-hybrid and pull-down assays confirmed that BaMV triple gene block protein 1 (TGBp1) could interact with NbVDACs. Confocal microscopy revealed that TGBp1 is sufficient to induce NbVDAC aggregates, which suggests that TGBp1 may play a pivotal role in the NbVDAC-virion complex. Collectively, these findings indicate that NbVDACs may associate with the dynamic BaMV-induced complex via TGBp1 and NbVDAC2, -3 or -4 and can promote BaMV accumulation. This study reveals the involvement of mitochondrial proteins in a viral complex and virus infection.

13.
Int J Pharm ; : 121302, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793935

RESUMO

The ß-blocker carvedilol prevents ultraviolet (UV)-induced skin cancer, but systemic drug administration may cause unwanted cadiovascular effects. To overcome this limitation, a topical delivery system based on transfersome (T-CAR) was characterized ex vivo and in vivo. T-CAR was visualized by Transmission Electron Microscopy as nanoparticles of spherical and unilamellar structure. T-CAR incorporated into carbopol gel and in suspension showed similar drug permeation and deposition profiles in Franz diffusion cells loaded with porcine ear skin. In mice exposed to a single dose UV, topical T-CAR gel (10 µM) significantly reduced UV-induced skin edema and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation. In mice exposed to chronic UV radiation for 25 weeks, topical T-CAR gel (10 µM) significantly delayed the incidence of tumors, reduced tumor number and burden, and attenuated Ki-67 and COX-2 expression. The T-CAR gel was subsequently examined for skin deposition, systemic absorption and cardiovascular effects in mice. In mice treated with repeated doses of T-CAR gel (100 µM), the drug was undetectable in plasma, the heart rate was unaffected, but skin deposition was significantly higher than mice treated with oral carvedilol (32 mg/kg/day). These data indicate that the carbopol-based T-CAR gel holds great promise for skin cancer prevention with negligible systemic effects.

14.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 405, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795208

RESUMO

Thalidomide induces γ-globin expression in erythroid progenitor cells, but its efficacy on patients with transfusion-dependent ß-thalassemia (TDT) remains unclear. In this phase 2, multi-center, randomized, double-blind clinical trial, we aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of thalidomide in TDT patients. A hundred patients of 14 years or older were randomly assigned to receive placebo or thalidomide for 12 weeks, followed by an extension phase of at least 36 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change of hemoglobin (Hb) level in the patients. The secondary endpoints included the red blood cell (RBC) units transfused and adverse effects. In the placebo-controlled period, Hb concentrations in patients treated with thalidomide achieved a median elevation of 14.0 (range, 2.5 to 37.5) g/L, whereas Hb in patients treated with placebo did not significantly change. Within the 12 weeks, the mean RBC transfusion volume for patients treated with thalidomide and placebo was 5.4 ± 5.0 U and 10.3 ± 6.4 U, respectively (P < 0.001). Adverse events of drowsiness, dizziness, fatigue, pyrexia, sore throat, and rash were more common with thalidomide than placebo. In the extension phase, treatment with thalidomide for 24 weeks resulted in a sustainable increase in Hb concentrations which reached 104.9 ± 19.0 g/L, without blood transfusion. Significant increase in Hb concentration and reduction in RBC transfusions were associated with non ß0/ß0 and HBS1L-MYB (rs9399137 C/T, C/C; rs4895441 A/G, G/G) genotypes. These results demonstrated that thalidomide is effective in patients with TDT.

16.
Food Chem ; 373(Pt B): 131466, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731812

RESUMO

We develop and validate a method for the rapid determination and identification of 19 quinolones in goat's milk by combining the QuEChERS technique with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Plackett-Burman and Central Composite Design methods were used to select the parameters that best promote the extraction efficiency, which led to extraction with acetonitrile/5% formic acid, followed by phase separation with sodium citrate, disodium hydrogen citrate, Na2SO4, and NaCl as optimal. The supernatant was then extracted and cleaned by dispersive solid-phase extraction using C18 and Na2SO4 aided by low-temperature clean-up. The method was validated, with limits of quantification (LOQs) of 5 ppb, specificities of 1/5 LOQ, linearities (R2) > 0.9853, recoveries of 73.4-114.2%, repeatabilities < 15.0%, and intermediate precisions < 13.6%. The developed method was suitable for the routine analysis of quinolone residues in goat's milk and was used to test 10 goat milk samples produced in Taiwan.

17.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789561

RESUMO

alpha-Mangostin and Paeonol have shown anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties, however these two natural compounds have no clinical value because of their low solubility and low membrane permeability. In this study, we screened chemically synthesized derivatives from these two natural compounds as potential novel chemicals that increase cancer cell cytotoxicity over non-transformed human cells. We found that two derivative compounds, named α-Mangostin-1 (aMan1) and Paeonol-1 (Pae1) more efficiently and more specifically induced cytotoxicity in HCT116, HT29, and SW48 colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines than the parental compounds. Both aMan1 and Pae1 arrested HCT116 cells in G1 phase and HT29 and SW48 cells in G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Both aMan1 and Pae1 induced apoptosis in human CRC cells, through a Caspase-dependent mechanism. aMan1 and Pae1 induced selective transcriptional responses in CRC cells involving genes related to metabolic stress and DNA damage response signaling pathways. Finally, experiments on primary colon organoids showed that both derivatives were able to kill cancer-derived organoids without affecting the viability of organoids derived from healthy tissue, where the parental compounds and the currently used chemotherapeutic drug Irinotecan failed. In conclusion, our findings expand the knowledge of natural compound derivatives as anticancer agents and open new avenues of research in the derivation of lead compounds aimed at developing novel chemotherapeutic drugs for CRC treatment that selectively target cancer, but not healthy cells.

18.
Front Neurol ; 12: 728594, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795627

RESUMO

Objective: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is an acute form of encephalitis of autoimmune etiology. We aimed to evaluate the risk factors that predicted the need for mechanical ventilation during the acute phase of anti-NMDAR encephalitis through an analysis of the clinical characteristics and biochemical test results of the patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Methods: In this retrospective study, patients who primarily presented with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and exhibited anti-NMDAR antibody positivity in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between November 2015 and February 2020 were included. Data on the clinical characteristics, biochemical test results, and treatment methods selected for the patients were collected for the analysis of factors predicting the need for mechanical ventilation. Results: Thirty-one patients with a median age of onset of 31 years (inter-quartile range: 21-48 years) were included in this study, of which 15 were male (48.4%). Psychosis (23, 74.2%), seizures (20, 64.5%), and memory deficit (20, 64.5%) were the most common clinical manifestations. At admission, 17 patients (54.8%) presented with pyrexia, of which 12 (38.7%) had a body temperature ≥38°C, and six patients (19.4%) presented with central hypoventilation. All patients received first-line therapy (glucocorticoids, intravenous immunoglobulin, or plasmapheresis alone or combined), whereas two patients (6.5%) received rituximab, a second-line agent, as well. Seven patents required mechanical ventilation. Results of univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that body temperature ≥38°C [odds ratio (OR) = 18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.79-181.31, P < 0.05] and central hypoventilation at admission (OR = 57.50, 95% CI: 4.32-764.89, P < 0.05) were the risk factors for mechanical ventilation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that central hypoventilation at admission was the only risk factor predicting the need for mechanical ventilation. Conclusion: Central hypoventilation at admission is a key risk factor for mechanical ventilation during hospitalization in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis.

19.
Curr Dev Nutr ; 5(11): nzab125, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761160

RESUMO

Background: Assessing estimated sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intakes derived from 24-h urinary excretions compared with a spot urine sample, if comparable, could reduce participant burden in epidemiologic and clinical studies. Objectives: In a 2-week controlled-feeding study, Na and K excretions from a 24-h urine collection were compared with a first-void spot urine sample, applying established algorithms and enhanced models to estimate 24-h excretion. Actual and estimated 24-h excretions were evaluated relative to mean daily Na and K intakes in the feeding study. Methods: A total of 153 older postmenopausal women ages 75.4 ± 3.5 y participated in a 2-wk controlled-feeding study with a 4-d repeating menu cycle based on their usual intake (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00000611). Of the 150 participants who provided both a first-void spot urine sample and a 24-h urine collection on the penultimate study day, statistical methods included Pearson correlations for Na and K between intake, 24-h collections, and the 24-h estimated excretions using 4 established algorithms: enhanced biomarker models by regressing ln-transformed intakes on ln-transformed 24-h excretions or ln-transformed 24-h estimated excretions plus participant characteristics and sensitivity analyses for factors potentially influencing Na or K excretion (e.g., possible kidney disease estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 ). Results: Pearson correlation coefficients between Na and K intakes and actual 24-h excretions were 0.57 and 0.38-0.44 for estimated 24-h excretions, depending on electrolyte and algorithm used. Enhanced biomarker model cross-validated R 2 (CVR2) for 24-h excretions were 38.5% (Na), 40.2% (K), and 42.0% (Na/K). After excluding participants with possible kidney disease, the CVR2 values were 43.2% (Na), 40.2% (K), and 38.1% (Na/K). Conclusions: Twenty-four-hour urine excretion measurement performs better than estimated 24-h excretion from a spot urine as a biomarker for Na and K intake among a sample of primarily White postmenopausal women.

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