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1.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 13(4): 22, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625083

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of low-concentration (0.01% and 0.05%) atropine eyedrops on ocular surface characteristics in young adults. Methods: Twenty-six myopic students aged 18 to 30 years were randomly assigned to receive either 0.01% or 0.05% atropine once nightly for 14 days, followed by cessation, with a ≥14-day interval between each administration. Assessments were conducted one, two, seven, and 14 days after using atropine with corresponding timepoints after atropine cessation. Tear meniscus height and first and average noninvasive keratograph tear film breakup time (NIKBUT-first, NIKBUT-average) were measured using Keratograph 5M, whereas the objective scatter index (OSI) was measured by OQAS II devices; the ocular surface disease index (OSDI) score was also obtained. Results: The mean OSI peaked after two days of administration of 0.05% atropine (ß = 0.51, P = 0.001), accompanied by significant decreases in NIKBUT-first (ß = -7.73, P < 0.001) and NIKBUT-average (ß = -8.10, P < 0.001); the OSDI peaked after 14 days (ß = 15.41, P < 0.001). The above parameters returned to baseline one week after atropine discontinuation (all P > 0.05). NIKBUT-first and NIKBUT-average reached their lowest points after 14 days of 0.01% atropine administration (NIKBUT-first: ß = -4.46, P = 0.005; NIKBUT-average: ß = -4.42, P = 0.001), but those significant changes were diminished once atropine treatment stopped. Conclusions: Young adult myopes experienced a significant but temporary impact on the ocular surface with 0.05% atropine administration, whereas 0.01% atropine had a minimal effect. Translational Relevance: The investigation of the ocular surface effects of different concentrations of atropine may inform evidence-based clinical decisions regarding myopia control in young adults.


Assuntos
Olho , Miopia , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Atropina , Miopia/tratamento farmacológico , Soluções Oftálmicas
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8224, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589625

RESUMO

Herein, a practical ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) was created by adding two different shapes of steel fibers and curing them at ambient temperature using palygorskite-nanofiber (PN) as the modifier. The compressive strength, flexural strength, water absorption capacity, and porosity were analyzed to determine the effects of the steel fibers and PNs on the UHPC mechanical and physical properties. The steel fibers and PNs were found to improve these properties. The UHPC mechanical properties were outstanding at 1.5% fiber dosage, while physical properties were excellent at 1.0% fiber dosage. The mechanical and physical characteristics of UHPC were preferably at a PN dosage of 0.2% and the fiber dosage of 1.0%. The compressive and flexural strengths of straight-steel-fiber UHPC were 145.57 and 19.67 MPa, respectively, i.e., 42.0 and 109.4% higher than those of the reference specimens (i.e., those without fibers or PNs); the water absorption capacity and porosity decreased by 50.1 and 60.7%, respectively. The compressive and flexural strengths of hooked-end-steel-fiber UHPC were 18.3 and 96.0% higher than those of the reference specimens, respectively, and the water absorption capacity and porosity decreased by 43.2 and 29.8%, respectively. These results could provide vital information for the promotion and practical application of UHPC.

3.
Plant Physiol ; 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38620011

RESUMO

Zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of zeaxanthin to violaxanthin in the carotenoid and abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis pathways. The rapeseed (Brassica napus) genome has 4 ZEP (BnaZEP) copies that are suspected to have undergone subfunctionalization, yet the 4 genes' underlying regulatory mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we genetically confirmed the functional divergence of the gene pairs BnaA09.ZEP/BnaC09.ZEP and BnaA07.ZEP/BnaC07.ZEP, which encode enzymes with tissue-specific roles in carotenoid and ABA biosynthesis in flowers and leaves, respectively. Molecular and transgenic experiments demonstrated that each BnaZEP pair is transcriptionally regulated via ABA-responsive element-binding factor 3 s (BnaABF3s) and BnaMYB44s as common and specific regulators, respectively. BnaABF3s directly bound to the promoters of all 4 BnaZEPs and activated their transcription, with overexpression of individual BnaABF3s inducing BnaZEP expression and ABA accumulation under drought stress. Conversely, loss of BnaABF3s function resulted in lower expression of several genes functioning in carotenoid and ABA metabolism and compromised drought tolerance. BnaMYB44s specifically targeted and repressed the expression of BnaA09.ZEP/BnaC09.ZEP but not BnaA07.ZEP/BnaC07.ZEP. Overexpression of BnaA07.MYB44 resulted in increased carotenoid content and an altered carotenoid profile in petals. Additionally, RNA-seq analysis indicated that BnaMYB44s functions as a repressor in phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis. These findings provide clear evidence for the subfunctionalization of duplicated genes and contribute to our understanding of the complex regulatory network involved in carotenoid and ABA biosynthesis in B. napus.

4.
J Food Sci ; 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571450

RESUMO

Fructus Aurantii (FA) is an edible and medicinal functional food used worldwide that enhances digestion. Since raw FA (RFA) possesses certain side effects for some patients, processed FA (PFA) is commonly used in clinical practice. This study aimed to establish an objective and comprehensive quality evaluation of the PFA that employed the technique of steaming and fermentation. Combined with the volatile and non-volatile components, as well as the regulation of gut microbiota, the differentiation between RFA and PFA was analyzed. The results showed that the PFA considerably reduced the contents of flavonoid glycosides while increasing hesperidin-7-O-glucoside and flavonoid aglycones. The electronic nose and GC-MS (Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) effectively detected the variation in flavor between RFA and PFA. Correlation analysis revealed that eight volatile components (relative odor activity value [ROAV] ≥ 0.1) played a key role in inducing odor modifications. The original floral and woody notes were subdued due to decreased levels of linalool, sabinene, α-terpineol, and terpinen-4-ol. After processing, more delightful flavors such as lemon and fruity aromas were acquired. Furthermore, gut microbiota analysis indicated a significant increase in beneficial microbial taxa. Particularly, Lactobacillus, Akkermansia, and Blautia exhibited higher abundance following PFA treatment. Conversely, a lower presence of pathogenic bacteria, including Proteobacteria, Flexispira, and Clostridium. This strategy contributes to a comprehensive analysis technique for the quality assessment of FA, providing scientific justifications for processing FA into high-value products with enhanced health benefits. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study provided an efficient approach to Fructus Aurantii quality evaluation. The methods of fermentation and steaming showed improved quality and safety.

5.
BMJ Open ; 14(3): e076127, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485488

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) is a common postoperative complication of breast cancer. It develops in a chronic and vicious cycle. Once lymphedema occurs, it cannot be cured and bring serious physiological, psychological, social and economic burden to patients. Upper limb functional exercises are an effective and convenient intervention for managing lymphedema. However, the optimal exercise sequence remains unclear. Therefore, we aim to compare the effects of exercise sequences under the guidance of commonly used exercise sequences and lymphatic flow theory. METHODS: An exploratory randomised controlled cross-over trial will be conducted. 32 patients with BCRL are randomly allocated into two groups (group A and group B). Group A patients will perform functional exercise from wrist joint to shoulder joint, and the exercise direction of group B is opposite to that of group A, that is, from shoulder joint to wrist joint end. Exercise time is once a day, each 20-30 min, for 2 weeks. After 2 weeks of washout period, A and B groups of exchange exercise sequences (exercise frequency and duration unchanged). The primary outcome is upper limb circumference, and secondary outcomes are upper limb function and lymphedema symptoms. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study protocol is presented in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials guidelines. All participants will sign a written informed consent. The research ethics regional committee of Shanghai Seventh People's Hospital has approved the study. Regardless of the outcome of this study, the results will be published in open-access journals to ensure public access. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR2200066463.


Assuntos
Linfedema Relacionado a Câncer de Mama , Neoplasias da Mama , Linfedema , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Estudos Cross-Over , China , Linfedema/etiologia , Linfedema/terapia , Linfedema Relacionado a Câncer de Mama/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
6.
Phytother Res ; 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459660

RESUMO

Avascular necrosis frequently occurs as a complication following surgery involving the distal perforator flap. Dihydrocapsaicin (DHC) can protect tissue from ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, but its specific role in multizone perforator flaps remains unclear. In this study, the prospective target of DHC in the context of I/R injury was predicted using network pharmacology analysis. Flap viability was determined through survival area analysis, laser Doppler blood flow, angiograms, and histological examination. The expressions of angiogenesis, apoptosis, NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, oxidative stress, and molecules related to cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP)-adenosine monophosphate synthase (cGAS)-interferon gene stimulant (STING) pathway were assessed using western blotting, immunofluorescence, TUNEL staining, and dihydroethidium (DHE) staining. Our finding revealed that DHC promoted the perforator flap survival, which involves the cGAS-STING pathway, oxidative stress, NLRP3 inflammasome, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. DHC induced oxidative stress resistance and suppressed the NLRP3 inflammasome, preventing apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells. Through regulation of STING pathway, DHC controlled oxidative stress in endothelial cells and NLRP3 levels in ischemic flaps. However, activation of the cGAS-STING pathway led to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NLRP3 inflammasome, thereby diminishing the protective role of DHC. DHC enhanced the survival of multidomain perforator flaps by suppressing the cGAS-STING pathway, oxidative stress, and the formation of NLRP3 inflammasome. These findings unveil a potentially novel mechanism with clinical significance for promoting the survival of multidomain perforator flaps.

7.
Transl Pediatr ; 13(1): 137-145, 2024 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38323180

RESUMO

Background: Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) on skin are conventionally treated with beta blockers, pulsed dye laser (PDL), or surgery, either invasive or limited to clinical conditions. Our preclinical studies suggested that Tanshinone, extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza (Tanshin), had a beneficial effect on IHs. Thus, we conducted a pilot clinical study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of topical Tanshinone compounds on superficial IHs. Methods: The single-armed pilot study included a total of 29 infants diagnosed with IHs. Thrice daily (at an interval of 6-8 hours) topical applications of Tanshinone were used for each patient. The primary response was the skin erythema index assessed by investigators using SkinColorCatch colorimeter instrument (Delfin). The Achauer score and the satisfaction of parents were also evaluated. Results: A total of 29 infants, 22 females (76%) and 7 males (24%), with a median age of 60 days (interquartile range, 45 to 99 days) were included. The position of IHs was distributed in the trunk (44.8%), head (34.5%), and limbs (20.7%). After 6 months of IHs treatment, the decrease in skin erythema index (baseline: 566.79±854.67 vs. after treatment: 467.97±1,118.39, P<0.001) was indicated. A total of 79.31% [23/29] of parents of the participants reported satisfaction on the responses after treatment. No serious side effects were documented. Conclusions: The topical use of Tanshinone compounds might be a potentially effective and noninvasive therapy in treating IHs.

8.
Dalton Trans ; 53(8): 3777-3784, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305017

RESUMO

To achieve fine regulation of FeII SCO behavior, a series of trinuclear cyanido-bridged complexes trans-[CpMen(dppe)MII(CN)]2[Fe1II(abpt)2](OTf)2 (1-4) (1, M = Fe2 and n = 1; 2, M = Fe2 and n = 4; 3, M = Fe2 and n = 5; 4, M = Ru and n = 5; CpMen = alkyl cyclopentadienyl with n = 1, 4, 5; dppe = 1,2-bis-(diphenylphosphino)ethane; abpt = 4-amino-3,5-bis-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,2,4-triazole and OTf = CF3SO3-) were synthesized and fully characterized by using elemental analysis, X-ray crystallography, magnetic measurements, variable-temperature IR spectroscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy. It is worth mentioning that different from many mononuclear Fe(abpt)2X2 (X = NCS, NCSe, N(CN)2, C(CN)3, (NC)2CC(OCH3)C(CN)2, (NC)2CC(OC2H5)C(CN)2, C16SO3 and Cl) complexes with more than one polymorph, only one polycrystalline form was found in complexes 1-4. Moreover, the thermally induced SCO behaviors of these four complexes are independent of intermolecular π-π interactions. The electron-donating ability of the CCN-terminal fragment of CpMen(dppe)MIICN can be flexibly regulated by changing the methyl number (n) of the cyclopentadiene ligand or metal ion type (MII). These investigations indicate that the electron-donating ability of the CCN-terminal fragment has an influence on the SCO behavior of Fe1II. The spin transition temperature (T1/2) of the complexes decreases with the increase of the electron-donating ability of the fragment CpMen(dppe)MII. This study provides a new strategy to predict and precisely regulate the behaviors of SCO complexes.

9.
Res Vet Sci ; 169: 105177, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350170

RESUMO

Subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows is often misdiagnosed because it lacks clinical signs and detection indicators. However, it is highly prevalent and may transform into clinical ketosis if not treated promptly. Due to the negative energy balance, a large amount of fat is mobilized, producing NEFA that exceeds the upper limit of liver processing, which in turn leads to the disturbance of liver lipid metabolism. The silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) is closely related to hepatic lipid metabolism disorders. Exosomes as signal transmitters, also play a role in the circulatory system. We hypothesize that the circulating exosome-mediated adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα)-SIRT1 pathway regulates lipid metabolism disorders in SCK cows. We extracted the exosomes required for the experiment from the peripheral circulating blood of non-ketotic (NK) and SCK cows. We investigated the effect of circulating exosomes on the expression levels of mRNA and protein of the AMPKα-SIRT1 pathway in non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA)-induced dairy cow primary hepatocytes using in vitro cell experiments. The results showed that circulating exosomes increased the expression levels of Lipolysis-related genes and proteins (AMPKα, SIRT1, and PGC-1α) in hepatocytes treated with 1.2 mM NEFA, and inhibited the expression of lipid synthesis-related genes and protein (SREBP-1C). The regulation of exosomes on lipid metabolism disorders caused by 1.2 mM NEFA treatment showed the same trend as for SIRT1-overexpressing adenovirus. The added exosomes could regulate NEFA-induced lipid metabolism in hepatocytes by mediating the AMPKα-SIRT1 pathway, consistent with the effect of transfected SIRT1 adenovirus.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Exossomos , Cetose , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Feminino , Animais , Bovinos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Sirtuína 1/genética , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados , Exossomos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/metabolismo , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/veterinária , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Cetose/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo
10.
Water Res ; 252: 121213, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306752

RESUMO

The occurrence of large Microcystis biomass in brackish waters is primarily caused by its downward transportation from the upstream freshwater lakes and reservoirs through rivers rather than due to in situ bloom formation. Factors that determine the survival of freshwater cyanobacteria in brackish waters have not been well investigated. Here, we studied the spatiotemporal variability of inorganic nitrogen in an upstream lake and conducted laboratory and in-situ experiments to assess the role of nitrogen availability on the salt tolerance of Microcystis and the release of microcystins. A series of field experiments were carried out during bloom seasons to evaluate the salt tolerance of natural Microcystis colonies. The salt tolerance threshold varied from 7 to 17 and showed a positive relationship with intracellular carbohydrate content and a negative relationship with nitrogen availability in water. In August when upstream nitrogen availability was lower, the Microcystis colonies could maintain their biomass even after a sudden increase in salinity from 4 to 10. Laboratory-cultivated Microcystis that accumulated higher carbohydrate content at lower nitrogen availability showed better cell survival at higher salinity. The sharp release of microcystins into the surrounding water occurred when salinity exceeded the salt tolerance threshold of the Microcystis. Thus, Microcystis with higher salt tolerance can accumulate more toxins in cells. The obtained results suggest that the cell survival and toxin concentration in brackish waters depend on the physiological properties of Microcystis formed in the upstream waters. Thus, the life history of Microcystis in upstream waters could have a significant impact on its salt tolerance in downstream brackish waters, where the ecological risk of the salt-tolerant Microcystis requires special and careful management in summer at low nitrogen availability.


Assuntos
Microcystis , Microcystis/fisiologia , Microcistinas , Tolerância ao Sal , Nitrogênio , Lagos/microbiologia , Águas Salinas , Água , Carboidratos
11.
Chin Clin Oncol ; 13(1): 3, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38372057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRAF (B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase)-mutated colorectal cancer (CRC) still has poor prognostic. The efficacy of BRAF inhibitor is unpredictable just that intrinsic genetic complexity, immune microenvironment and partially unknown reason. Understanding the co-mutation mechanism can help improve treatment and follow-up strategies. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 35 (BRAF-mutated/BRAF wild-type) Chinese CRC and 125 Western CRC who underwent next-generation sequencing (NGS). Co-occurrence mutation analysis, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis was enabled in this study. RESULTS: Thirty-five (10.32%) patients were BRAF-mutated, with 17 patients were BRAF V600E in Beijing Hospital. Patients with BRAF mutation had significant association with high tumor mutational burden (TMB-H) (P=0.0004) and high microsatellite instability (MSI-H) (P=0.0003) than those with BRAF wild-type. In 125 BRAF-mutated Western CRC patients, the frequency of age at diagnosis, gender, sample type, Tumor-Node-Metastasis (TNM), MSI, TMB, and BRAF mutation type was consistent with Chinese data. However, the primary tumor location showed significant statistical differences (P<0.0001). Class 1 were more likely to occur in elder and female. Western cohort was consistent with above in Chinese cohort. Other clinicopathological features were not significantly associated with mutation type. However, Western cohort showed class 1 exhibited primary sample type predominance in both class 1 vs. others (P<0.05) and class 1 vs. class 3 (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the data showed TMB-H (57.69% vs. 11.76%, P<0.001) and MSI-H (28.21% vs. 0%, P<0.05) of the class 1 BRAF mutation proportion were significantly higher, compared with class 3 BRAF mutation. In concurrent oncogenic mutations, compared with non-class 1 BRAF mutation, class 1 are more likely to co-occur with passenger mutation. Data from Western populations showed similar results. We also found that the class 1 mutation was mutually exclusive with co-KRAS (Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homologue) mutation in CRC, and co-APC (APC regulator of WNT signaling pathway) mutation appeared more frequently in non-class 1 BRAF mutation. KEGG pathway showed that fewer proto-cancer signaling pathways were enriched in the class 1, which further confirmed that this type had stronger tumorigenicity. GO enrichment also proved that class 1 had stronger tumorigenicity. Finally, prognostic analysis showed median overall survival (mOS) of 19.43 months in class 1 vs. 47.57 months in non-class 1 (P=0.0002). Further study showed that the mOS of class 1, class 2, class 3 and class NA (unknown) was 19.43, 28.50, 47.57 months and not reached (P=0.0001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed class 1/non-class 1 BRAF mutation in CRC had significantly differences in co-mutation features, genomic markers and prognostic. Understanding BRAF mutation types and co-mutation mechanism will contribute to accurately grasping treatment and follow-up strategies and promoting the development of precision therapy for CRC in the future.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Prognóstico , Mutação , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Microambiente Tumoral
12.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 662: 69-75, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335741

RESUMO

P2-type layered oxides for rechargeable sodium-ion batteries have drawn a lot of attention because of their excellent electrochemical performance. However, these types of cathodes usually suffer from poor cyclic stability. To overcome this disadvantage, in this work, novel ball-shaped concentration-gradient oxide Na0.67Ni0.17Co0.17Mn0.66O2 with P2 structure modified by Mn-rich surface is successfully prepared using co-precipitation method. The concentration of Mn increased from the inner core to the surface, endowing the material with an excellent cyclic stability. The cathode exhibits enhanced electrochemical properties than that of the sample synthesized by solid-state method and concentration-constant material. It shows 143.2 mAh/g initial discharge capacity and retains 131 mAh/g between 2 V and 4.5 V after 100 rounds. The significant improvement in the electrochemical properties of the sample benefits from the unique concentration-gradient structure, and the Mn-rich surface that effectively stabilizes the basic P2 structure. The relatively higher Ni content in the core leads to a slight improvement in the discharge capacity of the sample. This strategy may provide new insights for preparing layered cathodes for sodium-ion batteries with high electrochemical performance.

13.
Breast ; 74: 103694, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38417232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The experiences, physical and mental health and needs of women with breast cancer have been studied in some detail, but there is a lack of discussion of the experiences of stakeholder groups such as men with breast cancer, partners and carers and healthcare professionals. The aim of this study was to explore and understand the experiences and perceptions of male breast cancer stakeholders from diagnosis through to survivorship. METHODS: We conducted a thematic review of qualitative studies included in a large published scoping review on male breast cancer (reported under the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for Scoping Reviews extension). To be included in a qualitative evidence review, studies had to use qualitative methods for data collection and analysis to capture the perspectives of men with breast cancer, partners or caregivers, and healthcare workers. Key characteristics and findings were extracted and a conceptual coding framework was summarized using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Out of a total of 310 studies in the research literature (published research articles and gray literature), 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies reported on the experiences of men with breast cancer, partners or caregivers, and healthcare workers, with participant numbers ranging from 2 to 31. A total of 17 descriptive themes (study outcomes) were identified. From these, four high-level analytic themes emerged: (1) Predicament; (2) Emotion; (3) Support; (4) Coping. CONCLUSIONS: The gender stigma that exists at the patient, healthcare system, and family-society levels largely influences the experiences of the male breast cancer stakeholder population. To address gender inequalities in breast cancer care, healthcare organizations and society at large should remain equally attentive to the needs of male and female breast cancer patients. These needs include reducing healthcare and social stigma, providing gender-specific information and emotional support, and access to support groups.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Saúde Mental
14.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 949, 2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38297016

RESUMO

Patients with residual nasopharyngeal carcinoma after receiving definitive treatment have poor prognoses. Although immune checkpoint therapies have achieved breakthroughs for treating recurrent and metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma, none of these strategies have been assessed for treating residual nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In this single-arm, phase 2 trial, we aimed to evaluate the antitumor efficacy and safety of toripalimab (anti-PD1 antibody) plus capecitabine in patients with residual nasopharyngeal carcinoma after definitive treatment (ChiCTR1900023710). Primary endpoint of this trial was the objective response rate assessed according to RECIST (version 1.1). Secondary endpoints included complete response rate, disease control rate, duration of response, progression-free survival, safety profile, and treatment compliance. Between June 1, 2020, and May 31, 2021, 23 patients were recruited and received six cycles of toripalimab plus capecitabine every 3 weeks. In efficacy analyses, 13 patients (56.5%) had complete response, and 9 patients (39.1%) had partial response, with an objective response rate of 95.7% (95% CI 78.1-99.9). The trial met its prespecified primary endpoint. In safety analyses, 21 of (91.3%) 23 patients had treatment-related adverse events. The most frequently reported adverse event was hand-foot syndrome (11 patients [47.8%]). The most common grade 3 adverse event was hand-foot syndrome (two patients [8.7%]). No grades 4-5 treatment-related adverse events were recorded. This phase 2 trial shows that combining toripalimab with capecitabine has promising antitumour activity and a manageable safety profile for patients with residual nasopharyngeal carcinoma.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Síndrome Mão-Pé , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Humanos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Capecitabina/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Mão-Pé/etiologia , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(8): 11873-11885, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38224442

RESUMO

Phytoremediation is a widely used and cost-effective technique for in situ remediation of heavy metals. Brassica napus L. genotype with high Cd accumulation and strong Cd tolerance is an ideal candidate for phytoremediation. In this study, a hydroponic experiment was conducted to select a Brassica napus genotype with either high or low Cd accumulation from a panel of 55 genotypes. The physiological mechanisms governing Cd accumulation and Cd tolerance were then explored. BN400 and BN147 were identified as the high and low Cd accumulating genotypes, respectively. Additionally, BN400 exhibited greater tolerance to Cd stress compared to BN147. Root morphology analysis revealed that BN400 exhibited longer root length, smaller root surface area and root volume, and less root tips but bigger root diameter than BN147. Subcellular Cd distribution showed that the Cd concentrations in the cell wall and vacuole in shoot were significantly higher in BN400 than in BN147, whereas the opposite trend was observed in the roots.. Pectate/protein-integrated Cd was found to be the predominant form of Cd in both shoots and roots, with significantly higher levels in BN400 compared to BN147 in the shoot, but the opposite trend was observed in the roots. These results suggest that the long fine roots play a role in Cd accumulation. The high Cd accumulating genotype was able to retain Cd in leaf cell walls and vacuoles, and Cd was mainly present in the form of pectate/protein-integrated Cd, which contributes to its strong Cd tolerance. These findings have important implications for the screening and breeding of Brassica napus genotypes with high Cd accumulation for phytoremediation purposes.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , Melhoramento Vegetal , Metais Pesados/análise , Hidroponia , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Raízes de Plantas , Biodegradação Ambiental
16.
J Hazard Mater ; 465: 133365, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38163407

RESUMO

The molecular mechanisms underlying high and low cadmium (Cd) accumulation in hot pepper cultivars remain unclear. In this study, comparative transcriptome analysis of root between high-Cd (J) and low-Cd (Z) cultivars was conducted under hydroponic cultivation with 0 and 0.4 mg/L Cd, respectively. The results showed that J enhanced the root uptake of Cd by elevating the expression of Nramp5 and counteracting Cd toxicity by increasing the expression of genes, such as NIR1, GLN1, and IAA9. Z reduced Cd accumulation by enhancing the cell wall lignin synthesis genes PAL, COMT, 4CL, LAC, and POD and the Cd transporters ABC, MTP1, and DTX1. Elevated expression of genes related to sulfur metabolism was observed in Z, potentially contributing to its ability to detoxify Cd. To investigate the function of CaCOMT1, an Arabidopsis thaliana overexpression line (OE-CaCOMT1) was constructed. The results revealed that OE-CaCOMT1 drastically increased the lignin content by 38-42% and reduced the translocation of Cd to the aboveground parts by 32%. This study provides comprehensive insights into the mechanisms underlying Cd accumulation in hot pepper cultivars using transcriptome analysis. Moreover, this study elucidates the critical function of CaCOMT1, providing a theoretical foundation for the production of low-Cd vegetables for food safety.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Capsicum , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Capsicum/genética , Capsicum/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Nitrito Redutases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética
17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(6): 4112-4122, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38226918

RESUMO

Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell envelope represents important targets for the development of new therapeutic agents against tuberculosis, which is a deadly disease that has plagued mankind for a long time. However, the accessibility of long, branched, and complex lipoarabinomannan over 100-mer remains a long-standing challenge. Herein, we report the modular synthesis of mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan 101-mer from the M. tuberculosis cell wall using a one-pot assembly strategy on the basis of glycosyl ortho-(1-phenylvinyl)benzoates (PVB), which not only accelerates the modular synthesis but also precludes the potential problems associated with one-pot glycosylation with thioglycosides. Shorter sequences including 18-mer, 19-mer, and 27-mer are also synthesized for in-depth structure-activity relationship biological studies. Current synthetic routes also highlight the following features: (1) streamlined synthesis of various linear and branched glycans using one-pot orthogonal glycosylation on the combination of glycosyl N-phenyltrifluoroacetimidates, glycosyl ortho-alkynylbenzoates, and glycosyl PVB; (2) highly stereoselective construction of 10 1,2-cis-arabinofuranosyl linkages using 5-O-(2-quinolinecarbonyl)-directing 1,2-cis-arabinofuranosylation via a hydrogen-bond-mediated aglycone delivery strategy; and (3) convergent [(18 + 19) × 2 + 27] one-pot synthesis of the 101-mer LAM polysaccharide. The present work demonstrates that this orthogonal one-pot glycosylation strategy can highly streamline the chemical synthesis of long, branched, and complex polysaccharides.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose , Humanos , Manose , Lipopolissacarídeos , Polissacarídeos , Parede Celular
18.
Brain Struct Funct ; 229(1): 75-95, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37899406

RESUMO

Cooperative behavior is a vital social interaction which plays a vital role in improving human survival and reproduction. However, few empirical studies have examined the differences between cooperative behaviors and the underlying neural substrates. In the present study, the brain activity of familiar dyads of the same sex was measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy during three cooperative tasks (cooperative button-press, tangram, and Jenga tasks). We also measured the dyads' empathic abilities and personality traits to investigate the relationships between individual characteristics and neural markers. The results showed that first, there were significant differences in intra-brain activation and inter-brain synchronization among different cooperative tasks in three dimensions: social cognition, behavioral response, and cognitive processing. Second, male participants require stronger intra-brain activation to achieve the same inter-brain synchronization level as women in cooperative tasks. Third, when performing cooperative tasks involving high cognitive demands, Big Five Neuroticism may be an important predictor of neural activation in female participants. Inter-brain synchronization plays an important role in the frontal and temporoparietal junctions during interpersonal cooperation. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that mutual prediction theory is crucial for understanding the neural mechanisms of cooperative behavior.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Tálamo
19.
Aggress Behav ; 50(1): e22112, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37672595

RESUMO

Previous research has confirmed that parental control is related to children's aggressive behavior. However, few studies have focused on proactive and reactive aggression to distinguish the different effects of parental psychological and behavioral control. Moreover, additional longitudinal evidence is needed to understand these links. In the current paper, a three-wave longitudinal study was conducted to examine the developmental characteristics of proactive and reactive aggression and the role of parental control in China. A total of 484 4th- and 7th-grade students participated at wave 1 (51.65% in 4th-grade, Mage = 11.66 ± 1.52 years), 465 students (52.04% in 4th-grade) at wave 2, and 447 children (51.90% in 4th-grade) at wave 3. The results showed that: (1) Proactive aggression in late childhood remained stable overall, while reactive aggression displayed a clear upward trend. (2) In proactive aggression, boys and girls had a consistent developmental trend. The initial level of boys was higher than that of girls. In reactive aggression, the growth rate was inversely associated with their initial level and the initial level of boys in 7th-grade was significantly higher than that of girls. (3) Both parental psychological and behavioral control positively predicted students' reactive aggression in 4th- and 7th-grade, whereas only parental behavioral control positively predicted proactive aggression in 7th-grade students, with no gender differences.


Assuntos
Agressão , Pais , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Agressão/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , China
20.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 308: 123720, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38091650

RESUMO

Aramid nanofibers (ANFs) as an innovative nanoscale building block exhibit great potential for novel high-performance multifunctional membranes attributed to their extraordinary performance. However, the application of aramid nanofibers in the field of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing has been rarely reported. In this work, aramid nanofibers derived from commercial Kevlar fibers were synthesized by a facile dimethyl sulfoxide/potassium hydroxide (DMSO/KOH) solution treatment. The monodispersed silver nanoparticle-decorated aramid nanofiber (m-Ag@ANF) membranes were constructed by an efficient vacuum filtration technique. Taking advantages of unique intrinsic properties of ANF, the m-Ag@ANF substrates exhibit good flexibility, excellent mechanical properties and prominent thermal stability. Besides, due to the abundance of positively charged amino-group on the ANF substrates, the negatively charged m-AgNPs were uniformly and firmly deposited on the surface of ANF substrate through electrostatic interactions. As a result, the optimal flexible m-Ag-9@ANF SERS substrate exhibits high sensitivity of 10-9 M for methylene blue (MB) and excellent signal reproducibility (RSD = 6.37 %), as well as outstanding signal stability (up to 15 days). Besides, the 2D Raman mapping and FDTD simulations further reveal prominent signal homogeneity and strong electric field distribution for flexible m-Ag-9@ANF SERS substrate. Finally, it is demonstrated that the flexible m-Ag-9@ANF SERS substrate can also be used for detection of toxic molecules on irregular surfaces by a feasible paste-and-read process. The m-Ag@ANF paper exhibits potential applications as a flexible, low-cost, robust and stable SERS sensing platform for trace detection of toxic materials.

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