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Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; 58(3): 207-226, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38140961


OBJECTIVE: Heterogeneous brief non-pharmacological interventions and guidelines exist to treat the burgeoning presentations to both emergency department and inpatient settings, for those in a crisis of mental ill-health. We systematically reviewed the literature to create a taxonomy of these brief non-pharmacological interventions, and review their evaluation methods and effectiveness. METHOD: We conducted a systematic review across Cochrane, CINAHL, DARE, Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO databases. Studies meeting quality criteria, using Joanna Briggs Institute tools, were eligible. Interventions were categorised, and outcomes synthesised. RESULTS: Thirty-nine studies were included: 8 randomised controlled trials, 17 quasi-experimental, 11 qualitative studies, and 3 file audits. Taxonomy produced six coherent intervention types: Skills-focussed, Environment-focussed, Special Observation, Psychoeducation, Multicomponent Group and Multicomponent Individual. Despite this, a broad and inconsistent range of outcome measures reflected different outcome priorities and prevented systematic comparison of different types of intervention or meta-analysis. Few brief non-pharmacological interventions had consistent evidential support: sensory modulation rooms consistently improved distress in inpatient settings. Short admissions may reduce suicide attempts and readmission, if accompanied by psychotherapy. Suicide-specific interventions in emergency departments may improve depressive symptoms, but not suicide attempt rates. There was evidence that brief non-pharmacological interventions did not reduce incidence of self-harm on inpatient wards. We found no evidence for frequently used interventions such as no-suicide contracting, special observation or inpatient self-harm interventions. CONCLUSION: Categorising brief non-pharmacological interventions is feasible, but an evidence base for many is severely limited if not missing. Even when there is evidence, the inconsistency in outcomes often precludes clinicians from making inferences, although some interventions show promise.

Intervenção na Crise , Pacientes Internados , Humanos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Tentativa de Suicídio , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência
Emerg Med Australas ; 33(4): 691-696, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426807


OBJECTIVES: The impact of psychiatric emergency care centres (PECCs) on ED mental health (MH) presentations has not been presented. We aim to compare demographics, diagnosis and admission frequency of patients presenting to an inner-city ED with MH complaints, before and for several years after the opening of a PECC. METHODS: We collected ED patient data for the first 200 'mental health' presentations during the month of May in 2005-2007, and 2015-2017. Data included demographics, diagnosis, post-ED disposition, length of stay in ED, use of the Mental Health Act, and the presence of expressed suicidality and psychotic disorders. RESULTS: The days to reach 200 MH presentations decreased from 43 days in 2005 to 17 days in 2017. The mean length of ED stay approximately halved with PECC's introduction, with 20% of patients being admitted to PECC. Prior to PECC, 75% of suicidal patients were discharged from ED; after the opening of PECC, 84% of patients expressing suicidality were admitted to PECC; and 73% of patients admitted with psychotic symptoms went to the acute psychiatric ward. CONCLUSIONS: Between 2005 and 2017, MH presentations to ED became significantly more frequent. The opening of PECC reduced length of stay in ED and provided an admission trajectory for patients expressing suicidality, while retaining the pathway to the acute psychiatric ward for those patients presenting with psychosis.

Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Saúde Mental , Hospitalização , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Estudos Retrospectivos
Australas Psychiatry ; 23(5): 500-2, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26104778


OBJECTIVE: This article presents the case of an elderly woman experiencing a depressive phase of Bipolar Affective Disorder 1 (BPAD1), who required electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), prior to which her lithium was ceased, and who developed ultra-ultra-rapid cycling (UURC) and ultra-rapid cycling (URC). This resolved with the recommencement of lithium and continuation of ECT. METHOD: Case report and review of the relevant literature. RESULTS: The patient's mood stabilized with recommencement of lithium and continuation of ECT. CONCLUSIONS: Ceasing lithium prior to ECT may carry a risk of URC or UURC in BPAD1.

Antidepressivos/administração & dosagem , Transtorno Bipolar/terapia , Eletroconvulsoterapia/métodos , Compostos de Lítio/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos