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2.
Br J Haematol ; 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577829

RESUMO

Hospital-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE) is defined as any case of VTE occurring during hospital admission and for up to 90 days post discharge. It accounts for over 50% of all cases of VTE internationally; indeed, there are an estimated 10 million cases of hospital-associated VTE annually. Over the last decade, there has been increasing interest in improving VTE risk assessment and thromboprophylaxis. This review summarises all the recent and ongoing major research studies and future challenges in the different areas, including medical, surgical and obstetric patients, as well as special areas such as lower limb immobilisation. We include sections on both pharmacological and mechanical thromboprophylaxis.

3.
Health Technol Assess ; 28(9): 1-176, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38476084

RESUMO

Background: Pharmacological prophylaxis to prevent venous thromboembolism is currently recommended for women assessed as being at high risk of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy or in the 6 weeks after delivery (the puerperium). The decision to provide thromboprophylaxis involves weighing the benefits, harms and costs, which vary according to the individual's venous thromboembolism risk. It is unclear whether the United Kingdom's current risk stratification approach could be improved by further research. Objectives: To quantify the current decision uncertainty associated with selecting women who are pregnant or in the puerperium for thromboprophylaxis and to estimate the value of one or more potential future studies that would reduce that uncertainty, while being feasible and acceptable to patients and clinicians. Methods: A decision-analytic model was developed which was informed by a systematic review of risk assessment models to predict venous thromboembolism in women who are pregnant or in the puerperium. Expected value of perfect information analysis was used to determine which factors are associated with high decision uncertainty and should be the target of future research. To find out whether future studies would be acceptable and feasible, we held workshops with women who have experienced a blood clot or have been offered blood-thinning drugs and surveyed healthcare professionals. Expected value of sample information analysis was used to estimate the value of potential future research studies. Results: The systematic review included 17 studies, comprising 19 unique externally validated risk assessment models and 1 internally validated model. Estimates of sensitivity and specificity were highly variable ranging from 0% to 100% and 5% to 100%, respectively. Most studies had unclear or high risk of bias and applicability concerns. The decision analysis found that there is substantial decision uncertainty regarding the use of risk assessment models to select high-risk women for antepartum prophylaxis and obese postpartum women for postpartum prophylaxis. The main source of decision uncertainty was uncertainty around the effectiveness of thromboprophylaxis for preventing venous thromboembolism in women who are pregnant or in the puerperium. We found that a randomised controlled trial of thromboprophylaxis in obese postpartum women is likely to have substantial value and is more likely to be acceptable and feasible than a trial recruiting women who have had a previous venous thromboembolism. In unselected postpartum women and women following caesarean section, the poor performance of risk assessment models meant that offering prophylaxis based on these models had less favourable cost effectiveness with lower decision uncertainty. Limitations: The performance of the risk assessment model for obese postpartum women has not been externally validated. Conclusions: Future research should focus on estimating the efficacy of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis in pregnancy and the puerperium, and clinical trials would be more acceptable in women who have not had a previous venous thromboembolism. Study registration: This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42020221094. Funding: This award was funded by the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme (NIHR award ref: NIHR131021) and is published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 28, No. 9. See the NIHR Funding and Awards website for further award information.


Women who are pregnant or who have given birth in the previous 6 weeks are at increased risk of developing blood clots that can cause serious illness or death. Small doses of blood thinners given by injection are safe in pregnancy and can reduce the risk of blood clots, but they can slightly increase the risk of bleeding. Healthcare professionals use risk assessment tools to decide if a woman is at high risk of blood clots and should be offered blood thinners. We wanted to find out what research would be useful to help them make better decisions. We reviewed previous research to establish which risk assessment tools are best at predicting who will have a blood clot. We then created a mathematical model to predict what would happen when using different risk assessment tools to decide who should be offered blood thinners, both during pregnancy and after giving birth. We found that there was a lot of uncertainty about which women should be offered blood thinners. This was mainly because there have only been a few small studies comparing blood thinners to no treatment in pregnant women or women who have recently given birth. We estimated the value of future studies comparing blood thinners to no treatment, in groups of women with different risk factors, by predicting what information we would gain and how this would be used to improve decisions about using blood thinners. To find out whether these studies would be acceptable and feasible, we held workshops with women who have experienced a blood clot or have been offered blood thinners and surveyed healthcare professionals. We found that a study in obese women who have recently given birth would have substantial value and may be more acceptable than a study in pregnant women with a previous blood clot.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes , Tromboembolia Venosa , Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício , Cesárea , Período Pós-Parto , Obesidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
4.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309435

RESUMO

Revolutionary advances in the treatment of hemophilia has led to a significant improvement in life expectancy. Associated with this has been an increase in age-related diseases especially atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). While people with hemophilia (PWH) develop atherosclerosis at rates similar to those of the general population, rates of atherothrombosis and mortality related to CVD have been much lower, due to their hypocoagulable state. Changing treatment paradigms, aimed at reducing the risk of bleeding by improving hemostasis to levels approaching normality, has meant that the protection they are thought to have had may be lost. CVD risk factors are just as common in PWH as in the general population, but appear to be undertreated. In particular, primary prevention of CVD is vital in all individuals, but particularly in PWH as treatment of established CVD can be difficult. Active identification and management of CVD risk factors, such as obesity, physical inactivity, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia, is required. In particular, statins have been shown to significantly reduce cardiovascular and all-cause mortality with few adverse events and no increased risk of bleeding in the general population, and their use needs urgent assessment in PWH. Further longitudinal research into preventing CVD in PWH, including accurate CVD risk assessment, is required to optimize prevention and management.

5.
BMJ Med ; 3(1): e000408, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38389721

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the balance of costs, risks, and benefits for different thromboprophylaxis strategies for medical patients during hospital admission. Design: Decision analysis modelling study. Setting: NHS hospitals in England. Population: Eligible adult medical inpatients, excluding patients in critical care and pregnant women. Interventions: Pharmacological thromboprophylaxis (low molecular weight heparin) for all medical inpatients, thromboprophylaxis for none, and thromboprophylaxis given to higher risk inpatients according to risk assessment models (Padua, Caprini, IMPROVE, Intermountain, Kucher, Geneva, and Rothberg) previously validated in medical cohorts. Main outcome measures: Lifetime costs and quality adjusted life years (QALYs). Costs were assessed from the perspective of the NHS and Personal Social Services in England. Other outcomes assessed were incidence and treatment of venous thromboembolism, major bleeds including intracranial haemorrhage, chronic thromboembolic complications, and overall survival. Results: Offering thromboprophylaxis to all medical inpatients had a high probability (>99%) of being the most cost effective strategy (at a threshold of £20 000 (€23 440; $25 270) per QALY) in the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, when applying performance data from the Padua risk assessment model, which was typical of that observed across several risk assessment models in a medical inpatient cohort. Thromboprophylaxis for all medical inpatients was estimated to result in 0.0552 additional QALYs (95% credible interval 0.0209 to 0.1111) while generating cost savings of £28.44 (-£47 to £105) compared with thromboprophylaxis for none. No other risk assessment model was more cost effective than thromboprophylaxis for all medical inpatients when assessed in deterministic analysis. Risk based thromboprophylaxis was found to have a high (76.6%) probability of being the most cost effective strategy only when assuming a risk assessment model with very high sensitivity is available (sensitivity 99.9% and specificity 23.7% v base case sensitivity 49.3% and specificity 73.0%). Conclusions: Offering pharmacological thromboprophylaxis to all eligible medical inpatients appears to be the most cost effective strategy. To be cost effective, any risk assessment model would need to have a very high sensitivity resulting in widespread thromboprophylaxis in all patients except those at the very lowest risk, who could potentially avoid prophylactic anticoagulation during their hospital stay.

6.
BMJ Open ; 14(2): e083488, 2024 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38367965

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Endovenous therapy is the first choice management for symptomatic varicose veins in NICE guidelines, with 56-70 000 procedures performed annually in the UK. Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is a known complication of endovenous therapy, occurring at a rate of up to 3.4%. Despite 73% of UK practitioners administering pharmacological thromboprophylaxis to reduce VTE, no high-quality evidence supporting this practice exists. Pharmacological thromboprophylaxis may have clinical and cost benefit in preventing VTE; however, further evidence is needed. This study aims to establish whether when endovenous therapy is undertaken: a single dose or course of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis alters the risk of VTE; pharmacological thromboprophylaxis is associated with an increased rate of bleeding events; pharmacological prophylaxis is cost effective. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A multi-centre, assessor-blind, randomised controlled trial (RCT) will recruit 6660 participants from 40 NHS and private sites across the UK. Participants will be randomised to intervention (single dose or extended course of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis plus compression) or control (compression alone). Participants will undergo a lower limb venous duplex ultrasound scan at 21-28 days post-procedure to identify asymptomatic DVT. The duplex scan will be conducted locally by blinded assessors. Participants will be contacted remotely for follow-up at 7 days and 90 days post-procedure. The primary outcome is imaging-confirmed lower limb DVT with or without symptoms or PE with symptoms within 90 days of treatment. The main analysis will be according to the intention-to-treat principle and will compare the rates of VTE at 90 days, using a repeated measures analysis of variance, adjusting for any pre-specified strongly prognostic baseline covariates using a mixed effects logistic regression. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was granted by Brent Research Ethics Committee (22/LO/0261). Results will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at national and international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN18501431.


Assuntos
Embolia Pulmonar , Tromboembolia Venosa , Trombose Venosa , Humanos , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Estatal , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Reino Unido
8.
Thromb Res ; 236: 108-116, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38422980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is increased postpartum and contributes to important morbidity and mortality. While there have been advances in evaluating diagnostic algorithms for suspected VTE during pregnancy, there is limited data for postpartum individuals. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a scoping review to describe and evaluate diagnostic strategies used to investigate suspected VTE in postpartum individuals. METHODS: A comprehensive search strategy was conducted in Ovid MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (January 1, 2000-September 30, 2022) to identify original articles that reported on diagnostic strategies in postpartum individuals with suspected VTE. We extracted demographics, clinical decision rules used, D-dimer and imaging completed, including test performance and VTE outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 13 studies conducted across 11 countries with separate postpartum data were included for 759 individuals with suspected PE (n = 634) or DVT (n = 125), including unpublished data (n = 251). Among those with suspected PE, computed tomography pulmonary angiography was conducted more commonly (n = 522) than ventilation-perfusion scans (n = 69), with PE positivity rates that ranged from 4 %-27.6 % and 0-50 % across studies, respectively. Among 131 postpartum individuals with suspected PE who had a D-dimer measured, only 4.6 % (6/131) had a negative D-dimer test. For postpartum individuals with suspected DVT, the most common diagnostic test was compression ultrasonography (positivity rate 12.2 %-18.6 %). There were limited retrospective data evaluating the clinical decision rules. CONCLUSIONS: There are heterogeneous approaches globally in the diagnosis of suspected postpartum VTE. Limited high-quality data available underscores the need for more robust evidence to inform clinical practice.


Assuntos
Embolia Pulmonar , Tromboembolia Venosa , Trombose Venosa , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio , Período Pós-Parto , Ultrassonografia , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico
9.
J Thromb Haemost ; 22(4): 1105-1116, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38215911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk assessment models (RAMs) are used to select women at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) during pregnancy and the puerperium for thromboprophylaxis. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the value of potential future studies that would reduce the decision uncertainty associated with offering thromboprophylaxis according to available RAMs in the following groups: high-risk antepartum women (eg, prior VTE), unselected postpartum women, and postpartum women with risk factors (obesity or cesarean delivery). METHODS: A decision-analytic model was developed to simulate clinical outcomes, lifetime costs, and quality-adjusted life-years for different thromboprophylaxis strategies, including thromboprophylaxis for all, thromboprophylaxis for none, and RAM-based thromboprophylaxis. The expected value of perfect information analysis was used to determine which factors are associated with high decision uncertainty. The value of future research studies was estimated using expected value of sample information analysis. Costs were assessed from a health and social services perspective. RESULTS: The expected value of perfect information analysis identified high decision uncertainty for high-risk antepartum women (£21.8 million) and obese postpartum women (£13.4 million), which was largely attributable to uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of thromboprophylaxis in reducing VTE. A randomized controlled trial of thromboprophylaxis compared with none in obese postpartum women is likely to have substantial value (£2.8 million; 300 participants per arm). A trial in women with previous VTE would have higher value but would be less acceptable. CONCLUSION: Future research should focus on estimating the effectiveness of thromboprophylaxis in obese postpartum women with additional risk factors who have not had a previous VTE.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes , Tromboembolia Venosa , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
10.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 50(1): 81-90, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36750217

RESUMO

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was first started for humans in early 1970s by Robert Bartlett. Since its inception, there have been numerous challenges with extracorporeal circulation, such as coagulation and platelet activation, followed by consumption of coagulation factors and platelets, and biocompatibility of tubing, pump, and oxygenator. Unfractionated heparin (heparin hereafter) has historically been the defacto anticoagulant until recently. Also, coagulation monitoring was mainly based on bedside activated clotting time and activated partial thromboplastin time. In the past 50 years, the technology of ECMO has advanced tremendously, and thus, the survival rate has improved significantly. The indication for ECMO has also expanded. Among these are clinical conditions such as postcardiopulmonary bypass, sepsis, ECMO cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and even severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Not surprisingly, the number of ECMO cases has increased according to the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry and prolonged ECMO support has become more prevalent. It is not uncommon for patients with COVID-19 to be on ECMO support for more than 1 year until recovery or lung transplant. With that being said, complications of bleeding, thrombosis, clot formation in the circuit, and intravascular hemolysis still remain and continue to be major challenges. Here, several clinical ECMO experts, including the "Father of ECMO"-Dr. Robert Bartlett, describe the history and advances of ECMO.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Humanos , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Heparina/farmacologia , Coagulação Sanguínea , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , COVID-19/terapia
11.
Ann Biomed Eng ; 52(3): 467-486, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37914979

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a massive clinical challenge, annually affecting millions of patients globally. VTE is a particularly consequential pathology, as incidence is correlated with extremely common risk factors, and a large cohort of patients experience recurrent VTE after initial intervention. Altered hemodynamics, hypercoagulability, and damaged vascular tissue cause deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, the two permutations of VTE. Venous valves have been identified as likely locations for initial blood clot formation, but the exact pathway by which thrombosis occurs in this environment is not entirely clear. Several risk factors are known to increase the likelihood of VTE, particularly those that increase inflammation and coagulability, increase venous resistance, and damage the endothelial lining. While these risk factors are useful as predictive tools, VTE diagnosis prior to presentation of outward symptoms is difficult, chiefly due to challenges in successfully imaging deep-vein thrombi. Clinically, VTE can be managed by anticoagulants or mechanical intervention. Recently, direct oral anticoagulants and catheter-directed thrombolysis have emerged as leading tools in resolution of venous thrombosis. While a satisfactory VTE model has yet to be developed, recent strides have been made in advancing in silico models of venous hemodynamics, hemorheology, fluid-structure interaction, and clot growth. These models are often guided by imaging-informed boundary conditions or inspired by benchtop animal models. These gaps in knowledge are critical targets to address necessary improvements in prediction and diagnosis, clinical management, and VTE experimental and computational models.


Assuntos
Embolia Pulmonar , Tromboembolia Venosa , Trombose Venosa , Humanos , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Tromboembolia Venosa/terapia , Tromboembolia Venosa/induzido quimicamente , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/terapia , Embolia Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Biologia
12.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program ; 2023(1): 754-760, 2023 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38066939

RESUMO

A consumptive coagulopathy describes a situation where there is a loss of hemostatic factors, which leads to an increased risk of bleeding. Some recent studies have used the term interchangeably with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), but we have reverted to the older definition, which covers a broader range of issues where there is loss of hemostatic factors due to multiple causes, which includes systemic activation of coagulation as seen in DIC. Therefore, the term consumptive coagulopathy covers conditions from the hemostatic effects of major hemorrhage to the use of extracorporeal circuits to true DIC. We review the current understanding of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of common consumptive coagulopathy in critical care patients, focusing on recent advances and controversies. Particular emphasis is given to DIC because it is a common and often life-threatening condition in critical care patients and is characterized by the simultaneous occurrence of widespread microvascular thrombosis and bleeding. Second, we focus on the effect of modern medical technology, such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, on hemostasis.


Assuntos
Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada , Hemostáticos , Humanos , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/diagnóstico , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/terapia , Hemostasia , Coagulação Sanguínea , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
13.
BMJ Open ; 13(12): e080363, 2023 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38070933

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the experiences of family members of patients who died or survived following a diagnosis of vaccine-induced immune thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (VITT). DESIGN: A semistructured qualitative study, conducted via Zoom. SETTING: Participants discussed their experiences during hospitalisation and following discharge. PARTICIPANTS: Sixteen family members of patients with VITT (survivors=11; bereaved=5), recruited via a Facebook support group and advertising on Twitter. RESULTS: Analysis identified two themes common to both groups of participants: the stress of hospitalisation and the experience of multiple losses. A third theme, living with VITT, was unique to the survivor group and a fourth, battling against the system, was predominantly reported by bereaved participants. CONCLUSIONS: This is a significantly challenged group of people, with multiple emotional, financial, social and psychological losses. These losses have been compounded by experiences of limited governmental and societal recognition of the problems they face.


Assuntos
Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática , Vacinas , Humanos , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/induzido quimicamente , Família/psicologia , Emoções , Hospitalização , Alta do Paciente
14.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 7(7): 102203, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37854455

RESUMO

Background: Patients hospitalized for COVID-19 are at high risk of thrombotic complications and organ failure, and often exhibit severe inflammation, which may contribute to hypercoagulability. Objectives: To determine whether patients hospitalized for COVID-19 experience differing frequencies of thrombotic and organ failure complications and derive variable benefits from therapeutic-dose heparin dependent on the extent of systemic inflammation and whether observed benefit from therapeutic-dose anticoagulation varies depending on the degree of systemic inflammation. Methods: We analyzed data from 1346 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 enrolled in the ATTACC and ACTIV-4a platforms who were randomized to therapeutic-dose heparin or usual care for whom levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) were reported at baseline. Results: Increased CRP was associated with worse patient outcomes, including a >98% posterior probability of increased organ support requirement, hospital length of stay, risk of 28-day mortality, and incidence of major thrombotic events or death (patients with CRP 40-100 mg/L or ≥100 mg/L compared to patients with CRP <40 mg/L). Patients with CRP 40 to 100 mg/L experienced the greatest degree of benefit from treatment with therapeutic doses of unfractionated or low molecular weight heparin compared with usual-care prophylactic doses. This was most significant for an increase in organ support-free days (odds ratio: 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.40; 97.9% posterior probability of beneficial effect), with trends toward benefit for other evaluated outcomes. Conclusion: Moderately ill patients hospitalized for COVID-19 with CRP between 40 mg/L and 100 mg/L derived the greatest benefit from treatment with therapeutic-dose heparin.

17.
BMJ Open ; 13(7): e072658, 2023 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37423626

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the experiences of people up to 18 months after being diagnosed with vaccine-induced immune thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (VITT). DESIGN: A semistructured qualitative study, conducted via Zoom, of a cohort of people with VITT. SETTING: Participants discussed their experiences of hospitalisation and following discharge. PARTICIPANTS: 14 individuals diagnosed with VITT, recruited via a Facebook support group and advertising on Twitter. RESULTS: Thematic analysis identified challenges of obtaining medical care and diagnosis; fear of the severity of symptoms and unclear prognosis; and lack of family support due to isolation imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Once home, participants experienced continued significant symptoms; fear of recurrence; inadequate medical knowledge of their condition; and difficulties coping with residual physical disabilities and psychosocial losses. Also reported were feelings of isolation and abandonment due to lack of government support. CONCLUSIONS: This is a significantly challenged group of people, with multiple health, financial, social and psychological losses. These losses have been compounded by experiences of limited governmental and societal recognition of the problems they face.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática , Trombocitopenia , Humanos , Pandemias , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Adaptação Psicológica
18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD015775, 2023 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37491597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The post-COVID-19 condition (PCC) consists of a wide array of symptoms including fatigue and impaired daily living. People seek a wide variety of approaches to help them recover. A new belief, arising from a few laboratory studies, is that 'microclots' cause the symptoms of PCC. This belief has been extended outside these studies, suggesting that to recover people need plasmapheresis (an expensive process where blood is filtered outside the body). We appraised the laboratory studies, and it was clear that the term 'microclots' is incorrect to describe the phenomenon being described. The particles are amyloid and include fibrin(ogen); amyloid is not a part of a thrombus which is a mix of fibrin mesh and platelets. Initial acute COVID-19 infection is associated with clotting abnormalities; this review concerns amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles in PCC only. We have reported here our appraisal of laboratory studies investigating the presence of amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles in PCC, and of evidence that plasmapheresis may be an effective therapy to remove amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles for treating PCC. OBJECTIVES: Laboratory studies review To summarize and appraise the research reports on amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles related to PCC. Randomized controlled trials review To assess the evidence of the safety and efficacy of plasmapheresis to remove amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles in individuals with PCC from randomized controlled trials. SEARCH METHODS: Laboratory studies review We searched for all relevant laboratory studies up to 27 October 2022 using a comprehensive search strategy which included the search terms 'COVID', 'amyloid', 'fibrin', 'fibrinogen'. Randomized controlled trials review We searched the following databases on 21 October 2022: Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register; MEDLINE (Ovid); Embase (Ovid); and BIOSIS Previews (Web of Science). We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov for trials in progress. SELECTION CRITERIA: Laboratory studies review Laboratory studies that investigate the presence of amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles in plasma samples from patients with PCC were eligible. This included studies with or without controls. Randomized controlled trials review Studies were eligible if they were of randomized controlled design and investigated the effectiveness or safety of plasmapheresis for removing amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles for treating PCC. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors applied study inclusion criteria to identify eligible studies and extracted data. Laboratory studies review We assessed the risk of bias of included studies using pre-developed methods for laboratory studies. We planned to perform synthesis without meta-analysis (SWiM) as described in our protocol. Randomized controlled trials review We planned that if we identified any eligible studies, we would assess risk of bias and report results with 95% confidence intervals. The primary outcome was recovery, measured using the Post-COVID-19 Functional Status Scale (absence of symptoms related to the illness, ability to do usual daily activities, and a return to a previous state of health and mind). MAIN RESULTS: Laboratory studies review We identified five laboratory studies. Amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles were identified in participants across all studies, including those with PCC, healthy individuals, and those with diabetes. The results of three studies were based on visual images of amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles, which did not quantify the amount or size of the particles identified. Formal risk of bias assessment showed concerns in how the studies were conducted and reported. This means the results were insufficient to support the belief that amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles are associated with PCC, or to determine whether there is a difference in the amount or size of amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles in the plasma of people with PCC compared to healthy controls. Randomized controlled trials review We identified no trials meeting our inclusion criteria. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of reliable research showing that amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles contribute to the pathophysiology of PCC, there is no rationale for plasmapheresis to remove amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles in PCC. Plasmapheresis for this indication should not be used outside the context of a well-conducted randomized controlled trial.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Fibrina/uso terapêutico , Plasmaferese
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