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1.
Surg Open Sci ; 19: 95-100, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38601734

RESUMO

Background: Frailty has been associated with worse postoperative outcomes. The 5-factor modified frailty index (mFI-5) is an objective measure although its validity in measuring frailty in patients undergoing ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for chronic ulcerative colitis (CUC) has not been reported. Methods: This study used the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) targeted proctectomy database. The mFI-5 was calculated by five preoperative diagnoses: insulin-dependent or noninsulin-dependent diabetes, congestive heart failure, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and dependent or partially dependent functional status. The impact of mFI-5 on minor and major postoperative morbidity in CUC patients undergoing IPAA was analyzed. Results: The cohort included 1454 patients (median age 38 years, median body mass index [BMI] 26 kg/m2) of which 87 % had a mFI-5 = 0, 11 % had a mFI-5 = 1, and 2.5 % a mFI-5 ≥ 2. In multivariable logistic regression, mFI-5 ≥ 2 was significantly associated with minor complications (OR = 2.29, 95 % CI [1.00-5.22], p = 0.049), but not with major complications (p = 0.860). Conclusion: IPAA for CUC is associated with high postoperative morbidity, however, the mFI-5 alone has limited utility in determining which patients are at a higher risk of complications due to frailty. These observations suggest there is a need for more relevant instruments to measure frailty in this patient cohort.

2.
J Pharm Bioallied Sci ; 16(Suppl 1): S757-S760, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38595385

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of child-friendly dentist attire and camouflage syringes on reducing dental anxiety in children. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 120 pediatric patients aged 6 to 12 years. Participants were assigned to one of three groups: group A (child-friendly dentist attire), group B (camouflage syringe), or group C (control group). Child preference for dentist attire was assessed using a visual analog scale, while dental anxiety was measured using the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale and the Facial Image Scale. Results: The results showed a significant decrease in dental anxiety scores in both group 2 and group 3 compared to group 1 (P < 0.001). Children in group A exhibited a higher preference for child-friendly dentist attire [mean score: 8.7, standard deviation (SD): 1.2] compared to group 1 (mean score: 3.2, SD: 1.5) (P < 0.001). Similarly, children in group 2 showed a higher preference for a camouflage syringe (mean score: 8.5, SD: 1.3) compared to group 1 (mean score: 3.4, SD: 1.6) (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Child-friendly dentist attire and camouflage syringes were found to be effective in reducing dental anxiety among pediatric patients. These interventions were well received by children and their parents, highlighting the importance of considering child preferences in dental settings.

3.
Saudi Med J ; 45(3): 252-260, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38438209

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence and dynamics of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, over a 5-year period, among Saudi women. METHODS: A 2-phase, population-based study combining cross-sectional and cohort designs was carried out with 5360 ever-married women aged 30-65 from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between 2013 and 2018. Participants were enrolled in a designated screening program and screened using the hybrid capture 2 HPV test. Women testing positive for HPV were followed up after one year to estimate the HPV clearance rate, while those testing negative had a follow-up after 5 years to assess new HPV infections. Factors associated with HPV positivity and clearance, including sociodemographic and clinical aspects, were analyzed. RESULTS: Participant's mean age was 44.3 and the average marriage duration was 22.6 years. The initial HPV prevalence was 4.7%. After one year, the HPV clearance rate among initially positive women was 84.3%. The rate of new HPV infections among initially negative women after 5 years was 0.2%, resulting in a cumulative HPV prevalence of 5% over the study period. The incidence rate was estimated at 47 per 100,000 person-years. Parity was the only independent factor inversely associated with HPV positivity, with an odds ratio of 0.93 (95% confidence interval: 0.8 - 0.99). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HPV in Saudi women was relatively low, suggesting a low transmission rate of HPV. This finding indicates the need for continuous monitoring and tailored prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Papillomavirus Humano , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência
4.
Qual Health Res ; : 10497323241234008, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38497200

RESUMO

Health professionals/clinicians interview people regularly as part of their role. However, a qualitative research interview differs considerably to a clinical interview. If clinicians approach qualitative research interviewing based on their expertise in clinical interviewing, it could cause insufficiencies in qualitative data generation. In this reflection article, we, a team of four experienced clinical occupational therapists with no previous experience in qualitative research interviewing, share our experiences while learning to become qualitative research interviewers before undertaking our first qualitative research project. We engaged in self-directed reading, formal training on qualitative interviewing, and practice interviews and used peer feedback and reflection to prepare ourselves to conduct qualitative interviews. We drew upon the work-role transitions theory to work through our adjustment to the new role. Although we set out to "switch hats" as the research topic itself was not clinical, interviewing people on health-related topics will mean bringing our clinical instincts into our research role, while still recognizing the difference between a clinical and research interview. This article can inform experienced clinicians/novice qualitative researchers as they develop this new skillset.

5.
Cureus ; 16(2): e54123, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38487160

RESUMO

Background Advances in pump technology and the availability of insulin analogs, as well as the results of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), which established the benefit of improved glycemic control, have all contributed to the increased use of insulin pump therapy in recent years, particularly in children. Purpose This research aims to compare the impact of insulin delivery method, i.e., continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) or multiple daily injections (MDI) on glycemic control and the rate of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. Methods  A retrospective cohort study was carried out in a diabetic center in Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia, over 24 months (2020-2022) among children with type I diabetes mellitus (age group 1-14 years). Results  In total, 351 patients with diabetes were induced, with 316 (90%) on MDI and 35 (10%) on CSII. After six months of diagnosis, precisely 38 (12%) of patients with diabetes on the MDI regimen experienced DKA, compared to 4 (11.4%) of those on the CSII regimen, with no statistically significant difference (P=0.918). At six months and nine months of follow-up, the average hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was considerably higher in diabetic patients on MDI (8.9 ± 1.7% vs. 8.2 ± 1.5% and 9.1 ± 1.6% vs. 8.0 ± 1.3%, respectively, with a significant p-value ≤0.05). Conclusion In this study, we found that patients on the MDI regimen had considerably higher HbA1c levels than patients on the CSII regimen, but there was no statistically significant difference in DKA rates between them. This is a short-term follow-up study, and we recommend that patients be followed for a longer period of time for further accurate outcomes.

6.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 12(3): e5662, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528849

RESUMO

The expression "pleomorphic adenoma" has been used synonymously with mixed cutaneous tumors and chondroid syringomas. It originates from eccrine or apocrine skin, salivary glands, and lacrimal glands. Histologically, it comprises an epithelial-lined glandular component embedded in the cartilaginous, myxomatous, or fibrous stroma. These lesions are usually misdiagnosed because they are extremely rare. It commonly affects middle-aged men and has a slow-growing nature. The usual manifestation is a firm nodular lesion in the periorbital region, particularly at eyelid margins. A unique presentation of this tumor was described in a young woman. The tumor presented as a small, static, nontender lump located at the junction of the superior margin of the left eyebrow and forehead. After a thorough clinical assessment, she underwent a complete surgical excision of the lesion. The most probable preoperative clinical impression at that time was that of a sebaceous cyst. However, histopathological examination revealed it to be a pleomorphic adenoma, which, to our knowledge, has never been reported in the literature at this specific anatomical site. Two years after the procedure, the patient's follow-up was uneventful, and revealed no recurrence of the lesion. Although its incidence is exceptionally low, it should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous lesions in the head, neck, and trunk. Complete surgical excision for histopathological assessment is recommended to rule out malignancy and avoid the frequent issue of local recurrence in cases of benign tumors.

7.
Cytokine ; 176: 156546, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359558

RESUMO

Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) continues to be a source of severe complications in immunologically immature and immunocompromised hosts. Effective CMV vaccines that help diminish CMV disease in transplant patients and avoid congenital infection are essential. Though the exact roles of defense mechanisms are unidentified, virus-specific antibodies and cytokine responses are known to be involved in controlling CMV infections. Identifying the CMV antigens that trigger these protective immune responses will help us choose the most suitable CMV-related proteins for future vaccines. CMV envelope glycoprotein B (UL55/gB), matrix proteins (UL83/pp65, UL99/pp28, UL32/pp150), and assembly protein UL80a/pp38 are known to be targets for antiviral immune responses. We immunized mice intraperitoneally with these five CMV-related proteins for their ability to induce specific antibody responses and cytokine production in a mouse model. We observed a significant CMV-antigen-specific antibody response to UL80a/pp38 and UL83/pp65 (E/C>2.0). Mice immunized with UL80a/pp38 had significantly higher concentrations of GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-17A (p<0.05). Mice immunized with UL83/pp65 showed significantly higher concentrations of GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-2 IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17A, and TNF-α. Ratios of Th1 to Th2 cytokines revealed a Th1 cytokine bias in mice immunized with UL80a/pp38, UL83/pp65, UL32/pp150, and UL55/gB. We suggest that stimulation with multiple CMV-related proteins, which include UL80a/pp38, UL83/pp65, UL32/pp150, and UL55/gB antigens, will allow both humoral and cellular immune responses to be efficiently activated, thus serving as appropriate CMV antigens for future novel vaccines and immune-based therapeutic design.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Vacinas contra Citomegalovirus , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Citomegalovirus , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos , Interleucina-17 , Citocinas , Interleucina-2 , Interleucina-4 , Proteínas da Matriz Viral , Antígenos Virais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Fosfoproteínas
8.
Cureus ; 16(1): e53059, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38410316

RESUMO

Healthcare workers (HCWs) are role models in their communities. If they receive the COVID-19 vaccine, many people are likely to follow and have the vaccine. If HCWs are hesitant or resistant to taking the vaccine, this may impede the efforts to implement the vaccine, reach herd immunity, and eliminate the pandemic. In this narrative review, we reviewed previous studies on hesitancy over COVID-19 vaccination among different healthcare professions and people in the medical field, such as primary HCWs, dentists, nurses, and medical students. We reviewed the common reasons and associated factors for hesitancy toward the COVID-19 vaccine among different healthcare professions. The following keywords were used in the database search: COVID-19 AND vaccine AND hesitancy AND healthcare workers. We searched for articles using the PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. We found HCW professions with various rates of hesitancy, including primary healthcare center (PHC) workers (50%), medical students (45%), nurses (21%), and dentists (18%). Hesitancy toward booster doses was also found in HCWs who had taken primary doses (2.8% to 26%). Race and ethnicity also influenced hesitancy rates, with Black individuals being the most hesitant group. The most common reasons were concerns about the safety and adverse effects of the vaccine, insufficient information, and a lack of confidence in healthcare policies. Despite varying rates of HCW hesitancy after the vaccine's release, this hesitancy is expected to negatively affect efforts to achieve widespread vaccination. The recommendations to policymakers to address these concerns are raising the awareness of PHC doctors because they are the easiest to reach and are the first line for patient information, improving communication with the HCWs through all channels (e.g., webinars, e-mails, and social media), and inviting HCWs to online meetings or workshops with the healthcare policymakers so the policymakers can listen to their concerns and recommendations. Correctly addressing the issue of HCWs' vaccination hesitancy can support efforts to contain the pandemic.

9.
Microorganisms ; 12(2)2024 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38399651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eukaryotes' whole-genome sequencing is crucial for species identification, gene detection, and protein annotation. Oxford Nanopore Technology (ONT) is an affordable and rapid platform for sequencing eukaryotes; however, the relatively higher error rates require computational and bioinformatic efforts to produce more accurate genome assemblies. Here, we evaluated the effect of read correction tools on eukaryote genome completeness, gene detection and protein annotation. METHODS: Reads generated by ONT of four eukaryotes, C. albicans, C. gattii, S. cerevisiae, and P. falciparum, were assembled using minimap2 and underwent three rounds of read correction using flye, medaka and racon. The generates consensus FASTA files were compared for total length (bp), genome completeness, gene detection, and protein-annotation by QUAST, BUSCO, BRAKER1 and InterProScan, respectively. RESULTS: Genome completeness was dependent on the assembly method rather than on the read correction tool; however, medaka performed better than flye and racon. Racon significantly performed better than flye and medaka in gene detection, while both racon and medaka significantly performed better than flye in protein-annotation. CONCLUSION: We show that three rounds of read correction significantly affect gene detection and protein annotation, which are dependent on assembly quality in preference to assembly completeness.

10.
Cureus ; 16(1): e51487, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38304673

RESUMO

Introduction A chronic diverse inflammatory disease, asthma affects millions of people worldwide. To control asthma, standardized care is essential. Children with asthma who receive appropriate care have lower emergency room (ER) visits and hospital stays as well as a higher quality of life than children who do not receive appropriate care. We aim to evaluate the predictive variables of hospitalization and ER visits in children with asthma. Methodology In 2022 and 2023, a cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on children with asthma and their caregivers who were attending primary health care clinics in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia. We used the Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT) to evaluate asthma control. A C-ACT score of less than 19 indicates uncontrolled childhood asthma. To investigate the relationships between the risk factors and the rate of ER visits and hospitalizations, we performed a multiple logistic descriptive analysis. Results In this study, 124 asthmatic children from primary health care centers matched the inclusion criteria. The majority of children had atopy, and their mean age was 10.8±3.4 years. Concerning the risk factors linked to ER visits and hospitalization, there is evidence that not following up with physicians, using more frequent and short-acting beta-agonists, exposure to smoke and household pets, and poor asthma control are linked to increased rates of both ER visits and hospitalizations. Conclusion Better asthma control in children and adolescents may be achieved by providing inexpensive asthma care services, more thorough parental and child education, and effective symptom management. These measures can help reduce exacerbations of asthma and the consequences that accompany them.

11.
Cureus ; 16(1): e52470, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38371162

RESUMO

Introduction The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has prompted research into various risk factors, including the role of body mass index (BMI) in disease severity. This study specifically examines the correlation between BMI and the severity of COVID-19 among intensive care unit (ICU) patients in Saudi Arabia, addressing a gap in region-specific data. The study aims to assess the impact of BMI on the severity of COVID-19 in a Saudi Arabian ICU patient cohort, providing insights into how this relationship varies in different demographic contexts. Materials and methods Employing a retrospective cohort design, the study analyzed data from adult ICU patients in Saudi Arabia diagnosed with COVID-19. It focused on variables like BMI at admission, demographic information, and COVID-19 outcomes including severity, recovery, and mortality. Statistical analysis involved regression models, adjusting for age, gender, and comorbidities. Results Unlike global observations, the study found no significant correlation between BMI and COVID-19 severity in the Saudi Arabian context. This suggests that in this specific demographic, other factors may be more critical in determining the severity of the disease. Conclusion Our findings challenge the global consensus on BMI as a key factor in COVID-19 severity, highlighting the importance of regional differences in disease dynamics. They underscore the need for localized healthcare strategies and further research into diverse demographic factors affecting COVID-19. This study contributes to a broader understanding of the pandemic and encourages region-specific approaches in both clinical and public health spheres.

12.
Cureus ; 16(2): e54344, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38371438

RESUMO

Background and objective Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) presents a complex epidemiological pattern influenced by demographic characteristics, risk factors such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, and smoking. Understanding the clinical profile and optimizing treatment strategies for NPC requires comprehensive analyses of these factors. In light of this, this study aimed to analyze the epidemiological patterns, histological characteristics, and treatment outcomes of NPC patients diagnosed and treated at a single center from 2016 to 2023. Materials and methods This retrospective study was conducted at Tawam Hospital in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), focusing on patients diagnosed with NPC. It involved the analysis of patient age distribution to identify epidemiological patterns, histological examination to classify NPC types according to WHO guidelines, and evaluation of treatment outcomes based on induction chemotherapy regimens and concurrent chemoradiotherapy protocols. The effectiveness of various chemotherapy combinations, particularly cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (Cis+5FU), was assessed alongside the integration of advanced radiotherapy techniques like intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Results In this study of 41 NPC patients, the age distribution varied widely, ranging from 10 to 74 years, with a mean age of >40 years. There was a significant male predominance (82.93%). Most patients were non-smokers (68.29%) and did not consume alcohol (92.68%), and there was a high prevalence of EBV positivity (100%). At diagnosis, 80.49% had no metastases. The primary treatment was chemotherapy induction, with a 73.17% uptake and a 92.68% completion rate, leading to a 65.85% complete response (CR) rate. No significant association was found between smoking status and treatment response (p=0.7657). Pathologically, non-keratinizing undifferentiated squamous carcinoma was the most common variant (75.61%). The Cis+5FU regimen was the most frequently employed method (56.67%), associated with a 76.47% CR rate. Concurrent chemotherapy was administered to 87.80% of patients, with the weekly Cis regimen being the most used one (56.09%), resulting in a significant CR rate. Combining radiation therapy with concurrent and induction chemotherapy yielded high CR rates (RT+cCT: 66.66%, RT+cCT+iCT: 80%). Survival analysis revealed the highest 36-month survival rate (46.43%) in the RT+cCT+iCT group, suggesting a potential benefit from incorporating induction chemotherapy into the treatment regimen. Conclusions This study illustrates the impact of demographic variables, EBV infection, and smoking on the development and treatment outcomes of NPC. It points to the success of customized chemotherapy and advanced radiotherapy strategies. Yet, it is limited by its retrospective nature and single-center focus, and hence we recommend multicentric studies to broaden the applicability of the results and improve NPC treatment approaches for varied patient groups.

13.
J Med Econ ; 27(1): 418-429, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38420695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study presents a budget impact analysis (BIA) conducted in Saudi Arabia, evaluating the cost implications of adopting semaglutide, tirzepatide, or dulaglutide in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. The analysis aims to assess the individual budgetary impact of these treatment options on healthcare budgets and provide insights for decision-makers. METHODS: A prevalence-based BIA was developed using real-world and clinical trials data. The model considered disease epidemiology, medication prices, diabetes management expenses, cardiovascular (CV) complications costs, and weight reduction savings over a 5-year time horizon. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (OWSA, PSA) were performed to assess the robustness of the results. RESULTS: Over a 5-year period, the cumulative budget impact for semaglutide, tirzepatide, and dulaglutide were 85,923,089 USD, 169,790,195 USD, and 94,558,356 USD, respectively. Hypothetical scenarios considering price parity between semaglutide and tirzepatide are associated with financial impacts of 85,923,091 USD and 86,475,335 USD, respectively. In the public sector, semaglutide showed the lowest incidence of 3-point major adverse CV events (3P-MACE), with tirzepatide leading in weight loss and HbA1c reduction, and dulaglutide presenting the highest 3P-MACE rates and least improvements in HbA1c and weight. A breakeven analysis suggested that tirzepatide's list price would need to be $199.91 lower than its current list price to achieve budget impact parity with semaglutide based on currently available evidence. Results from the OWSA suggested that risk reductions for CV events were key drivers of budget impact. PSA results were confirmatory of base-case analyses. CONCLUSIONS: CV cost-offsets and drug acquisition considerations may make semaglutide a favorable use of resources for Saudi budget planners and decision-makers. These results were robust to assumptions regarding the list price of tirzepatide.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Masculino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Arábia Saudita , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Antígeno Prostático Específico/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Redução de Peso , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1
14.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 11(1)2024 02 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38423954

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) and endobronchial valve (EBV) placement can produce substantial benefits in appropriately selected people with emphysema. The UK Lung Volume Reduction (UKLVR) registry is a national multicentre observational study set up to support quality standards and assess outcomes from LVR procedures at specialist centres across the UK. METHODS: Data were analysed for all patients undergoing an LVR procedure (LVRS/EBV) who were recruited into the study at participating centres between January 2017 and June 2022, including; disease severity and risk assessment, compliance with guidelines for selection, procedural complications and survival to February 2023. RESULTS: Data on 541 patients from 14 participating centres were analysed. Baseline disease severity was similar in patients who had surgery n=244 (44.9%), or EBV placement n=219 (40.9%), for example, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) 32.1 (12.1)% vs 31.2 (11.6)%. 89% of cases had discussion at a multidisciplinary meeting recorded. Median (IQR) length of stay postprocedure for LVRS and EBVs was 12 (13) vs 4 (4) days(p=0.01). Increasing age, male gender and lower FEV1%predicted were associated with mortality risk, but survival did not differ between the two procedures, with 50 (10.8%) deaths during follow-up in the LVRS group vs 45 (9.7%) following EBVs (adjusted HR 1.10 (95% CI 0.72 to 1.67) p=0.661) CONCLUSION: Based on data entered in the UKLVR registry, LVRS and EBV procedures for emphysema are being performed in people with similar disease severity and long-term survival is similar in both groups.


Assuntos
Enfisema , Enfisema Pulmonar , Humanos , Masculino , Pulmão/cirurgia , Pneumonectomia/efeitos adversos , Pneumonectomia/métodos , Enfisema Pulmonar/cirurgia , Sistema de Registros , Reino Unido , Feminino
15.
Cureus ; 16(1): e52766, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38389619

RESUMO

Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted the development of novel medical interventions, including tracheostomy, a surgical procedure for a direct airway. This study investigates the intricacies of managing critically ill patients in the ICU, focusing on its debated utility in the global crisis. Methods The study assessed the impact of tracheostomy on COVID-19 patients at Al-Ahsa Hospital, Saudi Arabia, using a retrospective cohort design and data from electronic health records and databases. It aimed to provide insights into treatment outcomes and practices. Results The findings of this study shed light on the significant impact of tracheostomy on the course of ICU treatment for COVID-19 patients. Total number of participants were 1389. The study cohort consisted of predominantly non-pregnant individuals with an average body mass index reflective of the regional population. Among the COVID-19 patients, only a small percentage, 63 (4.5%), required tracheostomy, while the majority, 1326 (95.5%), did not undergo this procedure. Analysis of ICU outcomes revealed that a substantial proportion of patients, 223 (16.1%), achieved total cure, while the remaining patients did not. After a 28-day ICU stay, the majority of individuals, 1287 (92.7%), were discharged, while a smaller percentage remained in the ICU, with 77 (5.5%) still requiring mechanical ventilation. Notably, patients who underwent tracheostomy had a significantly longer ICU stay compared to those who did not, with an average of 59 days versus 19 days, respectively. Furthermore, the study found that tracheostomy did not significantly impact ICU discharge outcomes, including death, discharge home, and transfer to another facility. However, it did influence hospital discharge outcomes, with lower mortality rates and a higher rate of transfer to another facility among patients who underwent tracheostomy. These results provide valuable insights into the management and outcomes of critically ill COVID-19 patients in the ICU, particularly in relation to the use of tracheostomy as a treatment intervention. Conclusion The study highlights the dual benefits of tracheostomy in COVID-19 care, extending hospital stays but not increasing ICU discharge rates, emphasizing the need for tailored clinical strategies.

16.
Cureus ; 16(1): e51995, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38344542

RESUMO

Introduction Overcrowding in emergency departments (EDs) is still a national and international issue. Among the variables contributing to this crisis are an increase in patient numbers and the severity of sickness. One significant issue that has not yet been addressed and is burdening healthcare facilities is the use of EDs by parents of children who have mild illnesses. Developing successful interventions requires an understanding of the factors that lead to nonurgent visits to pediatric EDs (PEDs). Our objective was to assess the variables that could influence parental visits to PEDs. Methodology In the Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia, between September and November 2023, a descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among parents who had previously visited a PED. The survey had 21 questions. Along with parental viewpoints and healthcare utilization, parents' evaluations of their child's emergency state were investigated. In addition to gathering and evaluating demographic data, the survey evaluated respondents' impressions of the severity of a disease or injury. Results A total of 776 participants were included in the study. The mean parental age was 32.1 ± 12.7 years, and approximately 32.1% of the participants' children were between the ages of 1 and 5. Nearly half of the children, 44.7%, visited the ED during the evening shift. The most common reasons for presenting were fever (50.5%) and upper respiratory tract symptoms (37.1%). Among these visits, parents perceived 48.5% as nonurgent and 30.2% as urgent. The majority of respondents (54.9%) had received advice before going to the ED. In most cases (47.9%), this was from a relative or a healthcare provider (16.7%). Conclusion This analysis identified some of the reasons parents bring their children to the ED for mild illnesses. The results emphasized the varied nature of the problem. Understanding the reasons for parental ED visits may help us better design targeted interventions to decrease unnecessary visits and lessen the burden on healthcare systems.

17.
Cureus ; 16(2): e54043, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38348206

RESUMO

The dysmorphic facies, renal agenesis, ambiguous genitalia, microcephaly, polydactyly, and lissencephaly (DREAM-PL) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by dysmorphic facies, renal agenesis, ambiguous genitalia in males, microcephaly, polydactyly, and lissencephaly. The CTU2 gene, which encodes a protein involved in the post-transcriptional modification of tRNAs is the source of the syndrome's mutation. Several developmental abnormalities can result from a disruption of this modification, which is necessary for the proper translation of genes. The severity of the symptoms of DREAM-PL syndrome can range from moderate to severe, and its clinical characteristics are quite diverse. Some patients might have some of the distinguishing characteristics, whereas others might have all of them. The most typical characteristics include ambiguous genitalia, dysmorphic facies, and microcephaly. DREAM-PL syndrome is diagnosed based on clinical signs and genetic testing which can show mutations in the CTU2 gene. Although there is no known cure for this syndrome, the treatment aims to manage the symptoms. Other lines of treatment like surgical correction of birth defects can sometimes be beneficial to these patients in addition to supportive care. This study is a report of a 37-week-old male neonate, delivered by lower segment cesarean section. The baby's birth weight is 2.760 kg with a heterozygous confirmed pathogenic mutation of the CTU2 gene confirmed by whole-exome sequencing.

18.
Health Sci Rep ; 7(2): e1863, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317674

RESUMO

Recurring Listeria outbreaks in the United States is a growing public healthcare concern. Although no associated reported death, 17 were hospitalized out of the 18 reported illnesses in the recent outbreak in 15 US states. The United States has experienced about 30 Listeria outbreaks in the last decade with 524 Listeriosis cases and 80 deaths. The identified origin were ice cream, leafy greens, mushroom, meat slice, dairy products like cheese, packaged salads, cooked chicken, hard-boiled egg, pork product, frozen vegetable, raw milk, packaged caramel apple, bean sprout and soya products. Although rare, Listeria may lead to serious illness (invasive listeriosis) or death. Listeriosis is critically harmful and medically complicated, especially in the pregnant, the old above 65 years and in the immunocompromised. It could cause premature birth, miscarriage or even neonatal death. Hospitalization is often necessary in the geriatric, being fatal at times. Among Listeria sp., Listeria monocytogenes is often human infection-associated. It is a gram-positive, non-sporulating, motile bacillus opportunistic pathogen. Food-borne listeriosis is often associated with frozen foods due to its ability to thrive at low temperatures. Hypervirulent strains of L. monocytogenes with an ability to infect the respiratory system (the lungs) was recently reported in the coronavirus disease-19 patients during the pandemic. L. monocytogenes seemed to have developed antimicrobial resistance to ciprofloxacin and meropenem, possibly acquired through the food chain. An early onset of listeriosis in the newborn is evident in the first 7 days postparturition. As the bacteria colonize the genitourinary tract, majority of such cases result from teratogenic transfer during vaginal delivery. Premature newborns, neonates born outside healthcare facilities and low-birth-weight babies were increasingly predisposed to an early onset of listeriosis. Listeria outbreaks were earlier reported in South Africa, Australia and Europe, with an unclear origin of the outbreaks. Social media updates about such outbreaks, the most likely food source, and measures to self-protect are suggested as preventive measures. The article deals on various such aspects related to listeriosis primarily originating from food, to ensure better public healthcare and human wellness.

19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 147, 2024 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38167533

RESUMO

Utilizing nonlinear evolution equations (NEEs) is common practice to establish the fundamental assumptions underlying natural phenomena. This paper examines the weakly dispersed non-linear waves in mathematical physics represented by the Konopelchenko-Dubrovsky (KD) equations. The [Formula: see text]-expansion method is used to analyze the model under consideration. Using symbolic computations, the [Formula: see text]-expansion method is used to produce solitary waves and soliton solutions to the [Formula: see text]-dimensional KD model in terms of trigonometric, hyperbolic, and rational functions. Mathematica simulations are displayed using two, three, and density plots to demonstrate the obtained solitary wave solutions' behavior. These proposed solutions have not been documented in the existing literature.

20.
Cancers (Basel) ; 16(2)2024 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38254902

RESUMO

Weight loss is a significant health problem among patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) that is attributable primarily to the tumor or tumor therapy. Critical weight loss (CWL) is defined as the unintentional loss of ≥5% of weight. Therefore, this study's goal was to investigate and determine the possible factors influencing CWL among patients with HNC who have received radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). We conducted a retrospective analysis of 175 patients who received radiotherapy or CCRT as either their primary, adjuvant, or combined treatment at the Oncology Center in King Abdullah Medical City. All patients were ≥18 years of age and diagnosed with HNC with no metastasis. The study results showed that 107 patients (61%) had CWL, while 68 (39%) did not. The following factors were significantly predictive of CWL with a multivariate regression analysis: pretreatment BMI (AOR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.02-1.17), oral cavity cancer (AOR = 10.36, 95% CI = 1.13-94.55), and male sex (AOR = 3.15, 95% CI = 1.39-7.11). In conclusion, weight loss is highly prevalent among HNC patients during treatment. Accordingly, pretreatment BMI, cancer in the oral cavity, and being male can be considered predictive factors for CWL.

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