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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254010, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345561

RESUMO

Abstract The impact of fish oil concentration on the oxidative stability of microcapsules through the spray drying process using chitosan and maltodextrin as wall material was studied. Emulsions were prepared with different Tuna fish oil (TFO) content (TFO-10%, TFO20%, TF030% TF0-40%) while wall material concentration was kept constant. Microencapsulated powder resulting from emulsion prepared with high fish oil load have high moisture content, wettability, total oil and low encapsulation efficiency, hygroscopicity and bulk tapped density. Oxidative stability was evaluated periodically by placing microcapsules at room temperature. Microcapsules prepared with TFO-10% presented high oxidative stability in terms of peroxide value (2.94±0.04) and anisidine value (1.54±0.02) after 30 days of storage. It was concluded that optimal amounts of fish oil for microencapsulation are 10% and 20% using chitosan and maltodextrin that extended its shelf life during study period.


Resumo Foi estudado o impacto da concentração de óleo de peixe na estabilidade oxidativa de microcápsulas por meio do processo de secagem por atomização, utilizando quitosana e maltodextrina como material de parede. As emulsões foram preparadas com diferentes teores de óleo de atum (TFO) (TFO-10%, TFO20%, TF030% TF0-40%), enquanto a concentração de material de parede foi mantida constante. O pó microencapsulado resultante da emulsão preparada com alta carga de óleo de peixe tem alto teor de umidade, molhabilidade e óleo total e baixa eficiência de encapsulação, higroscopicidade e densidade extraída a granel. A estabilidade oxidativa foi avaliada periodicamente colocando microcápsulas à temperatura ambiente. As microcápsulas preparadas com TFO-10% apresentaram alta estabilidade oxidativa em termos de valor de peróxido (2,94 ± 0,04) e valor de anisidina (1,54 ± 0,02) após 30 dias de armazenamento. Concluiu-se que as quantidades ideais de óleo de peixe para microencapsulação são de 10% e 20% usando quitosana e maltodextrina que prolongaram sua vida útil durante o período de estudo.


Assuntos
Animais , Óleos de Peixe , Quitosana , Pós , Atum , Estresse Oxidativo
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254251, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350307

RESUMO

Abstract Blood and fecal samples of chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar), albino pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera), rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) were analyzed to check parasitic prevalence. To record parasites these five avian species were placed kept in separate cages at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife an Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. 100 fecal and 100 blood samples for each bird species were inspected to analyze internal parasites. During present study, 17 species of endoparasites 14 from fecal samples and three from blood were examined. Two species of ectoparasites i.e. mite Dermanyssus gallinae 42% and fowl ticks Args persicus 41%were studied. Blood parasites included Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond having parasitic prevalence 40%, and Aegyptinella pullorum having parasitic prevalence of 40%. Parasitic species recorded from fecal samples included 6 species of nematodes viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%. Syngamus trachea with parasitic prevalence of 60%, Capillaria annulata 37.5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% and Heterakis gallinarum 28.3%. Similarly, two species of trematodes viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus having parasitic prevalence of 50% and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% were also documented from fecal avian samples . Single cestode species Raillietina echinobothrida having parasitic prevalence of 72% and 3 protozoan species i.e. Eimeria maxima having parasitic prevalence of 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% and Histomonas meleagridis 18% were documented during corpological analysis. In our recommendation, proper sanitation, medication and vaccination of bird's enclousres are suggested to avoid parasites.


RESUMO Amostras de sangue e fezes de perdiz chukar (Alectoris chukar), faisão-albino (Phasianus colchicus), faisão-prateado (Lophura nycthemera), periquito-de-rosa (Psittacula krameri) e perus (Meleagris gallopavo) foram analisadas para verificar a prevalência de parasitas. Para registrar os parasitas, essas cinco espécies de aves foram colocadas em gaiolas separadas no Centro de Conservação e Pesquisa de Aves, Departamento de Vida Selvagem e Ecologia, Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, Lahore, Paquistão. Cem amostras fecais e 100 amostras de sangue para cada espécie de ave foram inspecionadas para analisar os parasitas internos. Durante o presente estudo, foram examinadas 17 espécies de endoparasitas, 14 de amostras fecais e 3 de sangue. Foram estudadas duas espécies de ectoparasitas, ou seja, o ácaro Dermanyssus gallinae 42% e o carrapato aviário Args persicus 41%. Os parasitas sanguíneos incluíram Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond com prevalência parasitária de 40% e Aegyptinella pullorum com prevalência parasitária de 40%. As espécies parasitas registradas em amostras fecais incluíram 6 espécies de nematoides viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%, Syngamus traqueia com prevalência parasitária de 60%, Capillaria annulata 37,5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% e Heterakis gallinarum 28,3%. Da mesma forma, duas espécies de trematódeos viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus com prevalência parasitária de 50% e Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% também foram documentados em amostras fecais de aves. Espécies de cestoide único Raillietina echinobothrida com prevalência parasitária de 72% e 3 espécies de protozoários, isto é, Eimeria maxima com prevalência parasitária de 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% e Histomonas meleagridis 18% foram documentadas durante a análise corpológica. Em nossa recomendação, o saneamento adequado, medicação e vacinação de invólucros de pássaros são sugeridos para evitar parasitas.


Assuntos
Animais , Parasitos , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Galliformes , Prevalência , Animais Selvagens
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254253, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350308

RESUMO

Abstract During the present study, specimens were collected from selected sites of Cholistan desert and Kalabagh Game Reserve, Punjab province, Pakistan. Each captured specimen was tagged with voucher number and morphometric measurements were taken. The average snout to vent length was 172.559±1.40 mm and average weight was 92.1±1.30 g. The DNA of Uromastyx hardwickii was amplified and sequenced using 16S rRNA primer set. The obtained DNA sequence has shown reliable and clear species identification. After trimming ambiguous bases, the obtained 16S rRNA fragment was 520 bp while 16S rRNA fragments aligned with closely matched sequence from NCBI comprised of 510 bp. Closely matched sequences of genus Uromastyx were retrieved from NCBI in blast searches. Neighbour-joining tree of genus Uromastyx was constructed based on p-distance using MEGA X. The mean intraspecific variation was 0.095±0.01 while intraspecific variation was ranging from 0-1%. Similarly, interspecific variation of Uromastyx hardwikii with Saara asmussi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti, Uromastyx geyri, Uromastyx thomasi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti was 0-12%, 0-19%, 0-19%, 0-20%, 12-19% respectively. The newly produced DNA was submitted to NCBI and accession number was obtained (MW052563.1). Results of current study provided information about the molecular and morphological identification of Genus Uromastyx. In our recommendation, comprehensive molecular based identification of Pakistan's reptiles is required to report any new or subspecies from country.


Resumo Durante o presente estudo, os espécimes foram coletados em locais selecionados do deserto do Cholistan e da Reserva de Caça de Kalabagh, província de Punjab, Paquistão. Cada espécime capturado foi etiquetado com o número do comprovante e medidas morfométricas foram realizadas. O comprimento médio do focinho à cloaca foi de 172,559 ± 1,40 mm, e o peso médio foi de 92,1 ± 1,30 g. O DNA de Uromastyx hardwickii foi amplificado e sequenciado usando o conjunto de primer 16S rRNA. A sequência de DNA obtida mostrou identificação de espécies confiável e clara. Após o corte de bases ambíguas, o fragmento de rRNA 16S obtido tinha 520 pb, enquanto os fragmentos de rRNA 16S alinhados com a sequência próxima do NCBI composta por 510 pb. Sequências semelhantes do gênero Uromastyx foram recuperadas do NCBI em pesquisas de explosão. A árvore de união de vizinhos do gênero Uromastyx foi construída com base na distância-p usando MEGA X. A variação intraespecífica média foi de 0,095 ± 0,01, enquanto a variação intraespecífica foi de 0-1%. Da mesma forma, a variação interespecífica de Uromastyx hardwikii com Saara asmussi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti, Uromastyx geyri, Uromastyx thomasi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti foi de 0-12%, 0-19%, 0-19%, 0-20%, 12-19%, respectivamente. O DNA recém-produzido foi submetido ao NCBI e o número de acesso foi obtido (MW052563.1). Os resultados do estudo atual forneceram informações sobre a identificação molecular e morfológica do Gênero Uromastyx. Em nossa recomendação, a identificação de base molecular abrangente de répteis do Paquistão é necessária para relatar qualquer nova ou subespécie do país.


Assuntos
Animais , Lagartos , Paquistão , Filogenia , Variação Genética/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252735, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355873

RESUMO

Abstract Growth of plants is severely reduced due to water stress by affecting photosynthesis including photosystem II (PSII) activity and electron transport. This study emphasised on comparative and priority targeted changes in PSII activity due to progressive drought in seven populations of Panicum antidotale (P. antidotale) collected from Cholistan Desert and non-Cholistan regions. Tillers of equal growth of seven populations of P. antidotale grown in plastic pots filled with soil were subjected progressive drought by withholding water irrigation for three weeks. Progressive drought reduced the soil moisture content, leaf relative water content, photosynthetic pigments and fresh and dry biomass of shoots in all seven populations. Populations from Dingarh Fort, Dingarh Grassland and Haiderwali had higher growth than those of other populations. Cholistani populations especially in Dingarh Grassland and Haiderwali had greater ability of osmotic adjustment as reflected by osmotic potential and greater accumulation of total soluble proteins. Maximum H2O2 under water stress was observed in populations from Muzaffargarh and Khanewal but these were intermediate in MDA content. Under water stress, populations from Muzaffargarh and Dingarh Fort had greater K+ accumulation in their leaves. During progressive drought, non-Cholistani populations showed complete leaf rolling after 23 days of drought, and these populations could not withstand with more water stress condition while Cholistani populations tolerated more water stress condition for 31 days. Moreover, progressive drought caused PSII damages after 19 days and it became severe after 23 days in non-Cholistani populations of P. antidotale than in Cholistani populations.


Resumo O crescimento das plantas é severamente reduzido devido ao estresse hídrico, afetando a fotossíntese, incluindo a atividade do fotossistema II (PSII) e o transporte de elétrons. Este estudo enfatizou as mudanças comparativas e prioritárias na atividade do PSII devido à seca progressiva em sete populações de Panicum antidotale (P. antidotale) coletadas no Deserto do Cholistão e regiões fora do Cholistão. Perfilhos de igual crescimento de sete populações de P. antidotale cultivadas em vasos de plástico cheios de solo foram submetidos à seca progressiva, retendo a irrigação com água por três semanas. A seca progressiva reduziu o teor de umidade do solo, teor de água relativo nas folhas, pigmentos fotossintéticos e biomassa fresca e seca dos brotos em todas as sete populações. Populações de Dingarh Fort, Dingarh Grassland e Haiderwali tiveram maior crescimento do que as de outras populações. As populações de Cholistani, especialmente em Dingarh Grassland e Haiderwali, apresentaram maior capacidade de ajuste osmótico, refletido pelo potencial osmótico e maior acúmulo de proteínas solúveis totais. H2O2 máximo sob estresse hídrico foi observado em populações de Muzaffargarh e Khanewal, mas estas foram intermediárias no conteúdo de MDA. Sob estresse hídrico, as populações de Muzaffargarh e Dingarh Fort tiveram maior acúmulo de K+ em suas folhas. Durante a seca progressiva, as populações não cholistanesas mostraram rolagem completa das folhas após 23 dias de seca, e essas populações não conseguiram suportar mais condições de estresse hídrico, enquanto as populações cholistani toleraram mais condições de estresse hídrico por 31 dias. Além disso, a seca progressiva causou danos ao PSII após 19 dias e tornou-se severa após 23 dias em populações não cholistanesas de P. antidotale do que em populações cholistanesas.


Assuntos
Panicum , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta , Dessecação , Secas , Peróxido de Hidrogênio
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247190, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345532

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential and inhibitory effect ofCannabis sativa and Morus nigra against lipid peroxidation in goat brain and liver homogenates. The formation of free radicals, highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is a normal metabolic process for cellular signaling and countering the antigens. However, they may cause serious damage if they produced at amplified tolls. In addition, metabolic disorders also serve as sources of these reactive species. Although the issue can be addressed through supplements and other phytochemicals. In this study, two plant species were evaluated for their biological potential by employing a spectrum of antioxidant assays. The antioxidant activity was performed by lipid peroxidation assay. The water extract prepared from leaves of Cannabis sativa and Morus nigra showed significant (P<0.05) inhibition as compared to control i.e., 522.6±0.06 and 659.97±0.03 µg/mL against iron-induced lipid peroxidation in goat brain homogenate while the inhibitions were 273.54±0.04 and 309.18±0.05 µg/mL against nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation of the brain. The iron and nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also significantly inhibited by leaf extracts of Cannabis sativa and Morus nigra in liver homogenates such as 230.63±0.52 and 326.91±0.01 µg/mL (iron-induced) while 300.47±0.07 and 300.47±0.07 µg/mL (nitroprusside induced), respectively. The extracts of Cannabis sativa extract showed promising activity (96.04±0.060%) against DPPH radicals while Morus nigra showed a moderate activity (34.11±0.120%). The results suggest that different accessions ofCannabis sativa and Morus nigra are a potential source of antioxidants and have a therapeutic effect against disease induced by oxidative stress and hence can be used for novel drug discovery and development.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antioxidante e o efeito inibitório de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra contra a peroxidação lipídica em homogenatos de cérebro e fígado de cabras. A formação de radicais livres, espécies altamente reativas de oxigênio (ROS) e espécies reativas de nitrogênio (RNS), é um processo metabólico normal para sinalização celular e combate aos antígenos. No entanto, eles podem causar sérios danos se forem produzidos em portagens ampliadas. Além disso, distúrbios metabólicos também servem como fontes dessas espécies reativas, embora o problema possa ser resolvido por meio de suplementos e outros fitoquímicos. Neste estudo, duas espécies de plantas foram avaliadas quanto ao seu potencial biológico, empregando um espectro de ensaios antioxidantes. A atividade antioxidante foi realizada por ensaio de peroxidação lipídica. O extrato de água preparado a partir de folhas de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra mostrou inibição significativa (P < 0,05) em comparação com o controle, ou seja, 522,6 ± 0,06 e 659,97 ± 0,03 µg / mL contra peroxidação lipídica induzida por ferro em homogenato de cérebro de cabra, enquanto as inibições foram 273,54 ± 0,04 e 309,18 ± 0,05 µg / mL contra a peroxidação lipídica do cérebro induzida por nitroprussiato. A peroxidação lipídica induzida por ferro e nitroprussiato também foi significativamente inibida por extratos de folhas de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra em homogenatos de fígado, como 230,63 ± 0,52 e 326,91 ± 0,01 µg / mL (induzida por ferro), enquanto 300,47 ± 0,07 e 300,47 ± 0,07 µg / mL (induzida por nitroprussiato), respectivamente. Os extratos do extrato de Cannabis sativa apresentaram atividade promissora (96,04 ± 0,060%) contra os radicais DPPH enquanto Morus nigra apresentou atividade moderada (34,11 ± 0,120%). Os resultados sugerem que diferentes acessos de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra são uma fonte potencial de antioxidantes e têm efeito terapêutico contra doenças induzidas por estresse oxidativo e, portanto, podem ser usados ​​para a descoberta e desenvolvimento de novos medicamentos.


Assuntos
Animais , Cannabis , Morus , Encéfalo , Cabras , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Fígado , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249159, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339415

RESUMO

Abstract There is a paucity of research conducted on microbial prevalence in pheasants. The microbiota of captive birds has zoonotic significance and must be characterize. Present study is therefore planned to assess the microbiota from oral, fecal and gut content of captive avian species. It will be helpful in characterization of harmful microbes. Different samples taken from oral, gut and feces of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), green pheasants (Phasianus versicolor), golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera). Samples were collected, diluted, and inoculated onto different agar plates (MacConkey, SS agar, MSA and nutrient agar) for cultivation of bacterial species. Colonies of E.coli, Staphylococcus spp. Brachyspira spp. and Campylobacter spp were observed based on colony morphology. Colony forming unit showed E. coli as frequently found bacteria in fecal, oral and gut contents of all the above pheasants. The overall significance difference was found among bacterial species of golden pheasants, green pheasant, ring-necked pheasant, and silver pheasants. It was concluded that E.coli is predominant isolated from heathy pheasants followed by Campylobacter, Staphylococcus and Brachyspira.


Resumo Há uma escassez de pesquisas realizadas sobre a prevalência microbiana em faisões. A microbiota de aves em cativeiro tem significado zoonótico e deve ser caracterizada. O presente estudo está, portanto, planejado para avaliar a microbiota do conteúdo oral, fecal e intestinal de espécies aviárias em cativeiro. Será útil na caracterização de micróbios nocivos. Diferentes amostras retiradas da boca, intestino e fezes de faisões de pescoço redondo (Phasianus colchicus), faisões verdes (Phasianus versicolor), faisões dourados (Chrysolophus pictus) e faisão prateado (Lophura nycthemera). As amostras foram coletadas, diluídas e inoculadas em diferentes placas de ágar (MacConkey, ágar SS, MSA e ágar nutriente) para o cultivo de espécies bacterianas. Colônias de E. coli, Staphylococcus spp., Brachyspira spp. e Campylobacter spp foram observados com base na morfologia da colônia. A unidade formadora de colônia mostrou E. coli como bactéria frequentemente encontrada no conteúdo fecal, oral e intestinal de todos os faisões acima. A diferença de significância geral foi encontrada entre as espécies bacterianas de faisões dourados, faisões verdes, faisões de pescoço anelado e faisões prateados. Verificou-se que a E.coli é predominantemente isolada de faisões saudáveis, seguida por Campylobacter, Staphylococcus e Brachyspira.


Assuntos
Animais , Galliformes , Escherichia coli , Fezes
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247915, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339396

RESUMO

Abstract Wildlife trade is a profitable economic activity. Birds are among the most heavily traded animals worldwide, with numerous species threatened by pet trade. The present case study was stretched for period of one year to find out the status of wild birds' trade in Bannu and Dera Ismael Khan Divisions. The study was aimed to find out the types of species, commercial prices of bird, trade routes, overall income generated from birds' trade and the status of dealers whether licensed or not. Bimonthly visits were conducted to interview 52 bird dealers/pet shops owners/venders (23 in Dera Ismael Khan and 29 in Bannu). A sum of 16 conceivable sites were visited during the study period. Out of these, 8 sites were located in Dera Ismael Khan and 8 sites in Bannu Division. The highest priced species was Demoiselle crane (Grus virgo) and the lowest priced species was house sparrow (Passer domesticus). Total number of species traded in both regions were 8 and 14 while the income generated by bird trade was amounting to PkR 1,322,200 and 7,128,950 in Dera Ismael Khan and Bannu respectively. Majority of the birds were trapped locally with the exception of few from adjacent areas. Commercial activity led by illegal bird traders was found 75% and 100% species in Dera Ismael Khan and Bannu respectively. There was no significant difference between prices of birds, number of species sold and income generated by bird trade in two divisions.


Resumo O comércio de animais selvagens é uma atividade econômica lucrativa. Os pássaros estão entre os animais mais comercializados em todo o mundo, com inúmeras espécies ameaçadas pelo comércio de animais de estimação. O presente estudo de caso foi estendido por um período de um ano para descobrir a situação do comércio de aves selvagens nas Divisões Bannu e Dera Ismael Khan. O estudo teve como objetivo descobrir os tipos de espécies, os preços comerciais das aves, as rotas comerciais, a receita geral gerada pelo comércio de aves e o status dos negociantes, licenciados ou não. Visitas bimestrais foram realizadas para entrevistar 52 comerciantes de pássaros / proprietários / vendedores de pet shops (23 em Dera Ismael Khan e 29 em Bannu). Uma soma de 16 locais concebíveis foram visitados durante o período de estudo. Destes, 8 sites estavam localizados em Dera Ismael Khan e 8 sites na Divisão Bannu. A espécie com preço mais alto foi o guindaste Demoiselle (Grus virgo) e a espécie com preço mais baixo foi o pardal (Passer domesticus). O número total de espécies comercializadas em ambas as regiões foi de 8 e 14, enquanto a receita gerada pelo comércio de aves foi de PkR 1.322.200 e 7.128.950 em Dera Ismael Khan e Bannu, respectivamente. A maioria das aves foi capturada localmente, com exceção de algumas das áreas adjacentes. A atividade comercial liderada por comerciantes ilegais de aves foi encontrada com 75% e 100% de espécies em Dera Ismael Khan e Bannu, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa entre os preços das aves, o número de espécies vendidas e a receita gerada pelo comércio de aves nas duas divisões.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves , Animais Selvagens , Paquistão
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247181, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339388

RESUMO

Abstract The protozoans include many intracellular human pathogens. Accurate detection of these pathogens is necessary to treat the diseases. In clinical epidemiology, molecular identification of protozoan is considered a more reliable and rapid method for identification than microscopy. Among these protozoans, Cryptosporidium considered being one of the important water-borne zoonotic pathogens and a major cause of a diarrheal disease named cryptosporidiosis in humans, domestic animals, and wild animals. This study was aimed to identify Cryptosporidium in zoo felids (N= 56) belonging to different zoo of China, but accidentlly Colpodella was encountered in the zoo felids sample and phylogenetic data confirmed this unexpected amplification from fecal samples using two-step nested-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the fact about the specific primers used previously by many researchers and cross-genera amplification. We came to know that genetically sequenced amplicon gives more accurate identification of species. This study suggests more investigation on Colpodella which has been neglected previously but gains the attention of researchers after identified from humans and animals and has been known to correlate with neurological symptoms in patients.


Resumo Os protozoários incluem muitos patógenos humanos intracelulares. A detecção acurada desses patógenos é necessária para tratar as doenças. Na epidemiologia clínica, a identificação molecular de protozoários é considerada o método de identificação mais confiável e rápido do que a microscopia. Entre esses protozoários, o Cryptosporidium é considerado um dos importantes patógenos zoonóticos transmitidos pela água e uma das principais causas de uma doença diarreica denominada criptosporidiose em humanos, animais domésticos e selvagens. Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar Cryptosporidium em zoofelídeos (N = 56) pertencentes a diferentes zoológicos da China, mas acidentalmente Colpodella foi encontrada na amostra de zoofelídeos e os dados filogenéticos confirmaram essa amplificação inesperada de amostras fecais usando nested-PCR em duas etapas. A análise filogenética revelou o fato sobre os primers específicos usados ​​anteriormente por muitos pesquisadores e a amplificação entre gêneros. Ficamos sabendo que o amplicon sequenciado geneticamente fornece uma identificação mais acurada das espécies. Este estudo sugere mais investigação sobre Colpodella, que foi negligenciada anteriormente, mas ganha a atenção dos pesquisadores depois de identificada em humanos e animais e é conhecida por se correlacionar com sintomas neurológicos em pacientes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Filogenia , China , Fezes , Genótipo
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248122, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355851

RESUMO

Abstract Being vector of West Nile Virus and falariasis the control of Culex quinquefasciatus is likely to be essential. Synthetic insecticide treatment is looking most effective for vectors mosquito control. However, these products are toxic to the environment and non-target organisms. Consequently, ecofriendly control of vectors mosquito is needed. In this regard botanical insecticide is looking more fruitful. Therefore, the present research aimed to investigate the effectiveness of methanolic extract and various fractions, including, n-hexane, ethyl-acetate, chloroform, and aqueous fraction, obtained from methanolic extract of Ailanthus altissima, Artemisia scoparia, and Justicia adhatoda using separating funnel against larval, pupal, and adult stages of Culex quinquefasciatus. The larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations (31.25-1000 ppm) of methanolic extract and its fractions for 24 hours of exposure period. For knock-down bioassay (filter paper impregnation bioassay) different concentration of the methanolic extract and its various fractions (i.e. 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1mg/mL) were applied for 1 hour exposure period. The results were statistically analysed using standard deviation, probit analysis, and linear regression. The R2 values of larvae, pupae, and adult range from 0.4 to 0.99. The values of LC50 (concentration causing 50% mortality) for late 3rd instar larvae after 24 hours exposure period range from 93-1856.7 ppm, while LC90 values range from 424 -7635.5ppm. The values of LC50for pupae range form 1326.7-6818.4ppm and and values of LC90 range from 3667.3-17427.9ppm, respectively. The KDT50 range from 0.30 to 2.8% and KDT90 values range from1.2 to 110.8%, respectively. In conclusion, Justicia adhatoda may be effective for controlling populations of vector mosquito.


Resumo Por ser o vetor do vírus do Nilo Ocidental e da falaríase, o controle de Culex quinquefasciatus Say é provavelmente essencial. O tratamento com inseticida sintético parece ser mais eficaz para o controle dos mosquitos vetores. No entanto, esses produtos são tóxicos para o meio ambiente e organismos não visados. Consequentemente, o controle ecológico dos mosquitos vetores é necessário. Nesse sentido, o inseticida botânico parece mais produtivo. Portanto, a presente pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar a eficácia do extrato metanólico e de várias frações, incluindo n-hexano, acetato de etila, clorofórmio e fração aquosa, obtidos do extrato metanólico de Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kit. e Justicia adhatoda L. usando funil de separação contra os estágios larval, pupal e adulto de C. quinquefasciatus. As larvas e pupas de C. quinquefasciatus foram expostas a várias concentrações (31,25-1000 ppm) de extrato metanólico, e suas frações por 24 horas de período de exposição. Para o bioensaio knock-down (bioensaio de impregnação de papel de filtro), diferentes concentrações do extrato metanólico e suas várias frações (ou seja, 0,0625, 0,125, 0,25, 0,5 e 1 mg / mL) foram aplicadas por um período de exposição de 1 hora. Os resultados foram analisados ​​estatisticamente usando desvio padrão, análise Probit e regressão linear. Os valores de R2 de larvas, pupas e adultos variaram de 0,4 a 0,99. Os valores de LC50 (concentração que causa 50% de mortalidade) para larvas de terceiro estádio tardio após 24 horas de período de exposição variaram de 93-1856,7 ppm, enquanto os valores de LC90 variaram de 424-7635,5ppm. Os valores de LC50 para pupas variaram de 1326,7-6818,4 ppm e os valores de LC90 variaram de 3667,3-17427,9 ppm, respectivamente. O KDT50 variou de 0,30 a 2,8% e os valores de KDT90 variaram de 1,2 a 110,8%, respectivamente. Por fim, a espécie J. adhatoda pôde ser eficaz para controlar populações de mosquitos vetores.


Assuntos
Animais , Culex , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Anopheles , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Mosquitos Vetores , Larva
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246389, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285638

RESUMO

Abstract Poultry industry is expanding rapidly and producing million tons of feather waste annually. Massive production of keratinaceous byproducts in the form of industrial wastes throughout the world necessitates its justified utilization. Chemical treatment of keratin waste is proclaimed as an eco-destructive approach by various researchers since it generates secondary pollutants. Keratinase released by a variety of microbes (bacteria and fungi) can be used for the effective treatment of keratin waste. Microbial degradation of keratin waste is an emerging and eco-friendly approach and offers dual benefits, i.e., treatment of recalcitrant pollutant (keratin) and procurement of a commercially important enzyme (keratinase). This study involves the isolation, characterization, and potential utility of fungal species for the degradation of chicken-feather waste through submerged and solid-state fermentation. The isolated fungus was identified and characterized as Aspergillus (A.) flavus. In a trial of 30 days, it was appeared that 74 and 8% feather weight was reduced through sub-merged and solid-state fermentation, respectively by A. flavus. The pH of the growth media in submerged fermentation was changed from 4.8 to 8.35. The exploited application of keratinolytic microbes is, therefore, recommended for the treatment of keratinaceous wastes to achieve dual benefits of remediation.


Resumo A indústria avícola está se expandindo rapidamente e produzindo milhões de toneladas de resíduos de penas anualmente. A produção massiva de subprodutos queratinosos na forma de resíduos agrícolas e industriais em todo o mundo exige sua utilização justificada. O tratamento químico de resíduos de queratina é proclamado como uma abordagem ecodestrutiva por vários pesquisadores, uma vez que gera poluentes secundários. A queratinase liberada por uma variedade de micróbios (bactérias e fungos) pode ser usada para o tratamento eficaz de resíduos de queratina. A degradação microbiana de resíduos de queratina é uma abordagem emergente e ecológica e oferece benefícios duplos, ou seja, tratamento de poluente recalcitrante (queratina) e obtenção de uma enzima comercialmente importante (queratinase). Este estudo envolve o isolamento, caracterização e utilidade potencial de espécies de fungos para a degradação de resíduos de penas de frango por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O fungo isolado foi identificado e caracterizado como Aspergillus (A.) flavus. Em um ensaio de 30 dias, constatou-se que 74% e 8% do peso das penas foram reduzidos por A. flavus, respectivamente, por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O pH do meio de crescimento em fermentação submersa foi alterado de 4,8 para 8,35. A aplicação explorada de micróbios queratinolíticos é, portanto, recomendada para o tratamento de resíduos ceratinosos para obter benefícios duplos de remediação.


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas , Plumas , Fermentação , Fungos , Resíduos Industriais , Queratinas/metabolismo
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246651, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285627

RESUMO

Abstract The medicinal attributes of honey appears to overshadow its importance as a functional food. Consequently, several literatures are rife with ancient uses of honey as complementary and alternative medicine, with relevance to modern day health care, supported by evidence-based clinical data, with little attention given to honey's nutritional functions. The moisture contents of honey extracted from University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore honey bee farm was 12.19% while that of natural source was 9.03 ± 1.63%. Similarly, ash and protein contents of farmed honey recorded were 0.37% and 5.22%, respectively. Whereas ash and protein contents of natural honey were 1.70 ± 1.98% and 6.10 ± 0.79%. Likewise fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of farmed source documented were 0.14%, 1.99% and 62.26% respectively. Although fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of honey taken from natural resource were 0.54 ± 0.28%, 2.76 ± 1.07% and 55.32 ± 2.91% respectively. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Similarly, sucrose and maltose contents of farmed honey were 2.5% and 12% while in natural honey were 1.35 ± 0.49% and 8.00 ± 1.41% respectively. The present study indicates that such as moisture, carbohydrates, sucrose and maltose contents were higher farmed honey as compared to the natural honey. In our recommendation natural honey is better than farmed honey.


Resumo Os atributos medicinais do mel parecem ofuscar sua importância como alimento funcional. Consequentemente, várias literaturas estão repletas de usos antigos do mel como medicina complementar e alternativa, com relevância para os cuidados de saúde modernos, apoiados por dados clínicos baseados em evidências, com pouca atenção dada às funções nutricionais do mel. O teor de umidade do mel extraído da Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, fazenda de abelhas de Lahore, foi de 12,19%, enquanto o de fonte natural foi de 9,03 ± 1,63%. Da mesma forma, os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel cultivado foram de 0,37% e 5,22%, respectivamente. Já os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel natural foram de 1,70 ± 1,98% e 6,10 ± 0,79%. Da mesma forma, os teores de gordura, fibra dietética e carboidratos de origem cultivada documentados foram de 0,14%, 1,99% e 62,26%, respectivamente. Embora os teores de gordura, fibra alimentar e carboidratos do mel retirado dos recursos naturais fossem de 0,54 ± 0,28%, 2,76 ± 1,07% e 55,32 ± 2,91%, respectivamente. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Da mesma forma, os teores de sacarose e maltose no mel cultivado foram de 2,5% e 12%, enquanto no mel natural foram de 1,35 ± 0,49% e 8,00 ± 1,41%, respectivamente. O presente estudo indica que os teores de umidade, carboidratos, sacarose e maltose foram maiores no mel cultivado em comparação ao mel natural. Em nossa recomendação, o mel natural é melhor que o mel de cultivo.


Assuntos
Animais , Mel , Abelhas , Carboidratos
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246322, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285614

RESUMO

Abstract A total of 10 specimens were captured from selected sites of Bajaur Agency FATA, Pakistan using mist nets. The captured specimens were morphologically identified and various morphometric measurements were taken. The head and Body length (HB) of Pipistrellus coromondra and Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus (n=10) was 43±0.11 mm and 45±1.1 respectively. Morphologically identified Pipistrellus kuhlii confirmed as Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus based on 16S rRNA sequences. The DNA sequences were submitted to GenBank and accession numbers were obtained (MN 719478 and MT430902). The available 16S rRNA gene sequences of Pipistrellus coromondra and Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus were retrieved from NCBI and incorporated in N-J tree analysis. Overall, the interspecific genetic variations among Pipistrellus coromondra and Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus were 8% and 1% respectively. In our recommendation, a comprehensive molecular identification of bats is need of hour to report more cryptic and new species from Pakistan.


Resumo Um total de 10 espécimes foi capturado em locais selecionados da Bajaur Agency FATA, Paquistão, usando redes de neblina. Os espécimes capturados foram identificados morfologicamente e várias medidas morfométricas foram realizadas. O comprimento da cabeça e do corpo (HB) de Pipistrellus coromondra e Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus (n = 10) foi de 43 ± 0,11 mm e 45 ± 1,1, respectivamente. Pipistrellus kuhlii identificado morfologicamente e confirmado como Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus com base em sequências de rRNA 16S. As sequências de DNA foram submetidas ao GenBank e os números de acesso foram obtidos (MN 719478 e MT430902). As sequências do gene 16S rRNA disponíveis de Pipistrellus coromondra e Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus foram recuperadas do NCBI e incorporadas na análise da árvore N-J. No geral, as variações genéticas interespecíficas entre Pipistrellus coromondra e Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus foram de 8% e 1%, respectivamente. Em nossa recomendação, uma identificação molecular abrangente de morcegos precisa de uma hora para relatar mais espécies crípticas e novas do Paquistão.


Assuntos
Animais , Quirópteros/genética , Paquistão , RNA Ribossômico 16S
13.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372558

RESUMO

Monkeypox is a rare zoonotic disease caused by infection with the monkeypox virus. The disease can result in flu-like symptoms, fever, and a persistent rash. The disease is currently spreading throughout the world and prevention and treatment efforts are being intensified. Although there is no treatment that has been specifically approved for monkeypox virus infection, infected patients may benefit from using certain antiviral medications that are typically prescribed for the treatment of smallpox. The drugs are tecovirimat, brincidofovir, and cidofovir, all of which are currently in short supply due to the spread of the monkeypox virus. Resistance is also a concern, as widespread replication of the monkeypox virus can lead to mutations that produce monkeypox viruses that are resistant to the currently available treatments. This article discusses monkeypox disease, potential drug targets, and management strategies to overcome monkeypox disease. With the discovery of new drugs, it is hoped that the problem of insufficient drugs will be resolved, and it is not anticipated that drug resistance will become a major issue in the near future. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361614

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been identified as a group-1 definite carcinogen. As of yet, there is no available vaccine for this microorganism. Our study aimed to identify antigenic peptides in H. pylori using an in silico proteomic approach, and to evaluate their effectiveness as potential vaccine candidates. Four different peptide sequences were prioritized using the reverse vaccinology, namely, CagA1, CagA2, VacA, and SabA. Peptides emulsified with Freunde's adjuvant were used to immunize BALB/C mice. Subcutaneously immunized mice were challenged by oral administration of H. pylori. IgG, IgA, IL4, and IL17 were detected in mice sera. Histopathology of the dissected stomach of vaccinated and control mice were assessed using H&E stain. IgG was significantly higher in mice vaccinated with SabA. IL-4 was significantly increased in CagA1, CagA2, VacA, and SabA vaccinated mice compared to the adjuvant group. Additionally, histopathological examination of gastric tissue showed a protective effect in the vaccinated groups compared to adjuvant and PBS groups. Our findings indicate a promising effect of the tested epitopes, particularly the SabA antigen, to induce an immune response against H. pylori.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Camundongos , Animais , Infecções por Helicobacter/prevenção & controle , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteômica , Vacinas Bacterianas , Vacinas de Subunidades , Imunização , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Imunoglobulina G , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Antígenos de Bactérias
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(40): e30757, 2022 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36221328

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease, one of the most common diseases in the world, is characterized by irreversible impairment of the kidney's metabolic, excretory, and endocrine functions. During end-stage renal disease, patients require renal replacement therapy, such as hemodialysis (HD). Protein-energy wasting is a common health problem among HD patients. This study aims to assess the nutritional status of HD patients at two HD centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and to determine its associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted at two different dialysis centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 211 female and male HD patients. Malnutrition was recognized using the modified-subjective global assessment (M-SGA) comprising two parts: medical history and physical examination. Sociodemographic and health status for all patients were also determined. Patients were classified based on their M-SGA score into two groups: normal and malnourished. Overall, 54.5% of the participants showed malnutrition. Unemployment, low muscle strength and mass, high level of medication use, and high dialysis vintage were positively (P < .05) associated with malnutrition. In conclusion, the M-SGA score indicates a high prevalence of malnutrition among HD patients. These results show the importance of regular assessment and follow-ups for HD patients ensuring better health and nutritional status.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica , Desnutrição , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Desnutrição/complicações , Desnutrição/etiologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
16.
Lancet Public Health ; 7(10): e834-e843, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite large geographical disparities in the prevalence of cigarette smoking across the USA, there is a paucity of state-level estimates of economic loss attributable to smoking to inform tobacco control policies at the national and state levels. We aimed to estimate the state-level economic loss attributable to cigarette smoking in the USA. METHODS: In this economic modelling study, we used a dynamic macroeconomic model of personal income per capita at the state level. Based on publicly available data on state-level income, its determinants, and smoking status for 2011-20, we first estimated the elasticity of personal income per capita with respect to the prevalence of non-smoking adults (aged ≥18 years) in the USA using a mixed-effects, generalised linear, dynamic panel data model. We used the estimated elasticity to measure the state-specific, annual, avoidable economic loss attributable to cigarette smoking in 2020 under the counterfactual 5% prevalence of cigarette smoking. We then estimated the state-specific cumulative economic loss attributable to cigarette smoking in 2020 using the coefficient of lagged income in the dynamic model. National estimates on economic loss attributable to cigarette smoking were obtained by summing state-specific estimates. FINDINGS: In the mixed-effects model, the elasticity of personal income per capita with respect to the prevalence of non-smoking adults was 0·143 (p=0·063). The estimated annual income loss per capita in 2020 ranged from US$331 in Utah to $1674 in Kentucky. The state mean population-weighted loss per capita was $1100. The annual combined loss of income and unpaid household production at the national level was $436·7 billion (equivalent to 2·1% of US gross domestic product [GDP] in 2020). The cumulative loss of income and unpaid household production was $864·5 billion (equivalent to 4·3% of US GDP in 2020). INTERPRETATION: Smoking causes substantial economic loss in the USA. Tobacco control efforts that lower the prevalence of smoking equitably can contribute considerably to improved macroeconomic performance in the short and long term by reducing health expenditures and avoiding productivity losses. FUNDING: American Cancer Society.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Econômicos , Tabaco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
J Med Econ ; 25(1): 1149-1157, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36201747

RESUMO

AIMS: A budget impact analysis (BIA) comparing bioprosthetic valves with RESILIA tissue and mechanical valves in aortic stenosis (AS) patients > 65 years in the public and private sectors of Saudi Arabia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A decision-tree with a partitioned survival model was adapted to estimate the financial consequences of either a RESILIA tissue valve or a mechanical valve in aortic valve replacement (AVR) procedures up to 5 years. The budget impact of resource consumption for both valve types was compared and included disabling strokes, reoperations, minor thromboembolic events, major bleeding, endocarditis, anticoagulation treatment and monitoring, and echocardiogram assessments. One-way sensitivity analyses (OWSA) were performed on cost and probability inputs. RESULTS: RESILIA tissue valves versus mechanical valves are overall budget saving commencing in Year 1 and savings gradually increase year-on-year. The higher costs of the initial procedure, reoperation, and additional monitoring (echocardiogram tests and visits) associated with RESILIA tissue valves are offset by savings in warfarin use, disabling strokes, major bleeding, and anticoagulation complications. The cost per initial procedure per patient is SAR795 higher for a RESILIA tissue valve reflecting the higher valve acquisition cost, which is partially offset by a shorter hospital stay. The OWSA suggests that total procedure costs of each valve, including the hospital stay, are the main cost drivers in the model. LIMITATIONS: The variability of cost inputs and the presence of multiple payers with multiple costing data is a key challenge in Saudi Arabia. Budget impact results may, therefore, change if repeated per AVR center and may also be impacted by the long-term durability of RESILIA tissue valves. CONCLUSIONS: An AVR in patients > 65 years with a RESILIA tissue valve is budget-saving from the first year in Saudi Arabia. Patients, payers, providers and policymakers may benefit economically from increased implantation of RESILIA tissue valves.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Bioprótese , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Anticoagulantes , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Bioprótese/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/etiologia , Arábia Saudita , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento , Varfarina
18.
Pathogens ; 11(9)2022 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36145416

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which was first identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. With the global transmission of the virus, many SARS-CoV-2 variants have emerged due to the alterations of the spike glycoprotein. Therefore, the S glycoprotein encoding gene has widely been used for the molecular analysis of SARS-Co-2 due to its features affecting antigenicity and immunogenicity. We analyzed the S gene sequences of 35 SARS-CoV-2 isolates in Kuwait from March 2020 to February 2021 using the Sanger method and MinION nanopore technology to confirm novel nucleotide alterations. Our results show that the Kuwaiti strains from clade 19A and B were the dominant variants early in the pandemic, while clade 20I (Alpha, V1) was the dominant variant from February 2021 onward. Besides the known mutations, 21 nucleotide deletions in the S glycoprotein in one Kuwaiti strain were detected, which might reveal a recombinant SARS-CoV-2 with the defective viral genome (DVG). This study emphasizes the importance of closely perceiving the emerging clades with these mutations during this continuous pandemic as some may influence the specificity of diagnostic tests, such as RT-PCR and even vaccine design directing these positions.

19.
Infect Agent Cancer ; 17(1): 49, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) are more likely to develop severe course of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and experience increased risk of mortality compared to SARS-CoV-2 patients without CRC. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in CRC patients and analyse the demographic parameters, clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes in CRC patients with COVID-19 illness. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched Proquest, Medline, Embase, Pubmed, CINAHL, Wiley online library, Scopus and Nature for studies on the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in CRC patients, published from December 1, 2019 to December 31, 2021, with English language restriction. Effect sizes of prevalence were pooled with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Sub-group analyses were performed to minimize heterogeneity. Binary logistic regression model was used to explore the effect of various demographic and clinical characteristics on patient's final treatment outcome (survival or death). RESULTS: Of the 472 papers that were identified, 69 articles were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis (41 cohort, 16 case-report, 9 case-series, 2 cross-sectional, and 1 case-control studies). Studies involving 3362 CRC patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 (all patients were adults) were analyzed. The overall pooled proportions of CRC patients who had laboratory-confirmed community-acquired and hospital-acquired SARS-CoV-2 infections were 8.1% (95% CI 6.1 to 10.1, n = 1308, 24 studies, I2 98%, p = 0.66), and 1.5% (95% CI 1.1 to 1.9, n = 472, 27 studies, I2 94%, p < 0.01). The median patient age ranged from 51.6 years to 80 years across studies. The majority of the patients were male (n = 2243, 66.7%) and belonged to White (Caucasian) (n = 262, 7.8%), Hispanic (n = 156, 4.6%) and Asian (n = 153, 4.4%) ethnicity. The main source of SARS-CoV-2 infection in CRC patients was community-acquired (n = 2882, 85.7%; p = 0.014). Most of those SARS-CoV-2 patients had stage III CRC (n = 725, 21.6%; p = 0.036) and were treated mainly with surgical resections (n = 304, 9%) and chemotherapies (n = 187, 5.6%), p = 0.008. The odd ratios of death were significantly high in patients with old age (≥ 60 years) (OR 1.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.96; p < 0.001), male gender (OR 1.44, 95% CI 0.41-0.47; p < 0.001) CRC stage III (OR 1.54, 95% CI 0.02-1.05; p = 0.041), CRC stage IV (OR 1.69, 95% CI 0.17-1.2; p = 0.009), recent active treatment with chemotherapies (OR 1.35, 95% CI 0.5-0.66; p = 0.023) or surgical resections (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.8-0.73; p = 0.016) and admission to ICU (OR 1.88, 95% CI 0.85-1.12; p < 0.001) compared to those who survived. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection in CRC patient is not uncommon and results in a mortality rate of 26.2%. Key determinants that lead to increased mortality in CRC patients infected with COVID-19 include older age (≥ 60 years old); male gender; Asian and Hispanic ethnicity; if SARS-CoV-2 was acquired from hospital source; advanced CRC (stage III and IV); if patient received chemotherapies or surgical treatment; and if patient was admitted to ICU, ventilated or experienced ARDS.

20.
Public Health Pract (Oxf) ; 3: 100271, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36101774

RESUMO

Objective: Bangladesh has 67% of estimated deaths caused by non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The country aimed to reduce NCD-related premature deaths by one-third by 2030. This study aimed to explore the overall implementation status of the NCD control program at the primary health care (PHC) level in Bangladesh, explore the challenges, and identify the way forward for better implementation. Study design: Qualitative study. Methods: Key informant interviews and observations of NCD service delivery at Upazila Health Complexes (UzHC) were conducted. Data were analyzed using framework analysis. Results: NCD is prioritized in policy documents however, implementation remains weak. The operational plan indicators focus mostly on the process, which is hampering the quality of care. The primary health care (PHC) facilities are not yet fully ready to deliver all ranges of NCD care including mental health. The national NCD management protocol for PHC addressed health workforce scarcity through task shifting and team-based care which is yet to be scaled up nationwide. Record-keeping is poor as it is done manually. District health information software (DHIS2) is not yet capturing NCD monthly service provision data and not tracking indicators. Awareness for NCD screening at community clinics, and referral to the NCD corner of UzHC is operational in around 66 Upazilas of 31 districts, which needs to scale up nationwide. Conclusions: NCD management protocol implementation, availability of drugs, diagnostics, electronic database development, updated DHIS2 to track indicators, and engagement of stakeholders to influence public policies on shared risk factors are important to achieve universal primary care for NCDs.

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