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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236499, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153462

RESUMO

Abstract Distribution pattern and relative abundance of the agricultural rodent pests of rain-fed and irrigated areas of district Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were recorded from April 2011 to November 2013 using wire mesh live traps. A total of 350 rodents (269 Rattus rattus and 81 Mus musculus) were captured under 2268 trap nights (trap success: 0.15). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 350 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 21.8 rodents per crop field. House rats (R. rattus; 76.8% of captures) were numerically dominant in almost all types of agricultural fields, and were significantly different from the mice (Mus musculus; 23.1% of captures). Both species were found together in some fields. The sex ratio revealed that males outnumbered the females in both of the reported species.


Resumo O padrão de distribuição e a abundância relativa de pragas de roedores agrícolas nas áreas irrigadas e irrigadas do distrito Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão foram registrados de abril de 2011 a novembro de 2013 usando armadilhas vivas de malha de arame. Um total de 350 roedores (269 Rattus rattus e 81 Mus musculus) foram capturados em 2268 noites de armadilha (sucesso da armadilha: 0,15). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 350 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 21,8 roedores por campo agrícola. Os ratos domésticos (R. rattus; 76,8% das capturas) foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de campos agrícolas e foram significativamente diferentes dos camundongos (Mus musculus; 23,1% das capturas). Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em alguns campos. A proporção de sexo revelou que os machos superaram as fêmeas em ambas as espécies relatadas.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238665, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153463

RESUMO

Abstract Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Resumo A região de Malakand é uma área endêmica para leishmaniose cutânea (CL). No entanto, há um número limitado de estudos sobre esta doença no Paquistão. Portanto, foi realizado um estudo para entender o nível de atitude e prática de conscientização entre os residentes de Makaland em relação aos CL e os vetores da doença. Este estudo adotou uma abordagem transversal com um total de 400 entrevistados (n = 93 rural e n = 307 urbano). No geral, a população da região de Malakand (61,2%) estava bem informada sobre o papel da mosca na transmissão de doenças, mas a maioria não possui conhecimento sobre o comportamento do vetor e quase um quarto (24,5%) foi incapaz de fornecer conhecimento sobre medidas de controle adequadas . De maneira alarmante, a prática e as atitudes da população em geral não foram satisfatórias, pois cerca da metade (49,8%) da população adotou algum método de controle. Este estudo apela ao aumento da conscientização por meio de campanhas de educação em saúde para reduzir o risco de surtos de leishmaniose cutânea no futuro.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238735, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153486

RESUMO

Abstract Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Resumo Usando o padrão de distribuição de armadilhas vivas de malha de arame do Rattus rattus e Mus musculus em diferentes lojas de três distritos da região de Malakand, o Paquistão foi registrado de setembro de 2014 a outubro de 2015. No total, 103 roedores (Rattus rattus 86 e Mus musculus 17) foram pegos durante em 0,04 armadilha de sucesso (2448 noites de armadilha). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 103 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 3,55 roedores por loja. R. rattus; 83,4% das capturas foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de lojas da amostra e foram significativamente diferentes do Mus musculus; 16,5% das capturas. Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em algumas lojas, enquanto estavam na maior parte presas em lojas separadas. Os roedores machos eram mais numerosos do que as fêmeas.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 934-939, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153427

RESUMO

Abstract During the present study thirteen Megaderma lyra bats were observed roosting in dark, domed shaped room of Rohtas Fort, district Jhelum. Out of these, six specimens were captured from the roosting site, using hand net. All captured specimens were male. These bats were identified through their unique facial features, an erect and elongated nose-leaf, large oval ears that joined above the forehead and no tail. Mean head and body length of captured specimens was 80 mm, forearm length was 67 mm while average lengths of 3rd, 4th and 5th metacarpals were 51.73 mm, 55.17 mm and 60.42 mm, respectively. Mean skull length was 29.84 mm, breadth of braincase was 12.77 mm. Average Penis length of two specimens was 6.6 mm and total bacular length was 3.08 mm respectively. This is the first record of Megaderma lyra from district Jhelum.


Resumo Durante o presente estudo, 13 morcegos Megadermalyra foram observados empoleirados em uma sala escura em forma de cúpula no Forte Rohtas, distrito de Jhelum, dos quais 6 espécimes foram capturados no local usando rede manual. Todos os espécimes capturados eram machos. Esses morcegos foram identificados por suas características faciais únicas, uma folha nasal ereta e alongada, grandes orelhas ovais que se juntam acima da testa e sem cauda. O comprimento médio da cabeça e do corpo dos espécimes capturados foi de 80 mm, o comprimento do antebraço foi de 67 mm, enquanto os comprimentos médios do 3º, 4º e 5º metacarpos foram de 51,73 mm, 55,17 mm e 60,42 mm, respectivamente. O comprimento médio do crânio foi de 29,84 mm, e a largura da caixa craniana, de 12,77 mm. O comprimento médio do pênis de duas amostras foi de 6,6 mm, e o comprimento total do báculo foi de 3,08 mm. Este é o primeiro registro de Megadermalyra no distrito de Jhelum.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 940-953, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153447

RESUMO

Abstract Nowadays food borne illness is most common in people due to their epidemic nature. These diseases affect the human digestive system through bacteria, viruses and parasites. The agents of illness are transmitted in our body through various types of food items, water and uncooked. Pathogens show drastic changes in immunosuppressant people. This review gives general insights to harmful microbial life. Pakistan is a developed country and because of its improper food management, a lot of gastrointestinal problems are noted in many patients. Bacteria are most common agents to spread diarrhoea, villi infection, constipation and dysenteric disease in human and induce the rejection of organ transplant. Enhancement of their lifestyle, properly cooked food should be used and to overcome the outbreak of the diseases.


Resumo Hoje em dia, as doenças transmitidas por alimentos são mais comuns em pessoas devido à sua natureza epidêmica. Essas doenças afetam o sistema digestivo humano por meio de bactérias, vírus e parasitas. Os agentes das doenças são transmitidos em nosso corpo por meio de diversos tipos de alimentos, água e crus. Os patógenos mostram mudanças drásticas em pessoas imunossupressoras. Esta revisão fornece uma visão geral da vida microbiana prejudicial. O Paquistão é um país desenvolvido e, devido ao seu manejo alimentar inadequado, muitos problemas gastrointestinais são observados em muitos pacientes. As bactérias são os agentes mais comuns para espalhar diarreia, infecção de vilosidades, obstipação e doença disentérica em humanos e induzem a rejeição de transplantes de órgãos. Melhoria de seu estilo de vida, alimentos devidamente cozidos devem ser utilizados e para superar o aparecimento de doenças.

6.
J Biol Phys ; 2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893599

RESUMO

The characteristics of cultured cell attachment onto poly-L-lysine (PLL), collagen, and the thermoresponsive polymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) were studied using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). A QCM with microscope cameras enclosed in a Peltier chamber was developed to enable QCM measurements and microphotographic imaging to be conducted in a temperature-controlled CO2 incubator. Human hepatoma cell line HepG2 cells were cultured on the quartz crystals coated with PLL, collagen, and PNIPAM. Response curves of the resonant frequency of the quartz crystals during the cell attachment process were analyzed on the basis of the parameters of modeling curves fit to the experimentally obtained curves. Analysis of the fitting curves showed that the time constants of the first-lag response were 11 h for PLL, 16 h for collagen, and 38 h for PNIPAM and that the frequency change for the PNIPAM films was six times smaller than those for the PLL and collagen films. These findings were supported by photographic images showing wider cell spread on PLL and collagen than on PNIPAM. The response of cells on PNIPAM was measured during a thermal cycle from 37 to 20 °C to 37 °C. In the resonance frequency-resonance resistance (F-R) diagram, the slopes of ΔR/ΔF corresponding to the cell attachment process and those corresponding to the thermal cycling process differed; the positions in the F-R diagram also shifted to higher resonant frequencies after the thermal cycle. These results suggested that the mass effect decreased as a result of the weakening of the cell attachment strength by the thermal cycle because the molecular brushes of PNIPAM were disarranged.

7.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(4)2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807320

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the clinical effectiveness of Hydroxychloroquine-based regimens versus standard treatment in patients with the coronavirus disease admitted in 2019 to a hospital in Saudi Arabia. A comparative observational study, using routine hospital data, was carried out in a large tertiary care hospital in Al Baha, Saudi Arabia, providing care to patients with COVID-19 between April 2019 and August 2019. Patients were categorized into two groups: the Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) group, treated with HCQ in a dose of 400 mg twice daily on the first day, followed by 200 mg twice daily; the non HCQ group, treated with other antiviral or antibacterial treatments according to protocols recommended by the Ministry of Health (MOH) at the time. The primary outcomes were the length of hospital stay, need for admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), time in ICU, and need for mechanical ventilation. Overall survival was also assessed. 568 patients who received HCQ (treatment group) were compared with 207 patients who did not receive HCQ (control group). HCQ did not improve mortality in the treated group (7.7% vs. 7.2%). There were no significant differences in terms of duration of hospitalization, need for and time in ICU, and need for mechanical ventilation among the groups. Our study provides further evidence that HCQ treatment does not reduce mortality rates, length of hospital stay, admission and time in ICU, and need for mechanical ventilation in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.

8.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(4)2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807345

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global public health threat associated with increased mortality, morbidity and costs. Inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing, particularly of broad-spectrums antimicrobials (BSAs), is considered a major factor behind growing AMR. The aim of this study was to explore physician perception and views about BSAs and factors that impact upon their BSAs prescribing decisions. Qualitative semistructured telephone interviews over an eleven-week period were conducted with physicians in a single tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Purposeful and snowball sampling techniques were adopted as sampling strategy. All interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, uploaded to NVivo® software and analysed following thematic analysis approach. Four major themes emerged: views on BSAs, factors influencing BSA prescribing and antimicrobial stewardship: practices and barriers and recommendations to improve appropriate BSA prescribing. Recommendations for the future include improving clinical knowledge, feedback on prescribing, multidisciplinary team decision-making and local guideline implementation. Identification of views and determinants of BSA prescribing can guide the design of a multifaceted intervention to support physicians and policymakers to improve antimicrobial prescribing practices.

9.
Hong Kong Med J ; 27(2): 154-156, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790052
10.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238665, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825759

RESUMO

Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea , Psychodidae , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , População Rural , População Urbana
11.
Br J Dermatol ; 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837520

RESUMO

The effect of skin cancer diagnosis on the risk of adverse outcomes from COVID-19 remains unknown. Few studies have shown cancer patients with COVID-19 have higher rates of mortality and hospitalizations compared to those without cancer, perhaps due to a combination of delayed diagnosis and pre-existing comorbidities from chemotherapy and radiation treatments.1.

12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7802, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833285

RESUMO

Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) enable human cardiac cells to be studied in vitro, although they use glucose as their primary metabolic substrate and do not recapitulate the properties of adult cardiomyocytes. Here, we have explored the interplay between maturation by stimulation of fatty acid oxidation and by culture in 3D. We have investigated substrate metabolism in hiPSC-CMs grown as a monolayer and in 3D, in porous collagen-derived scaffolds and in engineered heart tissue (EHT), by measuring rates of glycolysis and glucose and fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and changes in gene expression and mitochondrial oxygen consumption. FAO was stimulated by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), using oleate and the agonist WY-14643, which induced an increase in FAO in monolayer hiPSC-CMs. hiPSC-CMs grown in 3D on collagen-derived scaffolds showed reduced glycolysis and increased FAO compared with monolayer cells. Activation of PPARα further increased FAO in cells on collagen/elastin scaffolds but not collagen or collagen/chondroitin-4-sulphate scaffolds. In EHT, FAO was significantly higher than in monolayer cells or those on static scaffolds and could be further increased by culture with oleate and WY-14643. In conclusion, a more mature metabolic phenotype can be induced by culture in 3D and FAO can be incremented by pharmacological stimulation.

13.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 138: 111461, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706131

RESUMO

The present work describes the systematic development of paclitaxel and naringenin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). So far only temozolomide therapy is available for the GBM treatment, which fails by large amount due to poor brain permeability of the drug and recurrent metastasis of the tumor. Thus, we investigated the drug combination containing paclitaxel and naringenin for the treatment of GBM, as these drugs have individually demonstrated significant potential for the management of a wide variety of carcinoma. A systematic product development approach was adopted where risk assessment was performed for evaluating the impact of various formulation and process parameters on the quality attributes of the SLNs. I-optimal response surface design was employed for optimization of the dual drug-loaded SLNs prepared by micro-emulsification method, where Percirol ATO5 and Dynasan 114 were used as the solid lipid and surfactant, while Lutrol F188 was used as the stabilizer. Drug loaded-SLNs were subjected to detailed in vitro and in vivo characterization studies. Cyclic RGD peptide sequence (Arg-Gly-Asp) was added to the formulation to obtain the surface modified SLNs which were also evaluated for the particle size and surface charge. The optimized drug-loaded SLNs exhibited particle size and surface charge of 129 nm and 23 mV, drug entrapment efficiency >80% and drug loading efficiency >7%. In vitro drug release study carried out by micro dialysis bag method indicated more than 70% drug was release observed within 8 h time period. In vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation showed significant improvement (p < 0.05) in drug absorption parameters (Cmax and AUC) from the optimized SLNs over the free drug suspension. Cytotoxicity evaluation on U87MG glioma cells indicated SLNs with higher cytotoxicity as compared to that of the free drug suspension (p < 0.05). Evaluation of uptake by florescence measurement indicated superior uptake of SLNs tagged with dye over the plain dye solution. Overall, the dual drug-loaded SLNs showed better chemoprotective effect over the plain drug solution, thus construed superior anticancer activity of the developed nanoformulation in the management of glioblastoma multiforme.

14.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e236499, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729383

RESUMO

Distribution pattern and relative abundance of the agricultural rodent pests of rain-fed and irrigated areas of district Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were recorded from April 2011 to November 2013 using wire mesh live traps. A total of 350 rodents (269 Rattus rattus and 81 Mus musculus) were captured under 2268 trap nights (trap success: 0.15). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 350 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 21.8 rodents per crop field. House rats (R. rattus; 76.8% of captures) were numerically dominant in almost all types of agricultural fields, and were significantly different from the mice (Mus musculus; 23.1% of captures). Both species were found together in some fields. The sex ratio revealed that males outnumbered the females in both of the reported species.


Assuntos
Chuva , Roedores , Agricultura , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Paquistão , Ratos , Simbiose
15.
J Chem Ecol ; 47(3): 280-293, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651224

RESUMO

Climate change has a large influence on plant functional and phenotypic traits including plant primary and secondary metabolites. One well-established approach to investigating the variation in plant metabolites involves studying plant populations along elevation and latitude gradients. We considered how two space-for-time climate change gradients (elevation and latitude) influence carbohydrate reserves (soluble sugars, starches) and secondary metabolites (monoterpenes, diterpene resin acids) of lodgepole pine trees in western Canada. We were particularly interested in the relationship of terpenes and carbohydrates with a wide range of tree, site, and climatic factors. We found that only elevation had a strong influence on the expression of both terpenes and carbohydrates of trees. Specifically, as elevation increased, concentrations of monoterpenes and diterpenes generally increased and soluble sugars (glucose, sucrose, total sugars) decreased. In contrast, latitude had no impact on either of terpenes or carbohydrates. Furthermore, we found a positive relationship between concentrations of starch and total terpenes and diterpenes in the elevation study; whereas neither starches nor sugars were correlated to terpenes in the latitude study. Similarly, both terpenes and carbohydrates had a much greater number of significant correlations to site characteristics such as slope, basal area index, and sand basal area, in the elevational than in the latitude study. Overall, these results support the conclusion that both biotic and abiotic factors likely drive the patterns of primary and secondary metabolite profiles of lodgepole pine along geographical gradients. Also, presence of a positive relationship between terpenes and starches suggests an interaction between primary ad secondary metabolites of lodgepole pine trees.

16.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(5): 2206-2220, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755959

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Chrysin, one of the main active constituents of flavonoids, is known for demonstrating protective effects against various types of cancer including cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine apoptosis induction and antiproliferative action of chrysin on human cervical cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, attempts have been made to establish anticancer role of chrysin on HeLa cells. MTT, mitochondrial potential, DNA fragmentation, annexin V/propidium iodide assays, qPCR and protein profiling were performed. RESULTS: Chrysin treated HeLa cells showed time and dose dependent decrease in cell viability and demonstrated profound effects on nuclear morphology and DNA fragmentation. Chrysin treatment increased the expression of proapoptotic genes BAD, BAX, BID, BOK and APAF1, TNF, FASL, FAS, FADD and caspases (like caspase 3, caspase 7, caspase 8 and caspase 9), whereas it decreased the expression level of antiapoptotic genes MCL-1, NAIP, XIAP and Bcl-2 and cell cycle regulatory genes CCNB1, CCNB2, CCND1, CCND2, CCND3, CCNE2, CDK4 and CDK2 at transcript level. Furthermore, chrysin significantly upregulated pro-apoptotic proteins, like TRAILR2/DR5, TRAILR1/DR4, Fas/TNFRSF6/CD95, phosphoP53(S15), BAD, BAX, cleaved caspase 3, procaspase 3, HTRA2/Omi and SMAC/Diablo, while downregulated anti-apoptotic proteins like BCL-X, BCL2, XIAP and CIAPs that support chrysin mediated apoptosis in HeLa cells. Remarkably, chrysin downregulated the phosphorylated AKT pathway proteins, (p-473) AKT, (p-Ser 2448) mTOR, (p-Ser241) PDK1, (p-Ser112) BAD, and upregulated (p-Ser21) GSK3b, (p-Thr172) AMPKa, P27 (p-Thr198) and (p-Ser15) P53, which endorses chrysin mediated apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: Chrysin significantly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis by modulation of various apoptotic genes and AKT/MAPK pathway genes.

17.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238665, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787717

RESUMO

Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea , Psychodidae , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , População Rural , População Urbana
18.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238735, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787718

RESUMO

Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Roedores , Roedores , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Paquistão , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Simbiose
19.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 49(1): 240-249, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719804

RESUMO

Cervical cancer is the most important female genital cancer that develops from the cervix, a lower part of uterus. Houttuynia cordata is ubiquitously present in Asian countries, and traditionally prescribed to treat infections and oedema. Our study emphasizes on biological synthesis route for developing copper nanocomplex using Houttuynia cordata (Hc-CuONPs) plant extract. The UV-visible spectroscopy study of Hc-CuONPs revealed the maximum peak at 350 nm, which proved the formation of Hc-CuONPs and FT-IR absorption peaks revealed the existence of different functional groups. The results of high-resolution TEM and X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the Hc-CuONPs have face centred cubic structure along with 40-45 nm in size. The temperature conditions of the synthesized Hc-CuONPs were spherical and circular morphologies. Furthermore, the Hc-CuONPs (IC50=5 µg/ml) exhibited toxicity on cervical cancer cells (HeLa). The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the control and Hc-CuONPs-treated HeLa cells was monitored by DCFH-DA staining and the apoptotic cell death was detected by using the dual (AO/EtBr) staining, propidium iodide and DAPI staining assays. Our results from the fluorescent staining analysis evidenced that the Hc-CuONPs have inhibited the cell proliferation and promoted the apoptotic cell death in HeLa cells. The Hc-CuONPs promoted the apoptosis by targeting the PI3K/Akt signalling pathways in HeLa cells. Our results explored that the Hc-CuONPs are effective against in vitro HeLa cancer cells.

20.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 7: 378-383, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720748

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the trends and quality metrics of publications by radiation oncologists in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: PubMed was searched using names of all Saudi radiation oncologists to retrieve published articles between January 2010 and December 2019. International collaboration, journal impact factor and country of origin, and number of citations were collected. Each article was assessed for epidemiologic type and independently assigned a level of evidence (LOE) by two authors. The trend in publications was examined and compared in the first and second 5-year periods (2010-2014 and 2015-2019) using relevant parameters. RESULTS: A total of 186 publications were found and included. The most common type of research was cohort studies followed by case reports and case series in 24%, 14%, and 13% of all publications, respectively. Dosimetry, clinical, and preclinical studies formed 7%, 8.6%, and 7.5% of the total publications, respectively. The LOE was I, II, III, IV, and not applicable in 8.6%, 22%, 25.8%, 29%, and 14.5% of the included publications, respectively. Comparing the first and second 5-year periods, there was an increase in international collaboration (P < .001) in the second period. The number of citations (P < .001) and journal impact factor (P = .028) were lower in the second period. LOE and publications in international journals were not statistically different between the two periods. CONCLUSION: Although radiation oncology research activity in Saudi Arabia has gained momentum in terms of volume and international collaboration over time, the LOE has not improved. This calls for a national effort to make the contribution to the literature a priority, allocate adequate resources, and apply appropriate measures to enhance research productivity and quality.

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