Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 26
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 65(12): 2619-2630, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37837251

RESUMO

Reconstructing a robust species phylogeny and disentangling the evolutionary and biogeographic history of the gymnosperm genus Ephedra, which has a large genome and rich polyploids, remain a big challenge. Here we reconstructed a transcriptome-based phylogeny of 19 diploid Ephedra species, and explored evolutionary reticulations in this genus represented by 50 diploid and polyploid species, using four low-copy nuclear and nine plastid genes. The diploid species phylogeny indicates that the Mediterranean species diverged first, and the remaining species split into three clades, including the American species (Clade A), E. rhytidosperma, and all other Asian species (Clade B). The single-gene trees placed E. rhytidosperma sister to Clade A, Clade B, or Clades A + B in similar proportions, suggesting that radiation and gene flow likely occurred in the early evolution of Ephedra. In addition, reticulate evolution occurred not only among the deep nodes, but also in the recently evolved South American species, which further caused difficulty in phylogenetic reconstruction. Moreover, we found that allopolyploid speciation was pervasive in Ephedra. Our study also suggests that Ephedra very likely originated in the Tethys coast during the late Cretaceous, and the South American Ephedra species have a single origin by dispersal from Mexico or North America.


Assuntos
Ephedra , Filogenia , Ephedra/genética , Diploide , Plastídeos
2.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 186: 107866, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37354923

RESUMO

A set of newly designed Vitaceae baits targeting 1013 genes was employed to explore phylogenetic relationships among North American Vitis. Eurasian Vitis taxa including Vitis vinifera were found to be nested within North American Vitis subgenus Vitis. North American Vitis subgenus Vitis can be placed into nine main groups: the Monticola group, the Occidentales group, the Californica group, the Vinifera group (introduced from Eurasia), the Mustangensis group, the Palmata group, the Aestivalis group, the Labrusca group, and the Cinerea group. Strong cytonuclear discordances were detected in North American Vitis, with many species non-monophyletic in the plastid phylogeny, while monophyletic in the nuclear phylogeny. The phylogenomic analyses support recognizing four distinct species in the Vitis cinerea complex in North America: V. cinerea, V. baileyana, V. berlandieri, and V. simpsonii. Such treatment will better serve the conservation of wild Vitis diversity in North America. Yet the evolutionary history of Vitis is highly complex, with the concordance analyses indicating conflicting signals across the phylogeny. Cytonuclear discordances and Analyses using the Species Networks applying Quartets (SNaQ) method support extensive hybridizations in North American Vitis. The results further indicate that plastid genomes alone are insufficient for resolving the evolutionary history of plant groups that have undergone rampant hybridization, like the case in North American Vitis. Nuclear gene data are essential for species delimitation, identification and reconstructing evolutionary relationships; therefore, they are imperative for plant phylogenomic studies.


Assuntos
Vitaceae , Vitis , Filogenia , Vitis/genética , Vitaceae/genética , Evolução Biológica , América do Norte
3.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 65(5): 1183-1203, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36772845

RESUMO

The north temperate region was characterized by a warm climate and a rich thermophilic flora before the Eocene, but early diversifications of the temperate biome under global climate change and biome shift remain uncertain. Moreover, it is becoming clear that hybridization/introgression is an important driving force of speciation in plant diversity. Here, we applied analyses from biogeography and phylogenetic networks to account for both introgression and incomplete lineage sorting based on genomic data from the New World Vitis, a charismatic component of the temperate North American flora with known and suspected gene flow among species. Biogeographic inference and fossil evidence suggest that the grapes were widely distributed from North America to Europe during the Paleocene to the Eocene, followed by widespread extinction and survival of relicts in the tropical New World. During the climate warming in the early Miocene, a Vitis ancestor migrated northward from the refugia with subsequent diversification in the North American region. We found strong evidence for widespread incongruence and reticulate evolution among nuclear genes within both recent and ancient lineages of the New World Vitis. Furthermore, the organellar genomes showed strong conflicts with the inferred species tree from the nuclear genomes. Our phylogenomic analyses provided an important assessment of the wide occurrence of reticulate introgression in the New World Vitis, which potentially represents one of the most important mechanisms for the diversification of Vitis species in temperate North America and even the entire temperate Northern Hemisphere. The scenario we report here may be a common model of temperate diversification of flowering plants adapted to the global climate cooling and fluctuation in the Neogene.


Assuntos
Vitis , Filogenia , Vitis/genética , América do Norte , Núcleo Celular , Hibridização Genética
4.
Ecol Evol ; 12(8): e9168, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35949539

RESUMO

Digital point-occurrence records from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and other data providers enable a wide range of research in macroecology and biogeography. However, data errors may hamper immediate use. Manual data cleaning is time-consuming and often unfeasible, given that the databases may contain thousands or millions of records. Automated data cleaning pipelines are therefore of high importance. Taking North American Ephedra as a model, we examined how different data cleaning pipelines (using, e.g., the GBIF web application, and four different R packages) affect downstream species distribution models (SDMs). We also assessed how data differed from expert data. From 13,889 North American Ephedra observations in GBIF, the pipelines removed 31.7% to 62.7% false positives, invalid coordinates, and duplicates, leading to datasets between 9484 (GBIF application) and 5196 records (manual-guided filtering). The expert data consisted of 704 records, comparable to data from field studies. Although differences in the absolute numbers of records were relatively large, species richness models based on stacked SDMs (S-SDM) from pipeline and expert data were strongly correlated (mean Pearson's r across the pipelines: .9986, vs. the expert data: .9173). Our results suggest that all R package-based pipelines reliably identified invalid coordinates. In contrast, the GBIF-filtered data still contained both spatial and taxonomic errors. Major drawbacks emerge from the fact that no pipeline fully discovered misidentified specimens without the assistance of taxonomic expert knowledge. We conclude that application-filtered GBIF data will still need additional review to achieve higher spatial data quality. Achieving high-quality taxonomic data will require extra effort, probably by thoroughly analyzing the data for misidentified taxa, supported by experts.

5.
PhytoKeys ; 205: 335-361, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36762011

RESUMO

The Indo-Pacific legume genus Serianthes was recently placed in the Archidendron clade (sensu Koenen et al. 2020), a subclade of the mimosoid clade in subfamily Caesalpinioideae, which also includes Acacia, Archidendron, Archidendropsis, Falcataria, Pararchidendron, Paraserianthes and Wallaceodendron. Serianthes comprises ca. 18 species, five subspecies and two varieties that are characterised by bipinnately compound leaves with alternate sessile leaflets, branched axillary corymbiform panicles and woody indehiscent pods. Generic relationships, as well as species relationships within genera in the Archidendron clade, remain uncertain. While the sister relationship between Serianthes and the genus Falcataria is strongly supported by molecular data, the distinction between Serianthes and the monotypic genus Wallaceodendron has been questioned, based on their similar flower and fruit morphologies. We combined three gene-enriched hybrid capture DNA sequence datasets (generated from the 964 mimobaits v1 probe set, the expanded 997 mimobaits v2 probe set and the GoFlag angiosperm 408 probe set) and used their overlapping markers (77 loci of the target exonic and flanking regions) to test the monophyly of Serianthes and to investigate generic relationships within the Archidendron clade using 55 ingoid plus two outgroup taxa. We show that Serianthes is monophyletic, confirm the Serianthes + Falcataria sister relationship to Wallaceodendron and recognise this combined clade as the Serianthes clade within the Archidendron clade. We also evaluated the use of overlapping loci across datasets in combination with concordance analyses to test generic relationships and further investigate previously unresolved relationships across the wider ingoid clade. Concordance analysis revealed limited gene tree conflicts near the tips of the Archidendron clade, but increased discordance at the base of the clade, which could be attributed to rapid lineage divergence (radiation) and/or incomplete lineage sorting.

6.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 327, 2021 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712659

RESUMO

Imperfect historical records and complex demographic histories present challenges for reconstructing the history of biological invasions. Here, we combine historical records, extensive worldwide and genome-wide sampling, and demographic analyses to investigate the global invasion of Mimulus guttatus from North America to Europe and the Southwest Pacific. By sampling 521 plants from 158 native and introduced populations genotyped at >44,000 loci, we determined that invasive M. guttatus was first likely introduced to the British Isles from the Aleutian Islands (Alaska), followed by admixture from multiple parts of the native range. We hypothesise that populations in the British Isles then served as a bridgehead for vanguard invasions worldwide. Our results emphasise the highly admixed nature of introduced M. guttatus and demonstrate the potential of introduced populations to serve as sources of secondary admixture, producing novel hybrids. Unravelling the history of biological invasions provides a starting point to understand how invasive populations adapt to novel environments.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Espécies Introduzidas , Mimulus/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Mimulus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Appl Plant Sci ; 9(1): e11406, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33552748

RESUMO

PREMISE: New sequencing technologies facilitate the generation of large-scale molecular data sets for constructing the plant tree of life. We describe a new probe set for target enrichment sequencing to generate nuclear sequence data to build phylogenetic trees with any flagellate land plants, including hornworts, liverworts, mosses, lycophytes, ferns, and all gymnosperms. METHODS: We leveraged existing transcriptome and genome sequence data to design the GoFlag 451 probes, a set of 56,989 probes for target enrichment sequencing of 451 exons that are found in 248 single-copy or low-copy nuclear genes across flagellate plant lineages. RESULTS: Our results indicate that target enrichment using the GoFlag451 probe set can provide large nuclear data sets that can be used to resolve relationships among both distantly and closely related taxa across the flagellate land plants. We also describe the GoFlag 408 probes, an optimized probe set covering 408 of the 451 exons from the GoFlag 451 probe set that is commercialized by RAPiD Genomics. CONCLUSIONS: A target enrichment approach using the new probe set provides a relatively low-cost solution to obtain large-scale nuclear sequence data for inferring phylogenetic relationships across flagellate land plants.

8.
Evol Dev ; 23(3): 256-266, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503333

RESUMO

Established model systems in the flowering plants have greatly advanced our understanding of plant developmental biology, facilitating in turn its investigation across diverse land plants. The reliance on a limited number of model organisms, however, constitutes a barrier for future progress in evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo). In particular, a more thorough understanding of seed plant character evolution and of its genetic and developmental basis has been hampered in part by a lack of gymnosperm model systems, since most are trees with decades-long generation times. Guided by the premise that future model organisms should be selected based on their character diversity, rather than simply phylogenetic "position," we highlight biological questions of potential interest that can be addressed via comparative studies in Ephedra (Gnetales). In addition to having relatively small genomes and shorter generation times in comparison to most other gymnosperms, Ephedra are amenable to investigations on the evolution of the key reproductive seed plant innovations of pollination and seed dispersal, as well as on polyploidy, and adaptation to extreme environments.


Assuntos
Cycadopsida , Ephedra , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Cycadopsida/genética , Ephedra/genética , Filogenia , Polinização , Reprodução
9.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 147: 106786, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135310

RESUMO

While polyploidization is recognized as a major evolutionary driver for ferns and angiosperms, little is known about its impact in gymnosperms, where polyploidy is much less frequent. We explore Ephedra to evaluate (i) the extent of genome size diversity in the genus and the influence polyploidy has had on the evolution of nuclear DNA contents, and (ii) identify where shifts in genome size and polyploidy have occurred both temporally and spatially. A phylogenetic framework of all Ephedra species together with genome sizes and karyotypes for 87% and 67% of them respectively, were used to explore ploidy evolution and its global distribution patterns. Polyploidy was shown to be extremely common, with 41 species (83%) being polyploid (up to 8×) or having polyploid cytotypes - the highest frequency and level reported for any gymnosperm. Genome size was also diverse, with values ranging ~5-fold (8.09-38.34 pg/1C) - the largest range for any gymnosperm family - and increasing in proportion to ploidy level (i.e. no genome downsizing). Our findings provide novel data which support the view that gymnosperms have a more conserved mode of genomic evolution compared with angiosperms.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Ephedra/genética , Genômica , Poliploidia , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Tamanho do Genoma , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Fatores de Tempo , Traqueófitas/genética
10.
Ambio ; 49(3): 693-703, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792797

RESUMO

We present a comprehensive list of non-native vascular plants known from the Arctic, explore their geographic distribution, analyze the extent of naturalization and invasion among 23 subregions of the Arctic, and examine pathways of introductions. The presence of 341 non-native taxa in the Arctic was confirmed, of which 188 are naturalized in at least one of the 23 regions. A small number of taxa (11) are considered invasive; these plants are known from just three regions. In several Arctic regions there are no naturalized non-native taxa recorded and the majority of Arctic regions have a low number of naturalized taxa. Analyses of the non-native vascular plant flora identified two main biogeographic clusters within the Arctic: American and Asiatic. Among all pathways, seed contamination and transport by vehicles have contributed the most to non-native plant introduction in the Arctic.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas , Plantas , Regiões Árticas
11.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 129: 258-267, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30195477

RESUMO

The application of whole-genome resequencing based on next-generation sequencing technologies provides an unprecedented opportunity for researchers to resolve long-standing evolutionary problems. Taxa belonging to the grape genus (Vitis L.) represent important genetic resources for the improvement of cultivated grapes. However, it has been challenging to resolve the deep phylogenetic relationships within Vitis, limiting the current understanding of the evolutionary history of Vitis and preventing the use of valuable wild grape resources. In this study, we obtained whole-genome sequence data from 41 accessions representing most taxa within subgenus Vitis and aligned these sequences to the Vitis vinifera L. reference genome. We reconstructed deep phylogenetic relationships within subgenus Vitis based on 2068 single-copy orthologous genes, which led to a robust topology with bootstrap support values of 100% for almost all branches. Three main clades are recovered within subgenus Vitis reflecting their continental distribution through North America, Europe, and East Asia, respectively. Our results suggest that the most possible migration route of the East Asian Vitis is from northeastern Asia southward to South Asia and Southeast Asia. The East Asian Vitis seems to have experienced adaptive radiation during the Miocene. This study provides novel insights into the diversification history of the grape genus Vitis.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Filogeografia , Vitis/classificação , Vitis/genética , Geografia , Funções Verossimilhança , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Ann Bot ; 120(6): 923-936, 2017 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29045531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gymnosperms are either wind-pollinated (anemophilous) or both wind- and insect-pollinated (ambophilous). Regardless of pollination mode, ovular secretions play a key role in pollen capture, germination and growth; they are likely also involved in pollinator reward. Little is known about the broad-scale diversity of ovular secretions across gymnosperms, and how these may relate to various reproductive functions. This study analyses the sugar and amino acid profiles of ovular secretions across a range of ambophilous (cycads and Gnetales) and anemophilous gymnosperms (conifers) to place them in an evolutionary context of their possible functions during reproduction. METHODS: Ovular secretions from 13 species representing all five main lineages of extant gymnosperms were sampled. High-performance liquid chromatography techniques were used to measure sugar and amino acid content. Multivariate statistics were applied to assess whether there are significant differences in the chemical profiles of anemophilous and ambophilous species. Data were compared with published chemical profiles of angiosperm nectar. Chemical profiles were placed in the context of phylogenetic relationships. KEY RESULTS: Total sugar concentrations were significantly higher in ovular secretions of ambophilous species than wind-pollinated taxa such as Pinaceae and Cupressophyta. Ambophilous species had lower amounts of total amino acids, and a higher proportion of non-protein amino acids compared with anemophilous lineages, and were also comparable to angiosperm nectar. Results suggest that early gymnosperms likely had ovular secretion profiles that were a mosaic of those associated with modern anemophilous and ambophilous species. Ginkgo, thought to be anemophilous, had a profile typical of ambophilous taxa, suggesting that insect pollination either exists in Gingko, but is undocumented, or that its ancestral populations were insect-pollinated. CONCLUSIONS: Chemical profiles of ovular secretions of ambophilous gymnosperms show a clear signal of pollinator-driven selection, including higher levels of carbohydrates than anemophilous taxa, lower levels of amino acids, and the presence of specific amino acids, such as ß-alanine, that are known to influence insect feeding behaviour and physiology.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Cycadopsida/metabolismo , Óvulo Vegetal/metabolismo , Polinização , Açúcares/metabolismo , Animais , Insetos/fisiologia , Filogenia , Vento
13.
Front Plant Sci ; 8: 590, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28491066

RESUMO

Tetrastigma (Miq.) Planch. is one of the most species-rich genera of the economically and agronomically important grape family Vitaceae. It includes ca. 95 species widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics of Asia and Australia. Species of Tetrastigma exhibit great diversity in both vegetative and reproductive characters. Here we inferred a well-supported phylogeny of Tetrastigma based on ten chloroplast DNA regions with an expanded taxon sampling of 72 species and two varieties. Our molecular results support six major clades within Tetrastigma and the relationships among these clades were well-resolved. We also documented seed morphology of 44 species covering the six major clades of the genus. Ancestral states of eight characters (seed shape, seed surface rumination pattern, chalaza length/width ratio, chalaza position, ventral infold position, ventral infold divergence, ventral infold depth in cross section, and endosperm shape) were reconstructed in Mesquite and R with four models. Character optimizations suggest that all character states have evolved multiple times except that the irregular-shaped surface rumination has derived only once in Tetrastigma. We evaluated the taxonomic importance of seed morphology and identified potential morphological evidence to support each major clade. Our comprehensive analyses of Tetrastigma shed insights into the infrageneric classification of this morphologically diverse and ecologically important genus in tropical and subtropical Asia.

14.
Front Plant Sci ; 7: 704, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27252720

RESUMO

Trichomes are widely distributed on surfaces of different organs in the grape genus Vitis and are of taxonomic utility. To explore the morphology, structure and ontogeny of Vitis trichomes, we investigated the diversity and distribution of trichomes in 34 species of Vitis. Two main types of trichomes in Vitis are documented: non-glandular and glandular. Within non-glandular trichomes, ribbon and simple trichomes are found on different vegetative plant organs. The morphology and ontogeny of these types of trichomes are further examined with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The ultrastructure of the glandular trichomes is explored with transmission electron microscopy. The ribbon trichomes are twisted, greatly elongated and unicellular, and this trichome type may be a morphological synapomorphy of Vitis and its closest tropical relative Ampelocissus and Pterisanthes in Vitaceae. The simple trichomes are documented in most species sampled in the genus. The glandular trichomes are multicellular, non-vascularized and composed of both epidermis and subjacent layers. We show that prickles occurring along the stems and petioles of Vitis davidii are modified glandular trichomes. We observed that glandular trichomes of V. romanetii secrete mucilage and volatile substances which trap insectes on the glands. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that metabolic products accumulate in vacuoles, the cytoplasm and intercellular spaces. We infer that glandular trichomes and young prickles are involved in the secretion of these metabolic products and the intercellular spaces may be the places of temporary storage of these secretions.

15.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 95: 217-28, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26545592

RESUMO

The grapes and the close allies in Vitaceae are of great agronomic and economic importance. Our previous studies showed that the grape genus Vitis was closely related to three tropical genera, which formed the Ampelocissus-Vitis clade (including Vitis, Ampelocissus, Nothocissus and Pterisanthes). Yet the phylogenetic relationships of the four genera within this clade remain poorly resolved. Furthermore, the geographic origin of Vitis is still controversial, because the sampling of the close relatives of Vitis was too limited in the previous studies. This study reconstructs the phylogenetic relationships within the clade, and hypothesizes the origin of Vitis in a broader phylogenetic framework, using five plastid and two nuclear markers. The Ampelocissus-Vitis clade is supported to be composed of five main lineages. Vitis includes two described subgenera each as a monophyletic group. Ampelocissus is paraphyletic. The New World Ampelocissus does not form a clade and shows a complex phylogenetic relationship, with A. acapulcensis and A. javalensis forming a clade, and A. erdvendbergiana sister to Vitis. The majority of the Asian Ampelocissus species form a clade, within which Pterisanthes is nested. Pterisanthes is polyphyletic, suggesting that the lamellate inflorescence characteristic of the genus represents convergence. Nothocissus is sister to the clade of Asian Ampelocissus and Pterisanthes. The African Ampelocissus forms a clade with several Asian species. Based on the Bayesian dating and both the RASP and Lagrange analyses, Vitis is inferred to have originated in the New World during the late Eocene (39.4Ma, 95% HPD: 32.6-48.6Ma), then migrated to Eurasia in the late Eocene (37.3Ma, 95% HPD: 30.9-45.1Ma). The North Atlantic land bridges (NALB) are hypothesized to be the most plausible route for the Vitis migration from the New World to Eurasia, while intercontinental long distance dispersal (LDD) cannot be eliminated as a likely mechanism.


Assuntos
Vitaceae/classificação , Vitis/classificação , Vitis/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Especiação Genética , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Plastídeos/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitaceae/genética
16.
PLoS One ; 8(9): e74394, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24069307

RESUMO

Previous phylogenetic studies of the grape family (Vitaceae) yielded poorly resolved deep relationships, thus impeding our understanding of the evolution of the family. Next-generation sequencing now offers access to protein coding sequences very easily, quickly and cost-effectively. To improve upon earlier work, we extracted 417 orthologous single-copy nuclear genes from the transcriptomes of 15 species of the Vitaceae, covering its phylogenetic diversity. The resulting transcriptome phylogeny provides robust support for the deep relationships, showing the phylogenetic utility of transcriptome data for plants over a time scale at least since the mid-Cretaceous. The pros and cons of transcriptome data for phylogenetic inference in plants are also evaluated.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Transcriptoma , Vitis/classificação , Vitis/genética , Biologia Computacional , Evolução Molecular , Genes de Plantas , Filogenia
17.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 67(3): 589-99, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23454494

RESUMO

We investigated the evolutionary complexity that resulted from cryptic diversification and polyploidy in parsley ferns (Cryptogramma). A total of 14 species were included in our data set, with six outgroup species and eight Cryptogramma species. DNA sequence data from six plastid loci (rbcL, rbcL-accD, rbcL-atpB, rps4-trnS, trnG-trnR and trnP-petG) were analyzed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods to provide the first rigorous assessment of diversification in the genus, including testing the monophyly of the genus and sections. Cryptogramma and Coniogramme are recovered as reciprocally monophyletic sister genera. We established the monophyly of both sections within Cryptogramma. Furthermore, our sequence data reveal that described species reflect mostly allopatric reciprocally monophyletic lineages that are independent evolutionary trajectories. Using sequence data from the nuclear locus (gapCp) we find that the European C. crispa is an autotetraploid with a partially diploidized genome, while the North American tetraploid Cryptogramma sitchensis is an allopolyploid derived from C. acrostichoides and C. raddeana. Subsequent backcrossing between C. sitchensis and C. acrostichoides has allowed the introgression of C. raddeana alleles into northern populations of C. acrostichoides.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Gleiquênias/classificação , Gleiquênias/genética , Variação Genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Haploidia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Plastídeos/genética , Tetraploidia
18.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 66(1): 43-53, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23000818

RESUMO

Pantropical intercontinental disjunct distribution is a major biogeographic pattern in plants, and has been explained mainly by boreotropical migration via the North Atlantic land bridges (NALB) and transoceanic long-distance dispersal (LDD), and sometimes by vicariance. However, well-resolved phylogenies of pantropical clades are still relatively few. Cissus is the largest genus of the grape family Vitaceae and shows a pantropical intercontinental disjunction with its 300 species distributed in all major tropical regions. This study constructed the phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic diversification history of Cissus, employing five plastid markers (rps16, trnL-F, atpB-rbcL, trnH-psbA and trnC-petN). The results confirmed that Cissus polyphyletic, consisting of three main clades: the core Cissus, the Cissus striata complex, and the Australian-Neotropical disjunct Cissus antarctica -C. trianae clade. The latter two clades need to be removed from Cissus to maintain the monophyly of the genus. The core Cissus is inferred to have originated in Africa and is estimated to have diverged from its relatives in Vitaceae in the late Cretaceous. It diversified in Africa into several main lineages in the late Paleocene to the early Eocene, colonized Asia at least three times in the Miocene, and the Neotropics in the middle Eocene. The NALB seems the most plausible route for the core Cissus migration from Africa to the Neotropics in the middle Eocene. Three African-Asian and two Neotropical-Australian disjunctions in Cissus s.l. are estimated to have originated in the Miocene and may be best explained by LDD.


Assuntos
Cissus/classificação , Evolução Molecular , Filogenia , Teorema de Bayes , Cissus/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Geografia , Modelos Genéticos , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
PhytoKeys ; (31): 21-61, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24399902

RESUMO

A taxonomic synopsis of the Altingiaceae is presented, including the taxonomic enumeration and distribution of 15 recognized species based on studies of 1,500 specimens from 24 herbaria throughout the distributional range of the taxa. Previous phylogenetic analyses based on several molecular markers have shown that Altingia and Semiliquidambar are nested within Liquidambar. All Altingia and Semiliquidambar species are now formally transferred to Liquidambar, which has the nomenclatural priority. The following nine new combinations are herein made: Liquidambar cambodiana(Lecomte) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar caudata (H. T. Chang) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar chingii (Metcalf) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar gracilipes (Hemsl.) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar multinervis(Cheng) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar obovata (Merrill & Chun) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar poilanei (Tardieu) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar siamensis (Craib) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, and Liquidambar yunnanensis (Rehder & Wilson) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen.

20.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 65(2): 437-50, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22776548

RESUMO

A lineage of 12 arid land shrubby species in the gymnosperm genus Ephedra (Gnetales) from North America is used to evaluate the influence of climate on speciation. With a long evolutionary history, and a well documented fossil record this lineage is an ideal model for understanding the process of speciation under a niche conservatism scenario. Using seven DNA molecular markers, Bayesian inference is carried out to uncover sister species and to estimate time of divergence of the lineages. Ecological niche models are generated for four parapatric and sympatric sister species and two analyses of niche evolution are performed, one based on ecological niche models and another using raw data and multivariate analysis. As previous analyses suggest, the diversification of North America Ephedra species may be the result of a recent secondary radiation. Both parapatric and sympatric species diverged mostly in a scenario of climatic niche conservatism. However, we also found strong evidence for niche divergence for one of the sister species pairs (E. californica-E. trifurca). Moreover, the multivariate analysis found environmental differences for some variables between sister species. The estimated divergence time of three pairs of sister species distributed in southwestern North America (E. cutleri-E. aspera, E. californica-E. trifurca and E. torreyana-E. viridis) is inferred to have occurred in the Late Miocene to Pliocene and for the sister species pair E. antisyphilitica-E. coryi distributed in the southern United States and northeastern Mexico, it was inferred from the Pliocene to Pleistocene. The orogenetic and climatic changes documented for these regions related to expansion of arid lands, may have contributed to the diversification in North American Ephedra, rather than adaptations to new climatic conditions.


Assuntos
Clima , Ecossistema , Ephedra/classificação , Especiação Genética , Teorema de Bayes , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Ephedra/genética , Fósseis , Modelos Biológicos , América do Norte , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...