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1.
Campbell Syst Rev ; 20(2): e1415, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38808167

RESUMO

Objectives This is the protocol for a Campbell systematic review. The objectives are as follows: The aim of this systematic review is to examine the scientific evidence available from low- and middle-income countries on the association of breakfast consumption habits and anthropometry/adiposity- and nutrition-related outcomes in adolescents aged 10-19 years old.

2.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 60(3)2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38541103

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Self-management programs are essential for increasing COPD patient participation and autonomy in making appropriate decisions about their chronic condition. The present study aimed to assess the impact of COPD self-management interventions on quality of life, functional status, patient education, depression, and anxiety in primary care. Materials and Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial recruiting patients with COPD (GOLD A and B) from four primary care centers in Crete, Greece, with one intervention group (n = 40) receiving self-management educational support and one control group (n = 80) receiving usual care. To measure quality of life, functional status, patient education, depression, and anxiety, we used patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) at baseline and 6 months post-intervention, including the Short-Form Health survey (SF-12), Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ), mMRC, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory, Health Education Impact Questionnaire (HeiQ), and Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ). Results: At the end of the 6-month intervention, most PROMs improved significantly in the intervention group (p < 0.05) but did not show significant changes in the control group. The greatest improvements at follow-up compared to baseline measurements were observed for dyspnea (mMRC-38.6%), anxiety (BAI-35%), depression (BDI-20.2%), COPD health status (CCQ-34.1%), and the actively managing my health subscale of HLQ (23.5%). Conclusions: Our results suggest that a self-management intervention could be an effective strategy for improving PROMs in primary care. Although more research is needed to identify the long-term effects of such interventional programs, policymakers could implement similar programs to improve the overall health of these patients.


Assuntos
Asma , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Autogestão , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Grécia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente
3.
Allergy ; 79(4): 977-989, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38433402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: IgE-mediated food allergy (FA) is a global health concern with substantial individual and societal implications. While diverse intervention strategies have been researched, inconsistencies in reported outcomes limit evaluations of FA treatments. To streamline evaluations and promote consistent reporting, the Core Outcome Measures for Food Allergy (COMFA) initiative aimed to establish a Core Outcome Set (COS) for FA clinical trials and observational studies of interventions. METHODS: The project involved a review of published clinical trials, trial protocols and qualitative literature. Outcomes found as a result of review were categorized and classified, informing a two-round online-modified Delphi process followed by hybrid consensus meeting to finalize the COS. RESULTS: The literature review, taxonomy mapping and iterative discussions with diverse COMFA group yielded an initial list of 39 outcomes. The iterative online and in-person meetings reduced the list to 13 outcomes for voting in the formal Delphi process. One more outcome was added based on participant suggestions after the first Delphi round. A total of 778 participants from 52 countries participated, with 442 participating in both Delphi rounds. No outcome met a priori criteria for inclusion, and one was excluded as a result of the Delphi. Thirteen outcomes were brought to the hybrid consensus meeting as a result of Delphi and two outcomes, 'allergic symptoms' and 'quality of life' achieved consensus for inclusion as 'core' outcomes. CONCLUSION: In addition to the mandatory reporting of adverse events for FA clinical trials or observational studies of interventions, allergic symptoms and quality of life should be measured as core outcomes. Future work by COMFA will define how best to measure these core outcomes.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Técnica Delphi , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Imunoglobulina E , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Projetos de Pesquisa , Resultado do Tratamento , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
4.
JAMA Pediatr ; 177(5): 489-497, 2023 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36972063

RESUMO

Importance: Earlier egg and peanut introduction probably reduces risk of egg and peanut allergy, respectively, but it is uncertain whether food allergy as a whole can be prevented using earlier allergenic food introduction. Objective: To investigate associations between timing of allergenic food introduction to the infant diet and risk of food allergy. Data Sources: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, Medline, Embase, and CENTRAL databases were searched for articles from database inception to December 29, 2022. Search terms included infant, randomized controlled trial, and terms for common allergenic foods and allergic outcomes. Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials evaluating age at allergenic food introduction (milk, egg, fish, shellfish, tree nuts, wheat, peanuts, and soya) during infancy and immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergy from 1 to 5 years of age were included. Screening was conducted independently by multiple authors. Data Extraction and Synthesis: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guideline was used. Data were extracted in duplicate and synthesized using a random-effects model. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework was used to assess certainty of evidence. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were risk of IgE-mediated allergy to any food from 1 to 5 years of age and withdrawal from the intervention. Secondary outcomes included allergy to specific foods. Results: Of 9283 titles screened, data were extracted from 23 eligible trials (56 articles, 13 794 randomized participants). There was moderate-certainty evidence from 4 trials (3295 participants) that introduction of multiple allergenic foods from 2 to 12 months of age (median age, 3-4 months) was associated with reduced risk of food allergy (risk ratio [RR], 0.49; 95% CI, 0.33-0.74; I2 = 49%). Absolute risk difference for a population with 5% incidence of food allergy was -26 cases (95% CI, -34 to -13 cases) per 1000 population. There was moderate-certainty evidence from 5 trials (4703 participants) that introduction of multiple allergenic foods from 2 to 12 months of age was associated with increased withdrawal from the intervention (RR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.45-3.63; I2 = 89%). Absolute risk difference for a population with 20% withdrawal from the intervention was 258 cases (95% CI, 90-526 cases) per 1000 population. There was high-certainty evidence from 9 trials (4811 participants) that introduction of egg from 3 to 6 months of age was associated with reduced risk of egg allergy (RR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.46-0.77; I2 = 0%) and high-certainty evidence from 4 trials (3796 participants) that introduction of peanut from 3 to 10 months of age was associated with reduced risk of peanut allergy (RR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.19-0.51; I2 = 21%). Evidence for timing of introduction of cow's milk and risk of cow's milk allergy was very low certainty. Conclusions and Relevance: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, earlier introduction of multiple allergenic foods in the first year of life was associated with lower risk of developing food allergy but a high rate of withdrawal from the intervention. Further work is needed to develop allergenic food interventions that are safe and acceptable for infants and their families.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade a Ovo , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Hipersensibilidade a Leite , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim , Feminino , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/complicações , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/etiologia , Leite , Alérgenos , Arachis
5.
BMJ ; 375: n2202, 2021 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645600

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the conduct and reporting of formula trials. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2020. REVIEW METHODS: Intervention trials comparing at least two formula products in children less than three years of age were included, but not trials of human breast milk or fortifiers of breast milk. Data were extracted in duplicate and primary outcome data were synthesised for meta-analysis with a random effects model weighted by the inverse variance method. Risk of bias was evaluated with Cochrane risk of bias version 2.0, and risk of undermining breastfeeding was evaluated according to published consensus guidance. Primary outcomes of the trials included in the systematic review were identified from clinical trial registries, protocols, or trial publications. RESULTS: 22 201 titles were screened and 307 trials were identified that were published between 2006 and 2020, of which 73 (24%) trials in 13 197 children were prospectively registered. Another 111 unpublished but registered trials in 17 411 children were identified. Detailed analysis was undertaken for 125 trials (23 757 children) published since 2015. Seventeen (14%) of these recently published trials were conducted independently of formula companies, 26 (21%) were prospectively registered with a clear aim and primary outcome, and authors or sponsors shared prospective protocols for 11 (9%) trials. Risk of bias was low in five (4%) and high in 100 (80%) recently published trials, mainly because of inappropriate exclusions from analysis and selective reporting. For 68 recently published superiority trials, a pooled standardised mean difference of 0.51 (range -0.43 to 3.29) was calculated with an asymmetrical funnel plot (Egger's test P<0.001), which reduced to 0.19 after correction for asymmetry. Primary outcomes were reported by authors as favourable in 86 (69%) trials, and 115 (92%) abstract conclusions were favourable. One of 38 (3%) trials in partially breastfed infants reported adequate support for breastfeeding and 14 of 87 (16%) trials in non-breastfed infants confirmed the decision not to breastfeed was firmly established before enrolment in the trial. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that formula trials lack independence or transparency, and published outcomes are biased by selective reporting. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO 2018 CRD42018091928.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Fórmulas Infantis , Projetos de Pesquisa , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/ética , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/normas , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis/classificação , Fórmulas Infantis/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(4)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698275

RESUMO

Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) is an emerging tick-borne rickettsiosis of the spotted fever group (SFG), endemic in the Mediterranean basin. By virtue of technological innovations in molecular genetics, it has been determined that the causative agent of MSF is Rickettsia conorii subspecies conorii. The arthropod vector of this bacterium is the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The true nature of the reservoir of R. conorii conorii has not been completely deciphered yet, although many authors theorize that the canine population, other mammals, and the ticks themselves could potentially contribute as reservoirs. Typical symptoms of MSF include fever, maculopapular rash, and a characteristic eschar ("tache noire"). Atypical clinical features and severe multi-organ complications may also be present. All of these manifestations arise from the disseminated infection of the endothelium by R. conorii conorii. Several methods exist for the diagnosis of MSF. Serological tests are widely used and molecular techniques have become increasingly available. Doxycycline remains the treatment of choice, while preventive measures are focused on modification of human behavior and vector control strategies. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of MSF.

7.
Exp Ther Med ; 22(5): 1239, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34539835

RESUMO

Asthma diagnosis and management remains a challenging task for the medical community. The aim of the present study was to present the functional and inflammatory profiles of patients with difficult-to-treat asthma in a real-life clinical setting referred to the specialized asthma clinic at the University Hospital of Heraklion. The registry included a cohort of 267 patients who were referred to the severe asthma clinic. Patients were assessed with emphasis on the history of allergies, nasal polyposis or other comorbidities. Blood testing for eosinophils counts and total and specific IgE, and pulmonary function tests were performed at baseline. The median age of patients with asthma was 55 years old, 68.5% were women and 58.3% were never smokers. The vast majority presented with late onset asthma (75.7%), whereas eight (3%) patients were on oral corticosteroids. The median number of exacerbations during the last 12 months was 1 (0-3). Furthermore, 50.7% of patients had a positive serum allergy test, the median eosinophil count was 300 (188-508.5) cells/µl of blood and median total IgE level was 117.5 (29.4-360.5) IU/ml. Patients were retrospectively grouped in the following categories: Group 1, mild-moderate asthma; group 2, patients prescribed a step 4 or 5 asthma therapy according to Global Initiative for Asthma; and group 3, patients on biologic agents. Group 1 had significantly higher FEV1% than groups 2 and 3 (93.4 vs. 79.9 and 79.4%, respectively; P<0.001). Finally, the median Asthma Control Questionnaire 7 (ACQ7) score was 1.14, with patients from groups 2 and 3 presenting higher ACQ7 scores compared with group 1 patients as expected (1.1 and 2.1 vs. 0.7, respectively; P<0.001). To the best of our knowledge, this was the first real-life asthma study in Crete that demonstrated that severe asthmatics predominantly have late-onset asthma with airflow obstruction and uncontrolled symptoms.

8.
Clin Respir J ; 15(12): 1310-1319, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Polypharmacy and multimorbidity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are highly prevalent, with potential associations with worse COPD outcomes. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical characteristics and outcomes of polypharmacy, investigate the relationship of polypharmacy with health status and exacerbations and assess the prevalence of inappropriate medication (PIM), risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and drug-to-drug interactions in COPD patients. METHODS: A total of 245 COPD patients were enrolled from primary care in Crete, Greece. Patients completed a questionnaire and the COPD Assessment Test (CAT). Multimorbidity was defined as having two or more comorbidities and polypharmacy was defined as taking five or more drugs per day. RESULTS: Most of COPD patients (77.0%) and the majority (83.6%) of elderly (≥65 years) had multimorbidity, while polypharmacy was evident in 55.2% of all patients and 62.4% in elderly. After adjustments for age, gender and pack-years, polypharmacy was associated with CAT ≥ 10, multimorbidity, several cardiometabolic diseases, cancer and depression-anxiety and prostate disorders (all p values > 0.05). PIMs were found in 9.6% of subjects aged ≥65 years and were mainly mental health medication. Due to coadministration of medications, 22.3% of the population were at cumulative risk for falls, 17% for constipation and 12.8% for cardiovascular events. Finally, 15 pairs of drug-to-drug interactions were identified in 11.5% of patients. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that polypharmacy is highly prevalent and associated with worse health status and prescription risks in COPD patients. These findings potentially introduce an additional challenge on effective management of these patients.


Assuntos
Polimedicação , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prescrição Inadequada , Masculino , Lista de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropriados , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia
9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 673573, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34434942

RESUMO

Acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP) is an entity that can be secondary to various conditions leading to lung injury, such as infections, malignancies, and various autoimmune conditions or idiopathic interstitial lung disease, when no obvious underlying cause is identified. Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), on the other hand, are a spectrum of clonal myeloid disorders, with a higher risk of acute leukemia, characterized by ineffective bone marrow (BM) hematopoiesis and, thus, peripheral blood (PB) cytopenias. Immune deregulation is thought to take part in the pathophysiology of the disease, including abnormal T and/or B cell responses, innate immunity, and cytokine expression. In the literature, there are a few case reports of patients with MDS that have presented pulmonary infiltrates and were diagnosed as having AFOP or organizing pneumonia (OP). It is rare, though, to have isolated pulmonary infiltrates without Sweet's syndrome or even the pulmonary infiltrates to precede the diagnosis and treatment of MDS, which was our case. We present a 72-year-old female developing new lung infiltrates refractory to antibiotic treatment that responded well to corticosteroids and was histologically described as having OP. The treatment was gradually successfully switched to mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). The patient was later diagnosed with MDS. This interesting case report suggests firstly that a diagnosis of AFOP or OP should alert the clinician to search for an underlying cause including MDS and vice versa, the use of systemic steroids should not be postponed, and, finally, that MMF can successfully be used in these patients.

10.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e048338, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215609

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Clinical recommendations for childhood asthma are often based on data extrapolated from studies conducted in adults, despite significant differences in mechanisms and response to treatments. The Paediatric Asthma in Real Life (PeARL) Think Tank aspires to develop recommendations based on the best available evidence from studies in children. An overview of systematic reviews (SRs) on paediatric asthma maintenance management and an SR of treatments for acute asthma attacks in children, requiring an emergency presentation with/without hospital admission will be conducted. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Standard methodology recommended by Cochrane will be followed. Maintenance pharmacotherapy of childhood asthma will be evaluated in an overview of SRs published after 2005 and including clinical trials or real-life studies. For evaluating pharmacotherapy of acute asthma attacks leading to an emergency presentation with/without hospital admission, we opted to conduct de novo synthesis in the absence of adequate up-to-date published SRs. For the SR of acute asthma pharmacotherapy, we will consider eligible SRs, clinical trials or real-life studies without time restrictions. Our evidence updates will be based on broad searches of Pubmed/Medline and the Cochrane Library. We will use A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews, V.2, Cochrane risk of bias 2 and REal Life EVidence AssessmeNt Tool to evaluate the methodological quality of SRs, controlled clinical trials and real-life studies, respectively.Next, we will further assess interventions for acute severe asthma attacks with positive clinical results in meta-analyses. We will include both controlled clinical trials and observational studies and will assess their quality using the previously mentioned tools. We will employ random effect models for conducting meta-analyses, and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology to assess certainty in the body of evidence. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is not required for SRs. Our findings will be published in peer reviewed journals and will inform clinical recommendations being developed by the PeARL Think Tank. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBERS: CRD42020132990, CRD42020171624.


Assuntos
Asma , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Viés , Criança , Hospitalização , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 148(5): 1307-1315, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regulatory bodies recommend that all patients at risk of anaphylaxis be prescribed 2 epinephrine autoinjectors, which they should carry at all times. This is in contrast to some guidelines. The proportion of anaphylaxis reactions that are treated with multiple doses of epinephrine has not been systematically evaluated. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies reporting epinephrine treatment for anaphylaxis in which data relating to the number of doses administered were available. METHODS: We searched the Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases for relevant studies reporting at least 10 anaphylaxis events (due to food or venom) from 1946 until January 2020. Data were extracted in duplicate for the meta-analysis, and the risk of bias was assessed. The study was registered under the PROSPERO identifier CRD42017069109. RESULTS: A total of 86 studies (36,557 anaphylaxis events) met the inclusion criteria (20 of the studies [23%] were prospective studies; 64 [74%] reported reactions in the community, and 22 [26%] included food challenge data). Risk of bias was assessed as low in 50 studies. Overall, 7.7% of anaphylaxis events from any cause (95% CI = 6.4-9.1) were treated with multiple doses of epinephrine. When only epinephrine-treated reactions for which subsequent doses were administered by a health care professional were considered, 11.1% of food-induced reactions (95% CI = 9.4-13.2) and 17.1% of venom-induced reactions (95% CI = 11.3-25.0) were treated with more than 1 epinephrine dose. Heterogeneity was moderate to high in the meta-analyses, but at sensitivity analysis this estimate was not affected by study design or anaphylaxis definition. CONCLUSION: Around 1 in 10 anaphylaxis reactions are treated with more than 1 dose of epinephrine.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia/tratamento farmacológico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Epinefrina/uso terapêutico , Hipersensibilidade/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Protocolos Clínicos , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , Humanos
12.
BMJ ; 372: n251, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597169

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe time trends for hospital admissions due to food anaphylaxis in the United Kingdom over the past 20 years. DESIGN: Analysis of national data, 1998-2018. SETTING: Data relating to hospital admissions for anaphylaxis and deaths, and prescription data for adrenaline autoinjector devices. PARTICIPANTS: UK population as a whole and devolved nations (England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Time trends, age, and sex distributions for hospital admissions for anaphylaxis due to food and non-food triggers, and how these admission rates compare with the case fatality rate (number of fatalities as a proportion of hospital admissions). RESULTS: Between 1998 and 2018, 101 891 people were admitted to hospital for anaphylaxis. Of these admissions, 30 700 (30.1%) were coded as due to a food trigger. Food anaphylaxis admissions increased from 1.23 to 4.04 per 100 000 population per year (from 1998 to 2018), an annual increase of 5.7% (95% confidence interval 5.5% to 5.9%, P<0.001). The largest increase in hospital admissions was observed in children younger than 15 years, with an increase from 2.1 to 9.2 admissions per 100 000 population per year (an annual increase of 6.6%, 95% confidence interval 6.3% to 7.0%). For comparison, the annual increase was 5.9% (5.6% to 6.2%) in people aged 15-59 years and 2.1% (1.8% to 3.1%) in those aged 60 years and older. 152 deaths were identified where the fatal event was probably caused by food induced anaphylaxis. The case fatality rate decreased from 0.7% to 0.19% for confirmed fatal food anaphylaxis (rate ratio 0.931, 95% confidence interval 0.904 to 0.959, P<0.001) and to 0.30% for suspected fatal food anaphylaxis (0.970, 0.945 to 0.996, P=0.024). At least 46% (86 of 187, which also includes 35 deaths in 1992-98) of deaths were triggered by peanut or tree nut. Cow's milk was responsible for 17 of 66 (26%) deaths in school aged children. Over the same time period, prescriptions for adrenaline autoinjectors increased by 336% (estimated rate ratio 1.113, 95% confidence interval 1.112 to 1.113; an increase of 11% per year). CONCLUSIONS: Hospital admissions for food induced anaphylaxis have increased from 1998 to 2018, however the case fatality rate has decreased. In school aged children, cow's milk is now the most common single cause of fatal anaphylaxis.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anafilaxia/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epinefrina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Simpatomiméticos/uso terapêutico , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(1)2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Greece is among the European countries with the highest consumption of antibiotics, both in community and hospital settings, including last-line antibiotics, such as carbapenems. We sought to explore doctors' perceptions, attitudes and practices towards the management of patients with multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) infections after the implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship programme (ASP) in a tertiary academic hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A self-administered, internet-based questionnaire survey was completed by doctors of the University Hospital of Heraklion in Crete, Greece. RESULTS: In total, 202 (59.1%) hospital doctors fully completed the questionnaire. Most of them agreed that the prospective audit and feedback ASP strategy is more effective and educational than the preauthorization ASP strategy. ASP implementation prompted most respondents to monitor the continuously evolving microbiological data of their patients more closely and affected them towards a multidisciplinary and personalised care of patients with infections caused by MDROs and towards a more rigorous implementation of infection prevention and control measures. The vast majority of participants (98.5%) stated that ASP must be continued and further developed during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: The ASP implementation in our hospital had a beneficial impact on doctors' perceptions, attitudes and practices with regard to the management of infections due to MDROs.

14.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 253, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Comorbidities and adherence to inhaled therapy appears to have a major impact on treatment goals, health status and disease control in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Aim of the study was to assess levels of adherence to inhalers, comorbidities and associations with COPD outcomes in patients residing in rural and semi-urban areas of Greece. METHODS: Two hundred fifty-seven COPD patients were enrolled from primary health care in 2015-2016. Physicians used structured interviews and questionnaires to assess quality of life and disease status. Patients were classified into groups according to GOLD 2019 guidelines (based on CAT and mMRC). Adherence to inhalers was measured with the Test of Adherence to Inhalers (TAI). Multivariate linear and logistics regression models were used to assess associations between comorbidities and adherence to inhalers with COPD outcomes, including CAT and mMRC scores, exacerbations and GOLD A-D status. RESULTS: 74.1% of COPD patients reported poor adherence, while most of them were characterized as deliberate non-compliers (69.5%). 77.1% had ≥2 comorbidities, with overweight/obese (82.2%), hypertension (72.9%) and diabetes mellitus (58%) being the most prevalent. In multivariate analysis, COPD outcomes having significant associations with poor adherence included worse health status [OR (95% CI) 4.86 (1.61-14.69) and 2.93 (1.51-5.71) based on CAT and mMRC, respectively], having ≥2 exacerbations in the past year [4.68 (1.51-4.44)], and disease status e.g., be in groups C or D [3.13 (1.49-8.53) and 3.35 (1.24-9.09) based on CAT and mMRC, respectively). Subjects with gastroesophageal reflux showed better inhaler adherence [OR (95% CI) 0.17 (0.6-0.45)], but none of the comorbid conditions was associated with COPD outcomes after adjustments. CONCLUSIONS: Poor adherence to inhalers and comorbidities are both prevalent in COPD patients of primary care residing in rural/semi-urban areas of Greece, with adherence influencing COPD outcomes. Raising awareness of patients and physicians on the importance of comorbidities control and inhaler adherence may lead to interventions and improve outcomes.


Assuntos
Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Administração por Inalação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Broncodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Sleep ; 43(12)2020 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496519

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between gestational sleep deprivation and childhood adiposity and cardiometabolic profile. METHODS: Data were used from two population-based birth cohorts (Rhea study and Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study). A total of 3,608 pregnant women and their children were followed up until the age of 11 years. Gestational sleep deprivation was defined as 6 or fewer hours of sleep per day, reported by questionnaire. The primary outcomes included repeated measures of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, body fat, serum lipids, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels in childhood. We performed a pooled analysis with adjusted linear mixed effect and Cox proportional hazards models. We tested for mediation by birthweight, gestational age, and gestational diabetes. RESULTS: Gestational sleep deprivation was associated with higher BMI (beta; 95% CI: 0.7; 0.4, 1.0 kg/m2) and waist circumference (beta; 95% CI: 0.9; 0.1, 1.6 cm) in childhood, and increased risk for overweight or obesity (HR; 95% CI: 1.4; 1.1, 2.0). Gestational sleep deprivation was also associated with higher offspring DBP (beta; 95% CI: 1.6; 0.5, 2.7 mmHg). The observed associations were modified by sex (all p-values for interaction < 0.05); and were more pronounced in girls. Gestational diabetes and shorter gestational age partly mediated the seen associations. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study showing that gestational sleep deprivation may increase offspring's adiposity and blood pressure, while exploring possible mechanisms. Attention to glucose metabolism and preterm birth might be extra warranted in mothers with gestational sleep deprivation.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Nascimento Prematuro , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Privação do Sono/complicações , Privação do Sono/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura
16.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 30(1): 27, 2020 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555199

RESUMO

Sense of coherence and self-efficacy has been found to affect health-related quality of life in chronic diseases. However, research on respiratory diseases is limited. Here we report findings on quality of life (QoL) of COPD patients and the associations with coherence and self-efficacy. This study consists of the Greek national branch of the UNLOCK study, with a sample of 257 COPD patients. Coherence and self-efficacy are positively inter-correlated (Pearson rho = 0.590, p < 0.001). They are negatively correlated with the quality of life (CAT) [Pearson rho: coherence = -0.29, p < 0.001; self-efficacy = -0.29, p < 0.001) and mMRC (coherence = -0.37, p < 0.001; self-efficacy rho = -0.32, p < 0.001)]. Coherence is inversely associated with (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) GOLD 2018-CAT and GOLD 2018-mMRC classification and "having at least one exacerbation in the past year". Findings are stressing the need for their incorporation in primary health care and COPD guidance as it maybe that enhancing coherence and self-efficacy will improve QoL.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Senso de Coerência , Idoso , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(4)2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326107

RESUMO

CD44, a surface marker for cancer stem cells, interacts with PKM2, a key regulator of aerobic glycolysis, and enhances the glycolytic phenotype of cancer cells leading to antioxidant protection and macromolecules' synthesis. To clarify the clinical importance of this "cross-talk" as a mechanism of drug resistance, we assessed the expression both of PKM2 and of CD44 in cancer cells of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) treated with platinum-based treatment. One hundred and seventy-one patients with EOC were assessed for PKM2mRNA expression and PKM2 and CD44 proteins detection. Associations with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed with Kaplan-Meier and adjusted Cox regression models. PKM2mRNA and protein as well as CD44 protein were detectable in the majority of patients. Positive correlation between PKM2 and CD44 protein expression was observed (Spearman rho = 0.2, p = 0.015). When we used the median to group patients into high versus low expression, high PKM2mRNA and protein levels were significantly associated with lower progression-free survival (PFS; p = 0.003 and p = 0.002, respectively) and shorter overall survival (OS; p ≤ 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively). However, high CD44 protein expression was significantly correlated only with shorter OS (p = 0.004). Moreover, patients with both high PKM2 and CD44 protein levels experienced shorter PFS and OS (p = 0.007 and p = 0.003, respectively) compared to patients with low expression of both proteins. Finally, higher PKM2mRNA and protein expression as well as CD44 protein expression (HR: 2.16; HR: 1.82; HR: 1.01, respectively) were independent prognostic factors for decreased median OS (mOS), whereas only PKM2 protein expression (HR: 1.95) was an independent prognostic factor for decreased median PFS (mPFS). In conclusion, PKM2 expression is a negative prognostic factor in EOC patients, but the interaction between CD44 and PKM2 that may be implicated in EOC platinum-resistance needs further investigation.

18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 8(6): 1953-1960.e9, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric asthma remains a public health challenge with enormous impact worldwide. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify and prioritize unmet clinical needs in pediatric asthma, which could be used to guide future research and policy activities. METHODS: We first identified unmet needs through an open-question survey administered to international experts in pediatric asthma who were members of the Pediatric Asthma in Real Life Think Tank. Prioritization of topics was then achieved through a second, extensive survey with global reach, of multiple stakeholders (leading experts, researchers, clinicians, patients, policy makers, and the pharmaceutical industry). Differences across responder groups were compared. RESULTS: A total of 57 unmet clinical need topics identified by international experts were prioritized by 412 participants from 5 continents and 60 countries. Prevention of disease progression and prediction of future risk, including persistence into adulthood, emerged as the most urgent research questions. Stratified care, based on biomarkers, clinical phenotypes, the children's age, and demographics were also highly rated. The identification of minimum diagnostic criteria in different age groups, cultural perceptions of asthma, and best treatment by age group were priorities for responders from low-middle-income countries. There was good agreement across different stakeholder groups in all domains with some notable exceptions that highlight the importance of involving the whole range of stakeholders in formulation of recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: Different stakeholders agree in the majority of research and strategic (eg, prevention, personalized approach) priorities for pediatric asthma. Stakeholder diversity is crucial for highlighting divergent issues that future guidelines should consider.


Assuntos
Asma , Adulto , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/terapia , Criança , Humanos , Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Sleep Breath ; 24(4): 1599-1605, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103395

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) severity and related health status with sleep quality remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between COPD and sleep quality in the Greek national branch of the UNLOCK cohort. METHODS: A sample of 257 COPD patients enrolled cross-sectionally from primary care in Greece. Sleep quality was assessed by the COPD and Asthma Sleep Impact Scale (CASIS-7 items) questionnaire (higher score indicates worse sleep quality). We tested for associations of sleep impairment with health status (CAT and mMRC scores), exacerbations, hospitalizations, GOLD 2018 ABCD status, inhaler adherence, frailty, and sense of coherence, adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, and comorbidities. RESULTS: The majority of patients reported uncontrolled symptoms (91% with ≥ 10 CAT or 61% with ≥ 2 mMRC). Mean (SD) age was 65 (12.3) with 79% males. CASIS-7 mean (SD) score was 37.7 (12.9). After adjustments, CASIS was significantly associated with worse health status (e.g., CASIS increased with CAT ≥ 10 [ß = 12.53, (95% CI, 6.82, 18.25); p < 0.001], mMRC ≥ 2 [ß = 4.96, (95% CI, 1.56, 8.34); p = 0.004]), COPD severity (CAT-based GOLD BD [ß = 8.88 (95% CI, 2.50, 15.26); p = 0.007]), frailty [ß = 8.85 (95% CI 4.45,13.25); p < 0.001], and sense of coherence [ß = -0.14 (95% CI -0.21, -0.06), p < 001]. When using a CASIS cut-off score of 30 as indicator of sleep impairment, additional to the aforementioned associations, we found increased risk for sleep impairment with ≥ 2 exacerbations/year and poor inhaler adherence (p value < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that worse health status and COPD severity are associated with poor sleep quality in COPD patients.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/embriologia , Sono , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/psicologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia
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