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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38727647

RESUMO

AIM: The "2024 AHA/ACC/AMSSM/HRS/PACES/SCMR Guideline for the Management of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy" provides recommendations to guide clinicians in the management of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted from September 14, 2022, to November 22, 2022, encompassing studies, reviews, and other evidence on human subjects that were published in English from PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and other selected databases relevant to this guideline. Additional relevant studies, published through May 23, 2023, during the guideline writing process, were also considered by the writing committee and added to the evidence tables, where appropriate. STRUCTURE: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy remains a common genetic heart disease reported in populations globally. Recommendations from the "2020 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Patients With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy" have been updated with new evidence to guide clinicians.

2.
Circulation ; 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718139

RESUMO

AIM: The "2024 AHA/ACC/AMSSM/HRS/PACES/SCMR Guideline for the Management of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy" provides recommendations to guide clinicians in the management of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted from September 14, 2022, to November 22, 2022, encompassing studies, reviews, and other evidence on human subjects that were published in English from PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and other selected databases relevant to this guideline. Additional relevant studies, published through May 23, 2023, during the guideline writing process, were also considered by the writing committee and added to the evidence tables, where appropriate. STRUCTURE: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy remains a common genetic heart disease reported in populations globally. Recommendations from the "2020 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Patients With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy" have been updated with new evidence to guide clinicians.

3.
Biol Sport ; 41(2): 221-241, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38524814

RESUMO

The rise of artificial intelligence (AI) applications in healthcare provides new possibilities for personalized health management. AI-based fitness applications are becoming more common, facilitating the opportunity for individualised exercise prescription. However, the use of AI carries the risk of inadequate expert supervision, and the efficacy and validity of such applications have not been thoroughly investigated, particularly in the context of diverse health conditions. The aim of the study was to critically assess the efficacy of exercise prescriptions generated by OpenAI's Generative Pre-Trained Transformer 4 (GPT-4) model for five example patient profiles with diverse health conditions and fitness goals. Our focus was to assess the model's ability to generate exercise prescriptions based on a singular, initial interaction, akin to a typical user experience. The evaluation was conducted by leading experts in the field of exercise prescription. Five distinct scenarios were formulated, each representing a hypothetical individual with a specific health condition and fitness objective. Upon receiving details of each individual, the GPT-4 model was tasked with generating a 30-day exercise program. These AI-derived exercise programs were subsequently subjected to a thorough evaluation by experts in exercise prescription. The evaluation encompassed adherence to established principles of frequency, intensity, time, and exercise type; integration of perceived exertion levels; consideration for medication intake and the respective medical condition; and the extent of program individualization tailored to each hypothetical profile. The AI model could create general safety-conscious exercise programs for various scenarios. However, the AI-generated exercise prescriptions lacked precision in addressing individual health conditions and goals, often prioritizing excessive safety over the effectiveness of training. The AI-based approach aimed to ensure patient improvement through gradual increases in training load and intensity, but the model's potential to fine-tune its recommendations through ongoing interaction was not fully satisfying. AI technologies, in their current state, can serve as supplemental tools in exercise prescription, particularly in enhancing accessibility for individuals unable to access, often costly, professional advice. However, AI technologies are not yet recommended as a substitute for personalized, progressive, and health condition-specific prescriptions provided by healthcare and fitness professionals. Further research is needed to explore more interactive use of AI models and integration of real-time physiological feedback.

4.
Br J Sports Med ; 58(3): 164-171, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38216322

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Health disparities are widely prevalent; however, little has been done to examine and address their causes and effects in sports and exercise medicine (SEM). We aimed to summarise the focus areas and methodology used for existing North American health disparity research in SEM and to identify gaps in the evidence base. DESIGN: Scoping review. DATA SOURCES: Systematic literature search of PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, Web of Science Core Collection and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Full-text, peer-reviewed manuscripts of primary research, conducted in North America; published in the year 2000 or after, in English; and focusing on organised sports were included. RESULTS: 103 articles met inclusion criteria. Articles were classified into five focus areas: access to and participation in sports (n=45), access to SEM care (n=28), health-related outcomes in SEM (n=24), provider representation in SEM (n=5) and methodology (n=1). Race/ethnicity (n=39), socioeconomic status (n=28) and sex (n=27) were the most studied potential causes of health disparities, whereas sexual orientation (n=5), location (rural/urban/suburban, n=5), education level (n=5), body composition (n=5), gender identity (n=4) and language (n=2) were the least studied. Most articles (n=74) were cross-sectional, conducted on youth (n=55) and originated in the USA (n=90). CONCLUSION: Health disparity research relevant to SEM in North America is limited. The overall volume and breadth of research required to identify patterns in a heterogeneous sports landscape, which can then be used to inform positive change, need expansion. Intentional research focused on assessing the intersectionality, causes and consequences of health disparities in SEM is necessary.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Esportes , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Masculino , Exercício Físico , Desigualdades de Saúde , América do Norte
5.
PM R ; 16(4): 331-338, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37850371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of physician-patient sex concordance in medicine has been reported in many studies. Whether physicians believe that the sex concordance between physician and athlete influences treatment has not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether physicians believe that the sex concordance between physician and athlete influences treatment. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Online survey. PARTICIPANTS: One thousand one hundred ninety-three sports medicine physicians in 51 countries. Participants were sports medicine physicians trained in orthopedics (n = 443 [37.1%]) and nonorthopedics (n = 750 [62.9%]). INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants were asked to decide whether sex of the physician made them better suited to care for athletes of concordant or different sexes along with their personal background. RESULTS: Orthopedic sports medicine physicians agreed less than nonorthopedic sports medicine physicians regarding the statement "MALE sports medicine physicians are better suited than their female counterparts to care for MALE athletes" (odds ratio [OR] 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35-0.91, p = .02), and compared to sports medicine physicians based in Europe, those based in Asia agreed more to this statement (OR 7.91, 95% CI 4.60-13.60, p < .01). In addition, regarding the statement "FEMALE sports medicine physicians are better suited than their male counterparts to care for FEMALE athletes," compared to sports medicine physicians based in Europe, those based in Asia (OR 9.12, 95% CI 5.63-14.79, p < .01) and North America (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.46-3.25, p < .01) agreed more and orthopedic sports medicine physicians agreed less than nonorthopedic sports medicine physicians (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.39-0.93, p = .02) to this statement. CONCLUSIONS: Sports medicine physicians trained in orthopedics felt sex concordance was less important than physicians trained in other specialties. Asian sports medicine physicians believed sex concordance was more important compared to physicians in other regions.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Médicos , Medicina Esportiva , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Traumatismos em Atletas/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Atletas
6.
Circulation ; 149(2): 80-90, 2024 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37955565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the incidence, causes, and trends of sudden cardiac death (SCD) among young competitive athletes is critical to inform preventive policies. METHODS: This study included National Collegiate Athletic Association athlete deaths during a 20-year time frame (July 1, 2002, through June 30, 2022). Athlete deaths were identified through 4 separate independent databases and search strategies (National Collegiate Athletic Association resolutions list, Parent Heart Watch database and media reports, National Center for Catastrophic Sports Injury Research database, and insurance claims). Autopsy reports and medical history were reviewed by an expert panel to adjudicate causes of SCD. RESULTS: A total of 143 SCD cases in National Collegiate Athletic Association athletes were identified from 1102 total deaths. The National Collegiate Athletic Association resolutions list identified 117 of 143 (82%), the Parent Heart Watch database or media reports identified 89 of 143 (62%), the National Center for Catastrophic Sports Injury Research database identified 63 of 143 (44%), and insurance claims identified 27 of 143 (19%) SCD cases. The overall incidence of SCD was 1:63 682 athlete-years (95% CI, 1:54 065-1:75 010). Incidence was higher in male athletes than in female athletes (1:43 348 [95% CI, 1:36 228-1:51 867] versus 1:164 504 [95% CI, 1:110 552-1:244 787] athlete-years, respectively) and Black athletes compared with White athletes (1:26 704 [1:20 417-1:34 925] versus 1:74 581 [1:60 247-1:92 326] athlete-years, respectively). The highest incidence of SCD was among Division I male basketball players (1:8188 [White, 1:5848; Black, 1:7696 athlete-years]). The incidence rate for SCD decreased over the study period (5-year incidence rate ratio, 0.71 [95% CI, 0.61-0.82]), whereas the rate of noncardiovascular deaths remained stable (5-year incidence rate ratio, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.94-1.04]). Autopsy-negative sudden unexplained death (19.5%) was the most common postmortem examination finding, followed by idiopathic left ventricular hypertrophy or possible cardiomyopathy (16.9%) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (12.7%), in cases with enough information for adjudication (118 of 143). Eight cases of death were attributable to myocarditis over the study period (1 case from January 1, 2020, through June 30, 2022), with none attributed to COVID-19 infection. SCD events were exertional in 50% of cases. Exertional SCD was more common among those with coronary artery anomalies (100%) and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (83%). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of SCD in college athletes has decreased. Male sex, Black race, and basketball are associated with a higher incidence of SCD.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Cardiomiopatias , Esportes , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Traumatismos em Atletas/complicações , Atletas , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Cardiomiopatias/complicações , Incidência
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256354, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364518

RESUMO

Termites are known as social insects worldwide. Presently in China 473 species, 44 genera and 4 families of termites have been reported. Of them, 111 Reticulitermes species are widely spread in different zones of China. The dispersion flight season of these Chinese Reticulitermes species are usually started from February to June, but in some regions different species are distributed, sharing their boundaries and having overlapping flight seasons. These reasons become important sources of hybridization between two different heterospecific populations of termites. It was confirmed that the fertilized eggs and unfertilized eggs of some Reticulitermes termites have the capacity of cleavage. While the unfertilized eggs of R. aculabialis, R. chinensis and R. labralis cleaved normally and the only R. aculabialis unfertilized eggs develop in embryos. While, the R. flaviceps and R. chinensis were observed with their abnormal embryonic development, and not hatching of eggs parthenogenetically. They were reported more threatening to Chinese resources as they propagate with parthenogenesis, hybridization and sexual reproduction. Eggshell and macrophiles of eggs play important roles in species identification and control. Although, they are severe pests and cause a wide range of damages to wooden structures and products in homes, buildings, building materials, trees, crops, and forests in China's Mainland.


Os cupins são conhecidos como insetos sociais em todo o mundo. Atualmente na China foram relatadas 473 espécies, 44 gêneros e 4 famílias de cupins. Destas, 111 espécies de Reticulitermes estão amplamente distribuídas em diferentes zonas da China. A temporada de voo de dispersão dessas espécies chinesas de Reticulitermes geralmente começa de fevereiro a junho, mas em algumas regiões diferentes espécies são distribuídas, compartilhando seus limites e tendo temporadas de voo sobrepostas. Essas razões tornam-se importantes fontes de hibridização entre duas populações heteroespecíficas de cupins. Foi confirmado que os ovos fertilizados e não fertilizados de alguns cupins Reticulitermes possuem capacidade de clivagem. Já os ovos não fertilizados de R. aculabialis, R. chinensis e R. labralis clivaram normalmente, e os únicos ovos não fertilizados de R. aculabialis se desenvolvem em embriões. R. flaviceps e R. chinensis foram observados com desenvolvimento embrionário anormal, e não eclosão de ovos por partenogênese. Eles foram relatados como mais ameaçadores para os recursos chineses à medida que se propagam com partenogênese, hibridização e reprodução sexual. Casca de ovo e macrófilos de ovos desempenham papéis importantes na identificação e controle de espécies, embora sejam pragas graves e causem uma ampla gama de danos a estruturas e produtos de madeira em residências, edifícios, materiais de construção, árvores, plantações e florestas na China continental.


Assuntos
Animais , Partenogênese , Reprodução , Isópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Hibridização Genética
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469291

RESUMO

Abstract Ferns are often used by indigenous people in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This study was designed to collect the ethnomedicinal and traditional knowledge of these locals about this group of vascular plants. Forty taxa belong to nineteen genera and ten families are used in the treatment of different diseases. The Pteridaceae was the most representative family with twelve taxa (30%), followed by Athyriaceae and Dryopteridaceae with six taxa each (30%), and Thelypteridaceae with five taxa (12.5%). Regarding the genera, Adiantum, Asplenium and Dryopteris ranked first with four taxa each (30%), followed by Aleuritopteris, Diplazium, Pteris and Equisetum with three taxa each (30%), followed by Athyrium, Oeosporangium, Polystichum and Pseudophegopteris with two taxa each (20%). These taxa were commonly used in the treatment of respiratory disorders i.e. asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, pneumonia; intestinal ulcer, stomach, urinary ailments and skin disorders by the methods of decoction and infusion. Traditional knowledge about ethnomedicinal plants is a valuable and essential source for the discovery of allopathic, herbal and homeopathic medicines.


Resumo As samambaias são frequentemente usadas pelos indígenas em Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão. Este estudo foi desenhado para coletar o conhecimento etnomedicinal e tradicional desses moradores sobre este grupo de plantas vasculares. Quarenta táxons pertencem a dezenove gêneros, e dez famílias são utilizadas no tratamento de diferentes doenças. Pteridaceae foi a família mais representativa com doze táxons (30%), seguida por Athyriaceae e Dryopteridaceae com seis táxons cada (30%), e Thelypteridaceae com cinco táxons (12,5%). Em relação aos gêneros, Adiantum, Asplenium e Dryopteris ficaram em primeiro lugar com quatro táxons cada (30%), seguidos por Aleuritopteris, Diplazium, Pteris e Equisetum com três táxons cada (30%), e Athyrium, Oeosporangium, Polystichum e Pseudophegopteris com dois táxons cada (20%). Estes táxons foram comumente usados no tratamento de distúrbios respiratórios, isto é, asma, bronquite, enfisema, pneumonia; úlcera intestinal, estômago, doenças urinárias e doenças da pele pelos métodos de decocção e infusão. O conhecimento tradicional sobre plantas etnomedicinais é uma fonte valiosa e essencial para a descoberta de medicamentos alopáticos, fitoterápicos e homeopáticos.

9.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469313

RESUMO

Abstract Livestock is a fundamental part of the agriculture industry in Pakistan and contributes more than 11.53% to GDP. Among livestock species, the buffaloes are regarded as the black gold of Pakistan. Being the highest milk producers globally, Nili-Ravi buffaloes are the most famous ones. Buffaloes are affected by many endemic diseases, and "Hemorrhagic septicemia" (HS) is one of them. This study was designed to ascertain the effects of experimental exposure ofP. multocida B:2 (oral) and its immunogens, i.e., LPS (oral and intravenous) and OMP (oral and subcutaneous) on reproductive hormonal profiles in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Repeated serum samples were collected from the jugular vein of experimental animals for 21 days (0, 02, 04, 08, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 and 504 hours). Hormonal assays to determine the serum concentrations of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) were performed using (MyBioSource) commercial Elisa kits. The hormonal profile of all treatment groups of the buffalo heifers exhibited significant (P 0.05) variations as compared to the control group (G-1). These results indicate suppression in Nili-Ravi buffaloes' reproductive hormonal profile on exposure to P. multocida B:2 and its immunogens. This influence warrants that exposure to H.S may be a possible reason for delayed puberty and poor reproduction performance in Nili-Ravi buffaloes.


Resumo A pecuária é uma parte fundamental da indústria agrícola no Paquistão e contribui com 11,53% do PIB nacional. Entre as espécies de gado, os búfalos são considerados o ouro negro do Paquistão. Sendo os maiores produtores de leite em todo o mundo, os búfalos Nili-Ravi são os mais famosos. Os búfalos são afetados por muitas doenças endêmicas, entre as quais a septicemia hemorrágica (SH). Este estudo busca verificar os efeitos da exposição experimental de P. multocida B:2 (oral) e seus imunógenos, ou seja, LPS (oral e intravenoso) e OMP (oral e subcutâneo), nos perfis hormonais reprodutivos em búfalos Nili-Ravi. Amostras de soro repetidas foram coletadas da veia jugular de animais experimentais por 21 dias (0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 e 504 horas). Os ensaios hormonais para determinar as concentrações séricas do hormônio liberador de gonadotrofina (GnRH), hormônio foliculoestimulante (FSH), hormônio luteinizante (LH), estrogênio (E2) e progesterona (P4) foram realizados usando kits comerciais Elisa (MyBioSource). O perfil hormonal de todos os grupos de tratamento das novilhas bubalinas apresentou variações significativas (P 0,05) em relação ao grupo controle (G-1). Esses resultados indicam supressão no perfil hormonal reprodutivo de búfalos Nili-Ravi na exposição a P. multocida B:2 e seus imunógenos. Essa influência garante que a exposição à SH possa ser uma possível razão para o atraso da puberdade e o baixo desempenho reprodutivo em búfalos Nili-Ravi.

10.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 257: 66-75, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37683821

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe baseline results of the Alabama Screening and Intervention for Glaucoma and Eye Health through Telemedicine (AL-SIGHT) for patients at federally qualified health centers (FQHCs). Candidates were persons at risk for glaucoma-associated diseases (GAD) based on age, race/ethnicity, current diagnosis of GAD, family history, and diabetes. DESIGN: Baseline screening visit followed by remote diagnosis and referral for follow-up examinations. METHODS: Patients presenting to FQHCs who were at least 18 years of age were enrolled and underwent screening for acuity, autorefraction, intraocular pressure, visual field testing, and fundus imaging. Results were transmitted to an ophthalmologist at University of Alabama at Birmingham for diagnosis who made referrals for follow-up; follow-up attendance was noted. Questionnaires assessed participants' perspectives on screening. Primary outcomes were rates of disease detection, referral for follow-up, follow-up attendance, and participant satisfaction. RESULTS: Of the 500 participants enrolled (mean age 58 years), 45.6% were African American and 51.6% White. Remote diagnostic evaluation of ocular screening by ophthalmologist revealed 30% GAD, 6.8% diabetic retinopathy, 37.6% cataract, 68.4% refractive error, 9.2% other eye conditions. In all, 47.2% of the participants were referred for follow-up examination and for acuity 20/40 or worse or IOP ≥23 mm Hg in one or both eyes. Follow-up examination attendance was 76.7% for those referred. Participants reported being very satisfied with screening (85.8%) and with the convenience of screening in their primary care clinic (92.2%). CONCLUSIONS: The high percentage of patients diagnosed with treatable eye conditions at telemedicine screening suggest these programs in FQHCs can be effective and scalable nationwide. Attendance when referred for follow-up examination was high. Participants welcomed screenings in their communities.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Telemedicina , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alabama/epidemiologia , Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Pressão Intraocular , Tonometria Ocular , Telemedicina/métodos
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254011, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355886

RESUMO

Abstract Livestock is a fundamental part of the agriculture industry in Pakistan and contributes more than 11.53% to GDP. Among livestock species, the buffaloes are regarded as the black gold of Pakistan. Being the highest milk producers globally, Nili-Ravi buffaloes are the most famous ones. Buffaloes are affected by many endemic diseases, and "Hemorrhagic septicemia" (HS) is one of them. This study was designed to ascertain the effects of experimental exposure ofP. multocida B:2 (oral) and its immunogens, i.e., LPS (oral and intravenous) and OMP (oral and subcutaneous) on reproductive hormonal profiles in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Repeated serum samples were collected from the jugular vein of experimental animals for 21 days (0, 02, 04, 08, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 and 504 hours). Hormonal assays to determine the serum concentrations of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) were performed using (MyBioSource) commercial Elisa kits. The hormonal profile of all treatment groups of the buffalo heifers exhibited significant (P<0.05) variations as compared to the control group (G-1). These results indicate suppression in Nili-Ravi buffaloes' reproductive hormonal profile on exposure to P. multocida B:2 and its immunogens. This influence warrants that exposure to H.S may be a possible reason for delayed puberty and poor reproduction performance in Nili-Ravi buffaloes.


Resumo A pecuária é uma parte fundamental da indústria agrícola no Paquistão e contribui com 11,53% do PIB nacional. Entre as espécies de gado, os búfalos são considerados o ouro negro do Paquistão. Sendo os maiores produtores de leite em todo o mundo, os búfalos Nili-Ravi são os mais famosos. Os búfalos são afetados por muitas doenças endêmicas, entre as quais a "septicemia hemorrágica" (SH). Este estudo busca verificar os efeitos da exposição experimental de P. multocida B:2 (oral) e seus imunógenos, ou seja, LPS (oral e intravenoso) e OMP (oral e subcutâneo), nos perfis hormonais reprodutivos em búfalos Nili-Ravi. Amostras de soro repetidas foram coletadas da veia jugular de animais experimentais por 21 dias (0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 e 504 horas). Os ensaios hormonais para determinar as concentrações séricas do hormônio liberador de gonadotrofina (GnRH), hormônio foliculoestimulante (FSH), hormônio luteinizante (LH), estrogênio (E2) e progesterona (P4) foram realizados usando kits comerciais Elisa (MyBioSource). O perfil hormonal de todos os grupos de tratamento das novilhas bubalinas apresentou variações significativas (P < 0,05) em relação ao grupo controle (G-1). Esses resultados indicam supressão no perfil hormonal reprodutivo de búfalos Nili-Ravi na exposição a P. multocida B:2 e seus imunógenos. Essa influência garante que a exposição à SH possa ser uma possível razão para o atraso da puberdade e o baixo desempenho reprodutivo em búfalos Nili-Ravi.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Infecções por Pasteurella/veterinária , Reprodução , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Búfalos , Progesterona , Bovinos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Pasteurella multocida
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250256, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355912

RESUMO

Abstract Ferns are often used by indigenous people in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This study was designed to collect the ethnomedicinal and traditional knowledge of these locals about this group of vascular plants. Forty taxa belong to nineteen genera and ten families are used in the treatment of different diseases. The Pteridaceae was the most representative family with twelve taxa (30%), followed by Athyriaceae and Dryopteridaceae with six taxa each (30%), and Thelypteridaceae with five taxa (12.5%). Regarding the genera, Adiantum, Asplenium and Dryopteris ranked first with four taxa each (30%), followed by Aleuritopteris, Diplazium, Pteris and Equisetum with three taxa each (30%), followed by Athyrium, Oeosporangium, Polystichum and Pseudophegopteris with two taxa each (20%). These taxa were commonly used in the treatment of respiratory disorders i.e. asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, pneumonia; intestinal ulcer, stomach, urinary ailments and skin disorders by the methods of decoction and infusion. Traditional knowledge about ethnomedicinal plants is a valuable and essential source for the discovery of allopathic, herbal and homeopathic medicines.


Resumo As samambaias são frequentemente usadas pelos indígenas em Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão. Este estudo foi desenhado para coletar o conhecimento etnomedicinal e tradicional desses moradores sobre este grupo de plantas vasculares. Quarenta táxons pertencem a dezenove gêneros, e dez famílias são utilizadas no tratamento de diferentes doenças. Pteridaceae foi a família mais representativa com doze táxons (30%), seguida por Athyriaceae e Dryopteridaceae com seis táxons cada (30%), e Thelypteridaceae com cinco táxons (12,5%). Em relação aos gêneros, Adiantum, Asplenium e Dryopteris ficaram em primeiro lugar com quatro táxons cada (30%), seguidos por Aleuritopteris, Diplazium, Pteris e Equisetum com três táxons cada (30%), e Athyrium, Oeosporangium, Polystichum e Pseudophegopteris com dois táxons cada (20%). Estes táxons foram comumente usados ​​no tratamento de distúrbios respiratórios, isto é, asma, bronquite, enfisema, pneumonia; úlcera intestinal, estômago, doenças urinárias e doenças da pele pelos métodos de decocção e infusão. O conhecimento tradicional sobre plantas etnomedicinais é uma fonte valiosa e essencial para a descoberta de medicamentos alopáticos, fitoterápicos e homeopáticos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Plantas Medicinais , Gleiquênias , Traqueófitas , Paquistão , Fitoterapia , Medicina Tradicional
13.
Nanoscale Adv ; 5(23): 6560-6571, 2023 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38024313

RESUMO

Nanotechnology has gained substantial attention on account of its vast applications in food manufacturing, heat exchanges, electronic cooling systems, medical treatment, coolant processes, energy production, biotechnology, transportation, biochemistry, nuclear reactors, and metrology. Currently, the phenomenon of bioconvection using nanomaterials has found wide industrial and technical implementations. Contemporary nanofluids are a dynamic source for illuminating heat transport systems related to engineering as well as industrial phenomena. Bioconvection has numerous applications in bio-micro-systems, owing to the augmentation in mass renovation besides collaborating, which are vital complications in diverse micro-systems. This study intended to model and examine an incompressible, unsteady 3D Casson fluid nanofluid with bioconvection on a stretching surface. A model by means of these characteristics is beneficial in applications, such as in nuclear reactors, coolants in automobiles, metallurgical procedures, energy construction, micro-manufacturing, industrial engineering, and geophysical fluid mechanics along with dynamics. The performance of the Brownian motion along with thermophoresis diffusion is assumed through an extraordinary effect of thermal radiation in the temperature equation of the fluid movement. This model was created by using PDE, which was then converted into an ODE system. The somatic behavior of substantial parameters was investigated graphically. Similarly, tables were interpreted to display the effect of the control of physical quantities on the local Nusselt number, local Sherwood number, and motile density. Consequently, it was determined that the temperature of Casson fluid grew exponentially with higher estimates of the magnetic parameter and the thermal Biot number. At the same time, we detected that augmented estimation of the Lewis number decreases the Casson fluid concentration. For growing values of the parameters, Biot number and the stretching parameter, there is a direct reaction for the microorganism profile.

15.
iScience ; 26(8): 107412, 2023 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37575190

RESUMO

The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded chemokine receptor US28 contributes to various aspects of the viral life cycle and promotes immune evasion by scavenging chemokines from the microenvironment of HCMV-infected cells. In contrast to the plasma membrane localization of most human chemokine receptors, US28 has a predominant intracellular localization. In this study, we used immunofluorescence and electron microscopy to determine the localization of US28 upon exogenous expression, as well as in HCMV-infected cells. We observed that US28 localizes to late endosomal compartments called multivesicular bodies (MVBs), where it is sorted in intraluminal vesicles. Live-cell total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy revealed that US28-containing MVBs can fuse with the plasma membrane, resulting in the secretion of US28 on exosomes. Exosomal US28 binds the chemokines CX3CL1 and CCL5, and US28-containing exosomes inhibited the CX3CL1-CX3CR1 signaling axis. These findings suggest that exosomal release of US28 contributes to chemokine scavenging and immune evasion by HCMV.

16.
Integr Org Biol ; 5(1): obad027, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37549037

RESUMO

House sparrow is a globally adaptive bird. The way this creature adapted to all areas of the world, having different selection pressures, is interesting to understand. The present study is focused on seasonal changes, having different selection pressures and how it is adapted to these changes and whether hematological flexibility plays a role in this success. House sparrow's adaptations in the same area, during different seasons, have been studied in a sub-tropical area, Potohar, Pakistan. We used hematological parameter analysis for this purpose. Blood samples were collected from Sparrows in winter, spring, and summer and analyzed for some hematological parameters. White blood cells (WBCs) were higher in spring and summer which may relate to mating promiscuity. Sparrows were more stressed in summer. The Red blood cells (RBCs) and hematocrit (Hct) were greater in summer. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is lower in summer. This may have an adaptation to cope with high stress in summer as small-size RBCs increase gaseous exchange. Platelets were not affected by season or gender. Mean corpuscular volume and Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) are positively correlated with each other. Red blood cells, hemoglobin (Hb) and MCV were higher in males during the spring season perhaps as an adaptation to energetic activities during spring like mating calls and search for nesting sites. White blood cells remained the same in both genders in summer and winter, and effected in spring may be related to the mating system. Behavioral state is linked with physiological states that shows tradeoff and life history traits. This study is a small effort to know this incredible species. We can work further in different parts of the world to explore different aspects of it.


El gorrión común es un ave que se adapta globalmente. La forma en que esta criatura se adaptó a todas las áreas del mundo, teniendo diferentes presiones de selección, es interesante de entender. El presente estudio se centra en los cambios estacionales, teniendo diferentes presiones de selección y cómo se adapta a estos cambios y si la flexibilidad hematológica juega un papel en este éxito. Las adaptaciones de House Sparrow en la misma área, durante diferentes estaciones, se han estudiado en un área subtropical, Potohar, Pakistán. Utilizamos el análisis de parámetros hematológicos para este propósito. Se recogieron muestras de sangre de gorriones en invierno, primavera y verano y se analizaron algunos parámetros hematológicos. Los glóbulos blancos (WBC) fueron más altos en primavera y verano, lo que puede relacionarse con la promiscuidad de apareamiento. Los gorriones estaban más estresados ​​en verano. Los glóbulos rojos (GR) y el hematocrito (Het) fueron mayores en verano. El volumen corpuscular medio (MCV) es menor en verano. Esto puede tener una adaptación para hacer frente al alto estrés en verano, ya que los glóbulos rojos de pequeño tamaño aumentan el intercambio gaseoso. Las plaquetas no se vieron afectadas por la estación o el género. El MCV y la hemoglobina corpuscular media (MCH) se correlacionan positivamente entre sí. Los glóbulos rojos, la hemoglobina (Hb) y el MCV fueron más altos en los machos durante la temporada de primavera, tal vez como una adaptación a las actividades energéticas durante la primavera, como llamadas de apareamiento y búsqueda de sitios de anidación. Los glóbulos blancos se mantuvieron iguales en ambos sexos en verano e invierno, y los efectuados en primavera pueden estar relacionados con el sistema de apareamiento. El estado de comportamiento está relacionado con estados fisiológicos que muestran rasgos de compensación y de historia de vida. Este estudio es un pequeño esfuerzo por conocer esta increíble especie. Podemos trabajar más en diferentes partes del mundo para explorar diferentes aspectos del mismo.


Le Moineau domestique est un oiseau qui s"adapte à l"échelle mondiale. La façon dont cette créature s"est adaptée à toutes les régions du monde, ayant des pressions de sélection différentes, est intéressante à comprendre. La présente étude se concentre sur les changements saisonniers, ayant différentes pressions de sélection et comment il est adapté à ces changements et si la flexibilité hématologique joue un rôle dans ce succès. Les adaptations du Moineau domestique dans la même zone, à différentes saisons, ont été étudiées dans une zone subtropicale, Potohar, Pakistan. Nous avons utilisé l"analyse des paramètres hématologiques à cette fin. Des échantillons de sang ont été prélevés sur des moineaux en hiver, au printemps et en été et analysés pour certains paramètres hématologiques. Les globules blancs (WBC) étaient plus élevés au printemps et en été, ce qui peut être lié à la promiscuité sexuelle. Les moineaux étaient plus stressés en été. Les globules rouges (GR) et l"hématocrite (Het) étaient plus élevés en été. Le volume corpusculaire moyen (MCV) est plus faible en été. Cela peut avoir une adaptation pour faire face à un stress élevé en été, car les globules rouges de petite taille augmentent les échanges gazeux. Les plaquettes n"étaient pas affectées par la saison ou le sexe. Le MCV et l"hémoglobine corpusculaire moyenne (MCH) sont positivement corrélés l"un à l"autre. Les globules rouges, l"hémoglobine (Hb) et le MCV étaient plus élevés chez les mâles au printemps, peut-être en raison d"une adaptation aux activités énergétiques au printemps comme les cris d"accouplement et la recherche de sites de nidification. Les globules blancs sont restés les mêmes chez les deux sexes en été et en hiver, et effectués au printemps peuvent être liés au système d"accouplement. L"état comportemental est lié aux états physiologiques qui montrent des traits de compromis et d'histoire de vie. Cette étude est un petit effort pour connaître cette espèce incroyable. Nous pouvons continuer à travailler dans différentes parties du monde pour en explorer différents aspects.

17.
Phys Sportsmed ; 51(6): 603-609, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36460302

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Supporting female sports medicine physicians to simultaneously be mothers and pursue professional careers is crucial to maintain gender diversity in sports medicine physicians. The purpose of this study is to understand the attitudes toward female sports medicine physicians during pregnancy and postpartum. METHODS: An anonymous online survey was distributed to sports medicine physicians practicing in 51 different countries. They were asked how comfortable they felt with female sports medicine physicians working on the sidelines of sporting events during pregnancy, if the female sports medicine physicians were as productive as their male counterparts after giving birth, and how satisfied they were with the percentage of female sports medicine physicians in their country. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent variables. RESULTS: In total, 1193 physicians (380 [31.9%] female) were included for analysis. Physicians in Asia were the least comfortable with pregnant sports medicine physicians working on the sidelines and those in North America were the most comfortable (odds ratio = 0.28 and 2.51, 95% confidence interval 0.18-0.44 and 1.55-4.06, respectively). More experienced sports medicine physicians (odds ratio = 1.01, 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.03; p < 0.05) and divorced physicians (odds ratio = 0.33, 95% confidence interval 0.12-0.91; p < 0.05) were less comfortable with pregnant female sports medicine physicians working on sidelines, and those trained in orthopedics were less likely to agree that female sports medicine physicians were equally as productive as male counterparts postpartum (odds ratio = 0.29, 95% confidence interval 0.10-0.88; p < 0.05). Female physicians were less satisfied with the percentage of female sports medicine physicians in their country (odds ratio = 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.27-0.60; p < 0.01) than their male counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: Female sports medicine physicians may experience bias in their practice during pregnancy and postpartum.


Assuntos
Médicos , Medicina Esportiva , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Feminino , Período Pós-Parto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ásia
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-7, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468963

RESUMO

COVID-19 is reported as an extremely contagious disease with common symptoms of fever, dry cough, sore throat, and tiredness. The published literature on incidence and gender-wise prevalence of COVID-19 is scarce in Pakistan. Therefore, the present study was designed to compare the distribution, incubation period and mortality rate of COVID-19 among the male and female population of district Attock. The data were collected between 01 April 2020 and 07 December 2020 from the population of district Attock, Pakistan. A total of 22,962 individuals were screened and 843 were found positive for RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2. The confirmed positive cases were monitored carefully. Among the positive cases, the incidence of COVID-19 was 61.7% among males and 38.2% among females. The average recovery period of males was 18.89±7.75 days and females were 19±8.40 days from SARS-CoV-2. The overall mortality rate was 8.06%. The death rate of male patients was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to female patients. Also, the mortality rate was higher (P<0.05) in male patients of 40-60 years of age compared to female patients of the same age group. Moreover, the mortality rate significantly increased (P<0.05) with the increase of age irrespective of gender. In conclusion, the incidence and mortality rate of COVID-19 is higher in males compared to the female population. Moreover, irrespective of gender the mortality rate was significantly lower among patients aged <40 years.


Covid-19 é relatada como uma doença extremamente contagiosa com sintomas comuns de febre, tosse seca, dor de garganta e cansaço. A literatura publicada sobre incidência e prevalência de Covid-19 com base no gênero é escassa no Paquistão. Portanto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar a distribuição, o período de incubação e a taxa de mortalidade de Covid-19 entre a população masculina e feminina do distrito de Attock. Os dados foram coletados entre 1 de abril de 2020 e 7 de dezembro de 2020 da população do distrito de Attock, Paquistão. Um total de 22.962 indivíduos foi selecionado, e 843 foram considerados positivos para RT-qPCR para SARS-CoV-2. Os casos positivos confirmados foram monitorados cuidadosamente. Entre os casos positivos, a incidência de Covid-19 foi de 61,7% no sexo masculino e 38,2% no feminino. O período médio de recuperação dos homens foi de 18,89 ± 7,75 dias e das mulheres 19 ± 8,40 dias do SARS-CoV-2. A mortalidade geral foi de 8,06%. A taxa de mortalidade de pacientes do sexo masculino foi significativamente maior (P < 0,05) em comparação com pacientes do sexo feminino. Além disso, a taxa de mortalidade foi maior (P < 0,05) em pacientes do sexo masculino com 40-60 anos de idade em comparação com pacientes do sexo feminino da mesma faixa etária. Além disso, a taxa de mortalidade aumentou significativamente (P < 0,05) com o aumento da idade, independentemente do sexo. Em conclusão, a incidência e a taxa de mortalidade de Covid-19 são maiores no sexo masculino em comparação com a população feminina. E também, independentemente do sexo, a taxa de mortalidade foi significativamente menor entre os pacientes com idade < 40 anos.


Assuntos
Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/mortalidade , Coronavírus Relacionado à Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 832023.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469179

RESUMO

Abstract COVID-19 is reported as an extremely contagious disease with common symptoms of fever, dry cough, sore throat, and tiredness. The published literature on incidence and gender-wise prevalence of COVID-19 is scarce in Pakistan. Therefore, the present study was designed to compare the distribution, incubation period and mortality rate of COVID-19 among the male and female population of district Attock. The data were collected between 01 April 2020 and 07 December 2020 from the population of district Attock, Pakistan. A total of 22,962 individuals were screened and 843 were found positive for RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2. The confirmed positive cases were monitored carefully. Among the positive cases, the incidence of COVID-19 was 61.7% among males and 38.2% among females. The average recovery period of males was 18.89±7.75 days and females were 19±8.40 days from SARS-CoV-2. The overall mortality rate was 8.06%. The death rate of male patients was significantly higher (P 0.05) compared to female patients. Also, the mortality rate was higher (P 0.05) in male patients of 40-60 years of age compared to female patients of the same age group. Moreover, the mortality rate significantly increased (P 0.05) with the increase of age irrespective of gender. In conclusion, the incidence and mortality rate of COVID-19 is higher in males compared to the female population. Moreover, irrespective of gender the mortality rate was significantly lower among patients aged 40 years.


Resumo Covid-19 é relatada como uma doença extremamente contagiosa com sintomas comuns de febre, tosse seca, dor de garganta e cansaço. A literatura publicada sobre incidência e prevalência de Covid-19 com base no gênero é escassa no Paquistão. Portanto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar a distribuição, o período de incubação e a taxa de mortalidade de Covid-19 entre a população masculina e feminina do distrito de Attock. Os dados foram coletados entre 1 de abril de 2020 e 7 de dezembro de 2020 da população do distrito de Attock, Paquistão. Um total de 22.962 indivíduos foi selecionado, e 843 foram considerados positivos para RT-qPCR para SARS-CoV-2. Os casos positivos confirmados foram monitorados cuidadosamente. Entre os casos positivos, a incidência de Covid-19 foi de 61,7% no sexo masculino e 38,2% no feminino. O período médio de recuperação dos homens foi de 18,89 ± 7,75 dias e das mulheres 19 ± 8,40 dias do SARS-CoV-2. A mortalidade geral foi de 8,06%. A taxa de mortalidade de pacientes do sexo masculino foi significativamente maior (P 0,05) em comparação com pacientes do sexo feminino. Além disso, a taxa de mortalidade foi maior (P 0,05) em pacientes do sexo masculino com 40-60 anos de idade em comparação com pacientes do sexo feminino da mesma faixa etária. Além disso, a taxa de mortalidade aumentou significativamente (P 0,05) com o aumento da idade, independentemente do sexo. Em conclusão, a incidência e a taxa de mortalidade de Covid-19 são maiores no sexo masculino em comparação com a população feminina. E também, independentemente do sexo, a taxa de mortalidade foi significativamente menor entre os pacientes com idade 40 anos.

20.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249125, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339338

RESUMO

Abstract COVID-19 is reported as an extremely contagious disease with common symptoms of fever, dry cough, sore throat, and tiredness. The published literature on incidence and gender-wise prevalence of COVID-19 is scarce in Pakistan. Therefore, the present study was designed to compare the distribution, incubation period and mortality rate of COVID-19 among the male and female population of district Attock. The data were collected between 01 April 2020 and 07 December 2020 from the population of district Attock, Pakistan. A total of 22,962 individuals were screened and 843 were found positive for RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2. The confirmed positive cases were monitored carefully. Among the positive cases, the incidence of COVID-19 was 61.7% among males and 38.2% among females. The average recovery period of males was 18.89±7.75 days and females were 19±8.40 days from SARS-CoV-2. The overall mortality rate was 8.06%. The death rate of male patients was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to female patients. Also, the mortality rate was higher (P<0.05) in male patients of 40-60 years of age compared to female patients of the same age group. Moreover, the mortality rate significantly increased (P<0.05) with the increase of age irrespective of gender. In conclusion, the incidence and mortality rate of COVID-19 is higher in males compared to the female population. Moreover, irrespective of gender the mortality rate was significantly lower among patients aged <40 years.


Resumo Covid-19 é relatada como uma doença extremamente contagiosa com sintomas comuns de febre, tosse seca, dor de garganta e cansaço. A literatura publicada sobre incidência e prevalência de Covid-19 com base no gênero é escassa no Paquistão. Portanto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar a distribuição, o período de incubação e a taxa de mortalidade de Covid-19 entre a população masculina e feminina do distrito de Attock. Os dados foram coletados entre 1 de abril de 2020 e 7 de dezembro de 2020 da população do distrito de Attock, Paquistão. Um total de 22.962 indivíduos foi selecionado, e 843 foram considerados positivos para RT-qPCR para SARS-CoV-2. Os casos positivos confirmados foram monitorados cuidadosamente. Entre os casos positivos, a incidência de Covid-19 foi de 61,7% no sexo masculino e 38,2% no feminino. O período médio de recuperação dos homens foi de 18,89 ± 7,75 dias e das mulheres 19 ± 8,40 dias do SARS-CoV-2. A mortalidade geral foi de 8,06%. A taxa de mortalidade de pacientes do sexo masculino foi significativamente maior (P < 0,05) em comparação com pacientes do sexo feminino. Além disso, a taxa de mortalidade foi maior (P < 0,05) em pacientes do sexo masculino com 40-60 anos de idade em comparação com pacientes do sexo feminino da mesma faixa etária. Além disso, a taxa de mortalidade aumentou significativamente (P < 0,05) com o aumento da idade, independentemente do sexo. Em conclusão, a incidência e a taxa de mortalidade de Covid-19 são maiores no sexo masculino em comparação com a população feminina. E também, independentemente do sexo, a taxa de mortalidade foi significativamente menor entre os pacientes com idade < 40 anos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , COVID-19 , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Incidência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , SARS-CoV-2
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