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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254011, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355886

RESUMO

Abstract Livestock is a fundamental part of the agriculture industry in Pakistan and contributes more than 11.53% to GDP. Among livestock species, the buffaloes are regarded as the black gold of Pakistan. Being the highest milk producers globally, Nili-Ravi buffaloes are the most famous ones. Buffaloes are affected by many endemic diseases, and "Hemorrhagic septicemia" (HS) is one of them. This study was designed to ascertain the effects of experimental exposure ofP. multocida B:2 (oral) and its immunogens, i.e., LPS (oral and intravenous) and OMP (oral and subcutaneous) on reproductive hormonal profiles in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Repeated serum samples were collected from the jugular vein of experimental animals for 21 days (0, 02, 04, 08, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 and 504 hours). Hormonal assays to determine the serum concentrations of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) were performed using (MyBioSource) commercial Elisa kits. The hormonal profile of all treatment groups of the buffalo heifers exhibited significant (P<0.05) variations as compared to the control group (G-1). These results indicate suppression in Nili-Ravi buffaloes' reproductive hormonal profile on exposure to P. multocida B:2 and its immunogens. This influence warrants that exposure to H.S may be a possible reason for delayed puberty and poor reproduction performance in Nili-Ravi buffaloes.


Resumo A pecuária é uma parte fundamental da indústria agrícola no Paquistão e contribui com 11,53% do PIB nacional. Entre as espécies de gado, os búfalos são considerados o ouro negro do Paquistão. Sendo os maiores produtores de leite em todo o mundo, os búfalos Nili-Ravi são os mais famosos. Os búfalos são afetados por muitas doenças endêmicas, entre as quais a "septicemia hemorrágica" (SH). Este estudo busca verificar os efeitos da exposição experimental de P. multocida B:2 (oral) e seus imunógenos, ou seja, LPS (oral e intravenoso) e OMP (oral e subcutâneo), nos perfis hormonais reprodutivos em búfalos Nili-Ravi. Amostras de soro repetidas foram coletadas da veia jugular de animais experimentais por 21 dias (0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 e 504 horas). Os ensaios hormonais para determinar as concentrações séricas do hormônio liberador de gonadotrofina (GnRH), hormônio foliculoestimulante (FSH), hormônio luteinizante (LH), estrogênio (E2) e progesterona (P4) foram realizados usando kits comerciais Elisa (MyBioSource). O perfil hormonal de todos os grupos de tratamento das novilhas bubalinas apresentou variações significativas (P < 0,05) em relação ao grupo controle (G-1). Esses resultados indicam supressão no perfil hormonal reprodutivo de búfalos Nili-Ravi na exposição a P. multocida B:2 e seus imunógenos. Essa influência garante que a exposição à SH possa ser uma possível razão para o atraso da puberdade e o baixo desempenho reprodutivo em búfalos Nili-Ravi.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Infecções por Pasteurella/veterinária , Reprodução , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Búfalos , Progesterona , Bovinos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Pasteurella multocida
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250256, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355912

RESUMO

Abstract Ferns are often used by indigenous people in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This study was designed to collect the ethnomedicinal and traditional knowledge of these locals about this group of vascular plants. Forty taxa belong to nineteen genera and ten families are used in the treatment of different diseases. The Pteridaceae was the most representative family with twelve taxa (30%), followed by Athyriaceae and Dryopteridaceae with six taxa each (30%), and Thelypteridaceae with five taxa (12.5%). Regarding the genera, Adiantum, Asplenium and Dryopteris ranked first with four taxa each (30%), followed by Aleuritopteris, Diplazium, Pteris and Equisetum with three taxa each (30%), followed by Athyrium, Oeosporangium, Polystichum and Pseudophegopteris with two taxa each (20%). These taxa were commonly used in the treatment of respiratory disorders i.e. asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, pneumonia; intestinal ulcer, stomach, urinary ailments and skin disorders by the methods of decoction and infusion. Traditional knowledge about ethnomedicinal plants is a valuable and essential source for the discovery of allopathic, herbal and homeopathic medicines.


Resumo As samambaias são frequentemente usadas pelos indígenas em Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão. Este estudo foi desenhado para coletar o conhecimento etnomedicinal e tradicional desses moradores sobre este grupo de plantas vasculares. Quarenta táxons pertencem a dezenove gêneros, e dez famílias são utilizadas no tratamento de diferentes doenças. Pteridaceae foi a família mais representativa com doze táxons (30%), seguida por Athyriaceae e Dryopteridaceae com seis táxons cada (30%), e Thelypteridaceae com cinco táxons (12,5%). Em relação aos gêneros, Adiantum, Asplenium e Dryopteris ficaram em primeiro lugar com quatro táxons cada (30%), seguidos por Aleuritopteris, Diplazium, Pteris e Equisetum com três táxons cada (30%), e Athyrium, Oeosporangium, Polystichum e Pseudophegopteris com dois táxons cada (20%). Estes táxons foram comumente usados ​​no tratamento de distúrbios respiratórios, isto é, asma, bronquite, enfisema, pneumonia; úlcera intestinal, estômago, doenças urinárias e doenças da pele pelos métodos de decocção e infusão. O conhecimento tradicional sobre plantas etnomedicinais é uma fonte valiosa e essencial para a descoberta de medicamentos alopáticos, fitoterápicos e homeopáticos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Plantas Medicinais , Gleiquênias , Traqueófitas , Paquistão , Fitoterapia , Medicina Tradicional
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256354, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364518

RESUMO

Termites are known as social insects worldwide. Presently in China 473 species, 44 genera and 4 families of termites have been reported. Of them, 111 Reticulitermes species are widely spread in different zones of China. The dispersion flight season of these Chinese Reticulitermes species are usually started from February to June, but in some regions different species are distributed, sharing their boundaries and having overlapping flight seasons. These reasons become important sources of hybridization between two different heterospecific populations of termites. It was confirmed that the fertilized eggs and unfertilized eggs of some Reticulitermes termites have the capacity of cleavage. While the unfertilized eggs of R. aculabialis, R. chinensis and R. labralis cleaved normally and the only R. aculabialis unfertilized eggs develop in embryos. While, the R. flaviceps and R. chinensis were observed with their abnormal embryonic development, and not hatching of eggs parthenogenetically. They were reported more threatening to Chinese resources as they propagate with parthenogenesis, hybridization and sexual reproduction. Eggshell and macrophiles of eggs play important roles in species identification and control. Although, they are severe pests and cause a wide range of damages to wooden structures and products in homes, buildings, building materials, trees, crops, and forests in China's Mainland.


Os cupins são conhecidos como insetos sociais em todo o mundo. Atualmente na China foram relatadas 473 espécies, 44 gêneros e 4 famílias de cupins. Destas, 111 espécies de Reticulitermes estão amplamente distribuídas em diferentes zonas da China. A temporada de voo de dispersão dessas espécies chinesas de Reticulitermes geralmente começa de fevereiro a junho, mas em algumas regiões diferentes espécies são distribuídas, compartilhando seus limites e tendo temporadas de voo sobrepostas. Essas razões tornam-se importantes fontes de hibridização entre duas populações heteroespecíficas de cupins. Foi confirmado que os ovos fertilizados e não fertilizados de alguns cupins Reticulitermes possuem capacidade de clivagem. Já os ovos não fertilizados de R. aculabialis, R. chinensis e R. labralis clivaram normalmente, e os únicos ovos não fertilizados de R. aculabialis se desenvolvem em embriões. R. flaviceps e R. chinensis foram observados com desenvolvimento embrionário anormal, e não eclosão de ovos por partenogênese. Eles foram relatados como mais ameaçadores para os recursos chineses à medida que se propagam com partenogênese, hibridização e reprodução sexual. Casca de ovo e macrófilos de ovos desempenham papéis importantes na identificação e controle de espécies, embora sejam pragas graves e causem uma ampla gama de danos a estruturas e produtos de madeira em residências, edifícios, materiais de construção, árvores, plantações e florestas na China continental.


Assuntos
Animais , Partenogênese , Reprodução , Isópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Hibridização Genética
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249125, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339338

RESUMO

Abstract COVID-19 is reported as an extremely contagious disease with common symptoms of fever, dry cough, sore throat, and tiredness. The published literature on incidence and gender-wise prevalence of COVID-19 is scarce in Pakistan. Therefore, the present study was designed to compare the distribution, incubation period and mortality rate of COVID-19 among the male and female population of district Attock. The data were collected between 01 April 2020 and 07 December 2020 from the population of district Attock, Pakistan. A total of 22,962 individuals were screened and 843 were found positive for RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2. The confirmed positive cases were monitored carefully. Among the positive cases, the incidence of COVID-19 was 61.7% among males and 38.2% among females. The average recovery period of males was 18.89±7.75 days and females were 19±8.40 days from SARS-CoV-2. The overall mortality rate was 8.06%. The death rate of male patients was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to female patients. Also, the mortality rate was higher (P<0.05) in male patients of 40-60 years of age compared to female patients of the same age group. Moreover, the mortality rate significantly increased (P<0.05) with the increase of age irrespective of gender. In conclusion, the incidence and mortality rate of COVID-19 is higher in males compared to the female population. Moreover, irrespective of gender the mortality rate was significantly lower among patients aged <40 years.


Resumo Covid-19 é relatada como uma doença extremamente contagiosa com sintomas comuns de febre, tosse seca, dor de garganta e cansaço. A literatura publicada sobre incidência e prevalência de Covid-19 com base no gênero é escassa no Paquistão. Portanto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar a distribuição, o período de incubação e a taxa de mortalidade de Covid-19 entre a população masculina e feminina do distrito de Attock. Os dados foram coletados entre 1 de abril de 2020 e 7 de dezembro de 2020 da população do distrito de Attock, Paquistão. Um total de 22.962 indivíduos foi selecionado, e 843 foram considerados positivos para RT-qPCR para SARS-CoV-2. Os casos positivos confirmados foram monitorados cuidadosamente. Entre os casos positivos, a incidência de Covid-19 foi de 61,7% no sexo masculino e 38,2% no feminino. O período médio de recuperação dos homens foi de 18,89 ± 7,75 dias e das mulheres 19 ± 8,40 dias do SARS-CoV-2. A mortalidade geral foi de 8,06%. A taxa de mortalidade de pacientes do sexo masculino foi significativamente maior (P < 0,05) em comparação com pacientes do sexo feminino. Além disso, a taxa de mortalidade foi maior (P < 0,05) em pacientes do sexo masculino com 40-60 anos de idade em comparação com pacientes do sexo feminino da mesma faixa etária. Além disso, a taxa de mortalidade aumentou significativamente (P < 0,05) com o aumento da idade, independentemente do sexo. Em conclusão, a incidência e a taxa de mortalidade de Covid-19 são maiores no sexo masculino em comparação com a população feminina. E também, independentemente do sexo, a taxa de mortalidade foi significativamente menor entre os pacientes com idade < 40 anos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , COVID-19 , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Incidência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Phys Sportsmed ; : 1-7, 2022 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36460302

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Supporting female sports medicine physicians to simultaneously be mothers and pursue professional careers is crucial to maintain gender diversity in sports medicine physicians. The purpose of this study is to understand the attitudes toward female sports medicine physicians during pregnancy and postpartum. METHODS: An anonymous online survey was distributed to sports medicine physicians practicing in 51 different countries. They were asked how comfortable they felt with female sports medicine physicians working on the sidelines of sporting events during pregnancy, if the female sports medicine physicians were as productive as their male counterparts after giving birth, and how satisfied they were with the percentage of female sports medicine physicians in their country. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent variables. RESULTS: In total, 1193 physicians (380 [31.9%] female) were included for analysis. Physicians in Asia were the least comfortable with pregnant sports medicine physicians working on the sidelines and those in North America were the most comfortable (odds ratio = 0.28 and 2.51, 95% confidence interval 0.18-0.44 and 1.55-4.06, respectively). More experienced sports medicine physicians (odds ratio = 1.01, 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.03; p < 0.05) and divorced physicians (odds ratio = 0.33, 95% confidence interval 0.12-0.91; p < 0.05) were less comfortable with pregnant female sports medicine physicians working on sidelines, and those trained in orthopedics were less likely to agree that female sports medicine physicians were equally as productive as male counterparts postpartum (odds ratio = 0.29, 95% confidence interval 0.10-0.88; p < 0.05). Female physicians were less satisfied with the percentage of female sports medicine physicians in their country (odds ratio = 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.27-0.60; p < 0.01) than their male counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: Female sports medicine physicians may experience bias in their practice during pregnancy and postpartum.

7.
Sports Health ; 14(5): 614-615, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048107
9.
Br J Sports Med ; 56(17): 961-969, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35738877

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the difference between female and male sports medicine physicians regarding disrespectful attitudes and sexual harassment perceived from athletes, coaches, physicians, athletic trainers (ATs) and organisations/administrations. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: anonymous survey was distributed to sports medicine physicians practicing in 51 countries. χ2 analysis was used to detect differences between female and male sports medicine physicians and logistic regression analysis was used to determine the independent variables that affect disrespectful attitudes and sexual harassment from sports participants. RESULTS: 1193 sports medicine physicians (31.9% female) participated from 51 countries. The survey revealed that female physicians, compared with male physicians, perceive significantly more disrespect or have their judgement questioned more by the following categories: male and female athletes, male and female coaches, female physicians with more years of experience, male physicians (regardless of years of experience), male and female ATs and organisation/administrations (all p<0.05). The only category where the frequency of disrespect was perceived equally by male and female physicians was during their interactions with female physicians who have the same or lesser years of experience. Female sports medicine physicians noted more sexual harassment than male physicians during interactions with male athletes, coaches, ATs and physicians (all p<0.001). In the logistic regression, gender was a related factor for perceiving disrespect, especially from male coaches (OR=2.01) and physicians with more years of experience (OR=2.18). CONCLUSIONS: Female sports medicine physicians around the world experience disrespectful attitudes, questioning of their judgement and are sexually harassed significantly more often than male counterparts.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Médicos , Medicina Esportiva , Esportes , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sexismo , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e259731, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544794

RESUMO

Juglans regia L. are nutritious fruit bearing plants mostly found in Northern areas of Pakistan. The population of walnuts was explored from district Dir and Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan for their geographical, climatic and chemical divergence. The geographical differences such as altitude, latitude and longitude whereas climatic differences viz. soil EC, soil pH, precipitations, intensity of light, temperature and soil temperature. In both districts TPC ranged from 211.2±0.6 to 227.8±0.4 mg/100g, RSA ranged from 43.32±1.5% to 52.18±0.4%, conductivity ranged from 296.43±0.6 to 312.22±0.3 S/m and elemental composition such as iron, copper, calcium, zinc and magnesium in Dir differs from 0.312±0.032, 0.209±0.13, 20.0±0.313, 0.406±0.10 and 10.2±0.030 mg/L to 0.543±0.65, 0.698±0.82, 28.7±0.234, 0.685±0.15 and 17.6±0.015 mg/L respectively. Altitude and temperature showed a correlation with total phenolics contents and radical scavenging activity while soil pH, precipitations, soil temperature, soil Ec and light intensity indicated a weak correlation with chemical traits of walnuts. Further studies of walnuts are needed to explore their therapeutically important phytochemicals to succeed naturally pharmaceutical nutrients of the maximum significance for the health of human beings.


Assuntos
Juglans , Altitude , Humanos , Nozes , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Solo
11.
12.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e260566, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35613215

RESUMO

Chrozophora tinctoria (L.) A.Juss. is herbaceous, monecious annual plant used traditionally to cure gastrointestinal disorders. The present study was carried out to find the bioactive compounds by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential acute toxicity, and emetic activity present in the ethyl acetate fraction of Chrozophora tinctoria (EAFCT) and dichloromethane fraction of Chrozophora tinctoria (DCMFCT). The compounds detected in both fractions were mostly fatty acids, with about seven compounds in EAFCT and 10 in DCMFCT. These included pharmacologically active compounds such as imipramine, used to treat depression, or hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, an antioxidant, nematicide, pesticide, hypocholesterolemic, 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, ethyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)- is used as a cancer preventive, antiarthritic, antihistaminic, hepatoprotective, insectifuge, nematicide, Pentadecanoic acid, 14-methyl-, methyl ester have antifungal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, 10-Octadecanoic acid, methyl ester have the property to decrease blood cholesterol, Antioxidant and antimicrobial, 1-Eicosanol is used as an antibacterial, 1-Hexadecene has antibacterial, antioxidant, and antifungal activities. Both DCMFCT and EAFCT fractions inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity with IC50 values of 10 µg and 130 µg, respectively. Both the fractions were found to be toxic in a dose-dependent manner, inducing emesis at 0.5g onward and lethargy and mortality from 3-5 g upwards. Both the fractions combined with distilled water showed highly emetic activity. The significant increase in the number of vomits was shown by EAFCT plus distilled water which are 7.50±1.29, 7.25±3.10, and 11.75±2.22 number of vomits at 1g, 2g, and 3g/kg concentration respectively, while DCMFCT plus distilled water showed 5.25±2.22, 7.50±2.52 and 10.25±2.22 number of vomits at 1g, 2, and 3g/kg correspondingly. The antiemetic standard drug metoclopramide has a higher impact against the emesis induced by both the fractions than dimenhydrinate. Metoclopramide decreases the number of vomits caused by EAFCT to 1.00±0.00, 2.00±0.00, 4.00±1.00 at 1g, 2, and 3g/kg sequentially, while dimenhydrinate decreases the number of vomits to 1.33±0.58, 2.33±1.15, 4.33±0.58 at 1g, 2, and 3g respectively. In the same way, Metochloprimide decreases the number of emesis caused by DcmCt from 5.25±2.22, 7.50±2.52, 10.25±2.22 to 1.33±0.58, 2.33±1.1, 4.33±0.58 at 1g, 2, and 3g/kg concentrations. The present study is the first documented report that scientifically validates the folkloric use of Chrozophora tinctoria as an emetic agent.


Assuntos
Dimenidrinato , Euphorbiaceae , Acetilcolinesterase , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Dimenidrinato/análise , Eméticos/análise , Ésteres/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Metoclopramida/análise , Modelos Animais , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Vômito , Água
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7979, 2022 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35562398

RESUMO

Banana is an important fruit crop in the tropics and subtropics; however, limited information on biomarkers and signature volatiles is available for selecting commercial cultivars. Clonal fidelity is a major contributor to banana yield and aroma; however, there are no useful biomarkers available to validate clonal fidelity. In this study, we performed the molecular profiling of 20 banana cultivars consisting of diploid (AA or AB) and triploid (AAA or AAB or ABB) genomic groups. We screened 200 molecular markers, of which 34 markers (11 RAPD, 11 ISSR, and 12 SSR) yielded unequivocally scorable biomarker profiles. About 75, 69, and 24 allelic loci per marker were detected for RAPD, ISSR, and SSR markers, respectively. The statistical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) exhibited a high genetic difference of 77% with a significant FST value of 0.23 (p < 0.001). Interestingly, the UBC-858 and SSR CNMPF-13 markers were unique to Grand Nain and Ardhapuri cultivars, respectively, which could be used for clonal fidelity analysis. Furthermore, the analysis of banana fruit volatilome using headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GCMS) revealed a total of fifty-four volatile compounds in nine banana cultivars with 56% of the total volatile compounds belonging to the ester group as the significant contributor of aroma. The study assumes significance with informative biomarkers and signature volatiles which could be helpful in breeding and for the authentic identification of commercial banana cultivars.


Assuntos
Musa , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Biomarcadores , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Variação Genética , Musa/química , Musa/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
14.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e256354, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35319619

RESUMO

Termites are known as social insects worldwide. Presently in China 473 species, 44 genera and 4 families of termites have been reported. Of them, 111 Reticulitermes species are widely spread in different zones of China. The dispersion flight season of these Chinese Reticulitermes species are usually started from February to June, but in some regions different species are distributed, sharing their boundaries and having overlapping flight seasons. These reasons become important sources of hybridization between two different heterospecific populations of termites. It was confirmed that the fertilized eggs and unfertilized eggs of some Reticulitermes termites have the capacity of cleavage. While the unfertilized eggs of R. aculabialis, R. chinensis and R. labralis cleaved normally and the only R. aculabialis unfertilized eggs develop in embryos. While, the R. flaviceps and R. chinensis were observed with their abnormal embryonic development, and not hatching of eggs parthenogenetically. They were reported more threatening to Chinese resources as they propagate with parthenogenesis, hybridization and sexual reproduction. Eggshell and macrophiles of eggs play important roles in species identification and control. Although, they are severe pests and cause a wide range of damages to wooden structures and products in homes, buildings, building materials, trees, crops, and forests in China's Mainland.


Assuntos
Baratas , Isópteros , Animais , China , Reprodução
16.
Fam Med ; 54(1): 16-23, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35006595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the prevalence of published opinions about the use of professional academic writers to help disseminate the results of clinical research, particularly opinions about the use of ghost writers, very little information has been published on the possible roles for professional writers within academic medical departments or the mechanisms by which these departments can hire and compensate such writers. To begin addressing this lack of information, the Association of Departments of Family Medicine hosted an online discussion and a subsequent webinar in which we obtained input from three departments of family medicine in the United States regarding their use of academic writers. This discussion revealed three basic models by which academic writers have benefitted these departments: (1) grant writing support, (2) research and academic support for clinical faculty, and (3) departmental communication support. Drawing on specific examples from these institutions, the purpose of this paper is to describe the key support activities, advantages, disadvantages, and funding opportunities for each model for other departments to consider and adapt.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Docentes de Medicina , Organização do Financiamento , Humanos , Publicações , Estados Unidos
17.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e254011, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019102

RESUMO

Livestock is a fundamental part of the agriculture industry in Pakistan and contributes more than 11.53% to GDP. Among livestock species, the buffaloes are regarded as the black gold of Pakistan. Being the highest milk producers globally, Nili-Ravi buffaloes are the most famous ones. Buffaloes are affected by many endemic diseases, and "Hemorrhagic septicemia" (HS) is one of them. This study was designed to ascertain the effects of experimental exposure ofP. multocida B:2 (oral) and its immunogens, i.e., LPS (oral and intravenous) and OMP (oral and subcutaneous) on reproductive hormonal profiles in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Repeated serum samples were collected from the jugular vein of experimental animals for 21 days (0, 02, 04, 08, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 and 504 hours). Hormonal assays to determine the serum concentrations of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) were performed using (MyBioSource) commercial Elisa kits. The hormonal profile of all treatment groups of the buffalo heifers exhibited significant (P<0.05) variations as compared to the control group (G-1). These results indicate suppression in Nili-Ravi buffaloes' reproductive hormonal profile on exposure to P. multocida B:2 and its immunogens. This influence warrants that exposure to H.S may be a possible reason for delayed puberty and poor reproduction performance in Nili-Ravi buffaloes.


Assuntos
Búfalos , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Infecções por Pasteurella/veterinária , Reprodução , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Lipopolissacarídeos , Pasteurella multocida , Progesterona
19.
Astrobiology ; 22(1): 104-115, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748403

RESUMO

Hygroscopic salts at Mars' near-surface (MgSO4, (per)chlorates, NaCl) may form brines by absorbing moisture from the atmosphere at certain times through the process of deliquescence. We have previously shown strong bacterial growth in saturated MgSO4 (∼67% w/v as epsomite) at room temperature, and growth was observed at the MgSO4 eutectic point (43% w/v at -4°C). Here, we have investigated the growth of salinotolerant microbes (Halomonas, Marinococcus, Planococcus) from Hot Lake, Washington; Basque Lake, British Columbia; and Great Salt Plains, Oklahoma under deliquescing conditions. Bacterial cultures were grown to mid-log phase in SP medium supplemented with 50% MgSO4 (as epsomite), 20% NaClO3, or 10% NaCl (w/v), and small aliquots in cups were dried by vacuum desiccation. When the dried culture was rehydrated by the manual addition of water, the culture resumed growth in the reconstituted brine. When desiccated cultures were maintained in a sealed container with a brine reservoir of the matching growth medium controlling the humidity of the headspace, the desiccated microbial culture evaporites formed brine by deliquescence using humidity alone. Bacterial cultures resumed growth in all three salts once rehydrated by deliquescence. Cultures of Halomonas sp. str. HL12 showed robust survival and growth when subjected to several cycles of desiccation and deliquescent or manual rehydration. Our laboratory demonstrations of microbial growth in deliquescent brines are relevant to the surface and near-subsurface of cold arid worlds like Mars. When conditions become wetter, hygroscopic evaporite minerals can deliquesce to produce the earliest habitable brines. Survival after desiccation and growth in deliquescent brines increases the likelihood that microbes from Earth, carried on spacecraft, pose a contamination risk to Mars.


Assuntos
Marte , Sais , Temperatura Baixa , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Cloreto de Sódio
20.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 24(4): 594-601, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34866296

RESUMO

Hydrogen sulphide (H2 S) is a gaseous molecule and originates endogenously in plants. It is considered a potential signalling agent in various physiological processes of plants. Numerous reports have examined the role of H2 S in fruit ripening and in enhancing fruit quality traits. H2 S coordinates the fruit antioxidant system, fruit ripening phytohormones, such as ethylene and abscisic acid, together with other ripening-related signalling molecules, including nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide. Although many studies have increased understanding of various aspects of this complex network, there is a gap in understanding crosstalk of H2 S with key players of fruit ripening, postharvest senescence and fruit metabolism. This review focused on deciphering fruit H2 S metabolism, signalling and its interaction with other ripening-related signalling molecules during fruit ripening and postharvest storage. Moreover, we also discuss how H2 S can be used as a tool for improving fruit quality and productivity and reducing postharvest loss of perishable fruits.


Assuntos
Frutas , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Frutas/fisiologia , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo
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