Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 13 de 13
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328036

RESUMO

CryoEM democratization is hampered by access to costly plunge-freezing supplies. We introduce methods, called CryoCycle, for reliably blotting, vitrifying, and reusing clipped cryoEM grids. We demonstrate that vitreous ice may be produced by plunging clipped grids with purified proteins into liquid ethane and that clipped grids may be reused several times for different protein samples. Furthermore, we demonstrate the vitrification of thin areas of cells prepared on gold-coated, pre-clipped grids.

2.
J Vis Exp ; (202)2023 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38108412

RESUMO

Advancements in cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) techniques over the past decade have allowed structural biologists to routinely resolve macromolecular protein complexes to near-atomic resolution. The general workflow of the entire cryoEM pipeline involves iterating between sample preparation, cryoEM grid preparation, and sample/grid screening before moving on to high-resolution data collection. Iterating between sample/grid preparation and screening is typically a major bottleneck for researchers, as every iterative experiment must optimize for sample concentration, buffer conditions, grid material, grid hole size, ice thickness, and protein particle behavior in the ice, amongst other variables. Furthermore, once these variables are satisfactorily determined, grids prepared under identical conditions vary widely in whether they are ready for data collection, so additional screening sessions prior to selecting optimal grids for high-resolution data collection are recommended. This sample/grid preparation and screening process often consumes several dozen grids and days of operator time at the microscope. Furthermore, the screening process is limited to operator/microscope availability and microscope accessibility. Here, we demonstrate how to use Leginon and Smart Leginon Autoscreen to automate the majority of cryoEM grid screening. Autoscreen combines machine learning, computer vision algorithms, and microscope-handling algorithms to remove the need for constant manual operator input. Autoscreen can autonomously load and image grids with multi-scale imaging using an automated specimen-exchange cassette system, resulting in unattended grid screening for an entire cassette. As a result, operator time for screening 12 grids may be reduced to ~10 min with Autoscreen compared to ~6 h using previous methods which are hampered by their inability to account for high variability between grids. This protocol first introduces basic Leginon setup and functionality, then demonstrates Autoscreen functionality step-by-step from the creation of a template session to the end of a 12-grid automated screening session.


Assuntos
Sistemas Computacionais , Gelo , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Automação , Algoritmos
4.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230537, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208452

RESUMO

During the blood feeding, sand fly females inject saliva containing immunomodulatory and anti-haemostatic molecules into their vertebrate hosts. The saliva composition is species-specific, likely due to an adaptation to particular haemostatic pathways of their preferred host. Research on sand fly saliva is limited to the representatives of two best-studied genera, Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. Although the members of the genus Sergentomyia are highly abundant in many areas in the Old World, their role in human disease transmission remains uncertain. Most Sergentomyia spp. preferentially attack various species of reptiles, but feeding on warm-blooded vertebrates, including humans and domestic animals, has been repeatedly described, especially for Sergentomyia schwetzi, of which salivary gland transcriptome and proteome is analyzed in the current study. Illumina RNA sequencing and de novo assembly of the reads and their annotation revealed 17,293 sequences homologous to other arthropods' proteins. In the sialome, all proteins typical for sand fly saliva were identified-antigen 5-related, lufaxin, yellow-related, PpSP15-like, D7-related, ParSP25-like, and silk proteins, as well as less frequent salivary proteins included 71kDa-like, ParSP80-like, SP16-like, and ParSP17-like proteins. Salivary enzymes include apyrase, hyaluronidase, endonuclease, amylase, lipase A2, adenosine deaminase, pyrophosphatase, 5'nucleotidase, and ribonuclease. Proteomics analysis of salivary glands identified 631 proteins, 81 of which are likely secreted into the saliva. We also compared two S. schwetzi lineages derived from the same origin. These lineages were adapted for over 40 generations for blood feeding either on mice (S-M) or geckos (S-G), two vertebrate hosts with different haemostatic mechanisms. Altogether, 20 and 40 annotated salivary transcripts were up-regulated in the S-M and S-G lineage, respectively. Proteomic comparison revealed ten salivary proteins more abundant in the lineage S-M, whereas 66 salivary proteins were enriched in the lineage S-G. No difference between lineages was found for apyrase activity; contrarily the hyaluronidase activity was significantly higher in the lineage feeding on mice.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Psychodidae/genética , Glândulas Salivares/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Animais , Apirase/análise , Apirase/genética , Apirase/metabolismo , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/análise , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/genética , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/análise , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Lagartos , Camundongos , Filogenia , Psychodidae/metabolismo , Receptores Odorantes/análise , Receptores Odorantes/genética , Receptores Odorantes/metabolismo
5.
Pathogens ; 8(4)2019 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744234

RESUMO

Protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation is an important regulatory mechanism that controls many key physiological processes. Numerous pathogens successfully use kinases and phosphatases to internalize, replicate, and survive, modifying the host's phosphorylation profile or signal transduction pathways. Multiple phosphatases and kinases from diverse bacterial pathogens have been implicated in human infections before. In this work, we have identified and characterized the dual specificity protein/lipid phosphatase LmDUSP1 as a novel virulence factor governing Leishmania mexicana infection. The LmDUSP1-encoding gene (LmxM.22.0250 in L. mexicana) has been acquired from bacteria via horizontal gene transfer. Importantly, its orthologues have been associated with virulence in several bacterial species, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Listeria monocytogenes. Leishmania mexicana with ablated LmxM.22.0250 demonstrated severely attenuated virulence in the experimental infection of primary mouse macrophages, suggesting that this gene facilitates Leishmania pathogenicity in vertebrates. Despite significant upregulation of LmxM.22.0250 expression in metacyclic promastigotes, its ablation did not affect the ability of mutant cells to differentiate into virulent stages in insects. It remains to be further investigated which specific biochemical pathways involve LmDUSP1 and how this facilitates the parasite's survival in the host. One of the interesting possibilities is that LmDUSP1 may target host's substrate(s), thereby affecting its signal transduction pathways.

6.
PLoS One ; 13(2): e0192723, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29438445

RESUMO

Leishmania parasites cause human cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Several studies proposed involvement of certain genes in infectivity of these parasites based on differential mRNA expression data. Due to unusual gene expression mechanism, functions of such genes must be further validated experimentally. Here, we investigated a role of one of the putative virulence factors, LmxM.22.0010-encoded BTN1 (a protein involved in Batten disease in humans), in L. mexicana infectivity. Due to the incredible plasticity of the L. mexicana genome, we failed to obtain a complete knock-out of LmxM.22.0010 using conventional recombination-based approach even after ablating four alleles of this gene. To overcome this, we established a modified CRISPR-Cas9 system with genomic expression of Cas9 nuclease and gRNA. Application of this system allowed us to establish a complete BTN1 KO strain of L. mexicana. The mutant strain did not show any difference in growth kinetics and differentiation in vitro, as well as in the infectivity for insect vectors and mice hosts. Based on the whole-transcriptome profiling, LmxM.22.0010-encoded BTN1 was considered a putative factor of virulence in Leishmania. Our study suggests that ablation of LmxM.22.0010 does not influence L. mexicana infectivity and further illustrates importance of experimental validation of in silico-predicted virulence factors. Here we also describe the whole genome sequencing of the widely used model isolate L. mexicana M379 and report a modified CRISPR/Cas9 system suitable for complete KO of multi-copy genes in organisms with flexible genomes.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Genes de Protozoários , Leishmania mexicana/genética , Leishmania mexicana/patogenicidade , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes/métodos , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Virulência/genética
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 11(7): e0005782, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28742133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leishmania virulence factors responsible for the complicated epidemiology of the various leishmaniases remain mainly unidentified. This study is a characterization of a gene previously identified as upregulated in two of three overlapping datasets containing putative factors important for Leishmania's ability to establish mammalian intracellular infection and to colonize the gut of an insect vector. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The investigated gene encodes ATP/GTP binding motif-containing protein related to Leishmania development 1 (ALD1), a cytosolic protein that contains a cryptic ATP/GTP binding P-loop. We compared differentiation, growth rates, and infective abilities of wild-type and ALD1 null mutant cell lines of L. mexicana. Loss of ALD1 results in retarded growth kinetics but not defects in differentiation in axenic culture. Similarly, when mice and the sand fly vector were infected with the ALD1 null mutant, the primary difference in infection and colonization phenotype relative to wild type was an inability to achieve maximal host pathogenicity. While ability of the ALD1 null mutant cells to infect macrophages in vitro was not affected, replication within macrophages was clearly curtailed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: L. mexicana ALD1, encoding a protein with no assigned functional domains or motifs, was identified utilizing multiple comparative analyses with the related and often experimentally overlooked monoxenous flagellates. We found that it plays a role in Leishmania infection and colonization in vitro and in vivo. Results suggest that ALD1 functions in L. mexicana's general metabolic network, rather than function in specific aspect of virulence as anticipated from the compared datasets. This result validates our comparative genomics approach for finding relevant factors, yet highlights the importance of quality laboratory-based analysis of genes tagged by these methods.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Leishmania mexicana/patogenicidade , Macrófagos/parasitologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania mexicana/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Virulência
8.
PLoS One ; 12(3): e0174165, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28328988

RESUMO

In the present work, we investigated molecular mechanisms governing thermal resistance of a monoxenous trypanosomatid Crithidia luciliae thermophila, which we reclassified as a separate species C. thermophila. We analyzed morphology, growth kinetics, and transcriptomic profiles of flagellates cultivated at low (23°C) and elevated (34°C) temperature. When maintained at high temperature, they grew significantly faster, became shorter, with genes involved in sugar metabolism and mitochondrial stress protection significantly upregulated. Comparison with another thermoresistant monoxenous trypanosomatid, Leptomonas seymouri, revealed dramatic differences in transcription profiles of the two species with only few genes showing the same expression pattern. This disparity illustrates differences in the biology of these two parasites and distinct mechanisms of their thermotolerance, a prerequisite for living in warm-blooded vertebrates.


Assuntos
Crithidia/genética , Insetos/genética , Animais , Fenômenos Bioquímicos/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Temperatura , Transcriptoma/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
9.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 632016 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27311571

RESUMO

In our previous work we established a T7 polymerase-driven Tetracycline-inducible protein expression system in Leishmania mexicana (Biagi, 1953). We used this system to analyse gene expression profiles during development of L. mexicana in procyclic and metacyclic promastigotes and amastigotes. The transcription of the gene of interest and the T7 polymerase genes was significantly reduced upon cell differentiation. This regulation is not locus-specific. It depends on untranslated regions flanking open reading frames of the genes analysed. In this paper, we report that the previously established conventional inducible protein expression system may not be suitable for studies on differentiation of species of Leishmania Ross, 1903 and protein expression systems might have certain limitations.


Assuntos
DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Leishmania mexicana/genética , Leishmania mexicana/enzimologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/genética
10.
Sci Rep ; 6: 23704, 2016 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27021793

RESUMO

Many high-quality genomes are available for dixenous (two hosts) trypanosomatid species of the genera Trypanosoma, Leishmania, and Phytomonas, but only fragmentary information is available for monoxenous (single-host) trypanosomatids. In trypanosomatids, monoxeny is ancestral to dixeny, thus it is anticipated that the genome sequences of the key monoxenous parasites will be instrumental for both understanding the origin of parasitism and the evolution of dixeny. Here, we present a high-quality genome for Leptomonas pyrrhocoris, which is closely related to the dixenous genus Leishmania. The L. pyrrhocoris genome (30.4 Mbp in 60 scaffolds) encodes 10,148 genes. Using the L. pyrrhocoris genome, we pinpointed genes gained in Leishmania. Among those genes, 20 genes with unknown function had expression patterns in the Leishmania mexicana life cycle suggesting their involvement in virulence. By combining differential expression data for L. mexicana, L. major and Leptomonas seymouri, we have identified several additional proteins potentially involved in virulence, including SpoU methylase and U3 small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein IMP3. The population genetics of L. pyrrhocoris was also addressed by sequencing thirteen strains of different geographic origin, allowing the identification of 1,318 genes under positive selection. This set of genes was significantly enriched in components of the cytoskeleton and the flagellum.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Protozoário/genética , Leishmania/genética , Trypanosomatina/genética , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Ontologia Genética , Genes de Protozoários/genética , Leishmania/classificação , Leishmania/patogenicidade , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie , Trypanosomatina/classificação , Trypanosomatina/patogenicidade , Virulência/genética
11.
Protist ; 166(5): 551-68, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26466163

RESUMO

Host-parasite relationships and parasite biodiversity have been the center of attention for many years; however the primary data obtained from large-scale studies remain scarce. Our long term investigations of trypanosomatid (Euglenozoa: Kinetoplastea) biodiversity from Neotropical Heteroptera have yielded almost one hundred typing units (TU) of trypanosomatids from one hundred twenty host species. Half of the parasites' TUs were documented in a single host species only but the rest were found parasitizing two to nine species of hosts, with logarithmic distribution best describing the observed distribution of parasites among hosts. Different host superfamilies did not show significant differences in numbers of trypanosomatid TUs they carry, with exception of Pyrrhocoroidea which showed higher parasite richness than any other group tested. Predatory reduviids shared significantly larger numbers of parasite TUs with phytophagous mirids and coreids than the numbers shared between any other groups. These results show that the specificity of trypanosomatid-heteropteran associations is not very strict: parasites seem to be transmissible between different host groups within the same niche and predatory hosts may acquire parasites from their prey.


Assuntos
Genes de Protozoários , Heterópteros/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , RNA de Protozoário/genética , Trypanosomatina/fisiologia , Animais , Biodiversidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , RNA Líder para Processamento/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Trypanosomatina/classificação , Trypanosomatina/genética
12.
Mol Biochem Parasitol ; 198(1): 11-3, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25461484

RESUMO

Here we present a T7-driven, tetracycline-inducible system for protein expression in human pathogen Leishmania mexicana. The gene expression in this strain is tightly regulated and dose- and time-dependent. This system can be widely used by the parasitology community to analyze effects of genes of interest on biology, physiology and virulence of parasites causing cutaneous leishmaniases.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica , Leishmania mexicana/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania mexicana/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Humanos , Leishmania mexicana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo
13.
Protist ; 164(6): 763-81, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24113136

RESUMO

To further investigate the diversity of Trypanosomatidae we have examined the species present within the flea (Siphonaptera) population in the Czech Republic. Out of 1549 fleas, 239 were found to be infected by trypanosomatids. Axenic cultures were established from 90 infected specimens and 29 of them were further characterized. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the SL RNA, gGAPDH, and SSU rRNA genes revealed a striking diversity within this group and analyzed isolates were classified into 16 Typing units (TUs) of which 15 typified new species. In addition to one Trypanosoma species, two TUs grouped within the sub-family Leishmaniinae, two clustered together with Herpetomonas, wheras 11 TUs formed a novel clade branching off between Trypanosoma spp. and remaining trypanosomatids. We propose to recognize this clade as a new genus Blechomonas and a new subfamily Blechomonadinae, and provide molecular and morphological description of 11 TUs representing this genus. Our finding of such an ancient host-specific group sheds new light at the origin of Trypanosomatidae and the roots of dixenous parasitism. The strict host restriction of Blechomonas to Siphonaptera with adult fleas' dependence on blood meal may reflect passing of parasites from larvae through pupae to adults and implies potential transmission to the warm-blooded vertebrates.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Sifonápteros/parasitologia , Trypanosomatina/classificação , Trypanosomatina/isolamento & purificação , Animais , República Tcheca , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Roedores , Sifonápteros/classificação , Sifonápteros/genética , Trypanosomatina/genética , Trypanosomatina/fisiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...