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1.
JASA Express Lett ; 4(2)2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341684

RESUMO

This study examines the lateral biases in tongue movements during speech production. It builds on previous research on asymmetry in various aspects of human biology and behavior, focusing on the tongue's asymmetric behavior during speech. The findings reveal that speakers have a pronounced preference toward one side of the tongue during lateral releases with a majority displaying the left-side bias. This lateral bias in tongue speech movements is referred to as tonguedness. This research contributes to our understanding of the articulatory mechanisms involved in tongue movements and underscores the importance of considering lateral biases in speech production research.


Assuntos
Fala , Língua , Humanos , Medida da Produção da Fala , Testes de Articulação da Fala
2.
J Glob Health ; 13: 06046, 2023 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37997786

RESUMO

Background: Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) oxygen therapy has been shown to be safe and effective in treating children with severe pneumonia and hypoxaemia in Bangladesh. Due to lack of adequate non-invasive ventilatory support during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis, we aimed to evaluate whether bCPAP was safe and feasible when adapted for use in adults with similar indications. Methods: Adults (18-64 years) with severe pneumonia and moderate hypoxaemia (80 to <90% oxygen saturation (SpO2) in room air) were provided bCPAP via nasal cannula at a flow rate of 10 litres per minute (l/min) oxygen at 10 centimetres (cm) H2O pressure, in two tertiary hospitals in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Qualitative interviews and focus group discussions, using a descriptive phenomenological approach, were performed with patients and staff (n = 39) prior to and after the introduction (n = 12 and n = 27 respectively) to understand the operational challenges to the introduction of bCPAP. Results: We enrolled 30 adults (median age 52, interquartile range (IQR) 40-60 years) with severe pneumonia and hypoxaemia and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) irrespective of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) test results to receive bCPAP. At baseline mean SpO2 on room air was 87% (±2) which increased to 98% (±2), after initiation of bCPAP. The mean duration of bCPAP oxygen therapy was 14.4 ± 24.8 hours. There were no adverse events of note, and no treatment failure or deaths. Operational challenges to the clinical introduction of bCPAP were lack of functioning pulse oximeters, difficult nasal interface fixation among those wearing nose pin, occasional auto bubbling or lack of bubbling in water-filled plastic bottle, lack of holder for water-filled plastic bottle, rapid turnover of trained clinicians at the hospitals, and limited routine care of patients by hospital clinicians particularly after official hours. Discussion: If the tertiary hospitals in Bangladesh are supplied with well-functioning good quality pulse oximeters and enhanced training of the doctors and nurses on proper use of adapted version of bCPAP, in treating adults with severe pneumonia and hypoxaemia with or without ARDS, the bCPAP was found to be safe, well tolerated and not associated with treatment failure across all study participants. These observations increase the confidence level of the investigators to consider a future efficacy trial of adaptive bCPAP oxygen therapy compared to WHO standard low flow oxygen therapy in such patients. Conclusion: s Although bCPAP oxygen therapy was found to be safe and feasible in this pilot study, several challenges were identified that need to be taken into account when planning a definitive clinical trial.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Criança , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/complicações , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Projetos Piloto , Resultado do Tratamento , Bangladesh , Pneumonia/terapia , Hipóxia/terapia , Hipóxia/complicações , Oxigênio/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/complicações , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Água
3.
J Glob Health ; 13: 07004, 2023 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37651640

RESUMO

Background: Fifteen million babies are born preterm globally each year, with 81% occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Preterm birth complications are the leading cause of newborn deaths and significantly impact health, quality of life, and costs of health services. Improving outcomes for newborns and their families requires prioritising research for developing practical, scalable solutions, especially in low-resource settings such as Bangladesh. We aimed to identify research priorities related to preventing and managing preterm birth in LMICs for 2021-2030, with a special focus on Bangladesh. Methods: We adopted the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) method to set research priorities for preventing and managing preterm birth. Seventy-six experts submitted 490 research questions online, which we collated into 95 unique questions and sent for scoring to all experts. A hundred and nine experts scored the questions using five pre-selected criteria: answerability, effectiveness, deliverability, maximum potential for burden reduction, and effect on equity. We calculated weighted and unweighted research priority scores and average expert agreement to generate a list of top-ranked research questions for LMICs and Bangladesh. Results: Health systems and policy research dominated the top 20 identified priorities for LMICs, such as understanding and improving uptake of the facility and community-based Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC), promoting breastfeeding, improving referral and transport networks, evaluating the impact of the use of skilled attendants, quality improvement activities, and exploring barriers to antenatal steroid use. Several of the top 20 questions also focused on screening high-risk women or the general population of women, understanding the causes of preterm birth, or managing preterm babies with illnesses (jaundice, sepsis and retinopathy of prematurity). There was a high overlap between research priorities in LMICs and Bangladesh. Conclusions: This exercise, aimed at identifying priorities for preterm birth prevention and management research in LMICs, especially in Bangladesh, found research on improving the care of preterm babies to be more important in reducing the burden of preterm birth and accelerating the attainment of Sustainable Development Goal 3 target of newborn deaths, by 2030.


Assuntos
Método Canguru , Nascimento Prematuro , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Humanos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Saúde da Criança , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Qualidade de Vida , Projetos de Pesquisa
4.
J Glob Health ; 12: 06001, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35441007

RESUMO

Background: Pneumonia is the leading cause of under-five child deaths globally and in Bangladesh. Hypoxaemia or low (<90%) oxygen concentration in the arterial blood is one of the strongest predictors of child mortality from pneumonia and other acute respiratory infections. Since 2014, the World Health Organization recommends using pulse oximetry devices in Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) services (outpatient child health services), but it was not routinely used in most health facilities in Bangladesh until 2018. This paper describes the stakeholder engagement process embedded in an implementation research study to influence national policy and programmes to introduce pulse oximetry in routine IMCI services in Bangladesh. Methods: Based on literature review and expert consultations, we developed a conceptual framework, which guided the planning and implementation of a 4-step stakeholder engagement process. Desk review, key informant interviews, consultative workshops and onsite demonstration were the key methods to involve and engage a wide range of stakeholders. In the first step, a comprehensive desk review and key informant interviews were conducted to identify stakeholder organisations and scored them based on their power and interest levels regarding IMCI implementation in Bangladesh. In the second step, two national level, two district level and five sub-district level sensitisation workshops were organised to orient all stakeholder organisations having high power or high interest regarding the importance of using pulse oximetry for pneumonia assessment and classification. In the third step, national and district level high power-high interest stakeholder organisations were involved in developing a joint action plan for introducing pulse oximetry in routine IMCI services. In the fourth step, led by a formal working group under the leadership of the Ministry of Health, we updated the national IMCI implementation package, including all guidelines, training manuals, services registers and referral forms in English and Bangla. Subsequently, we demonstrated its use in real-life settings involving various levels of (national, district and sub-district) stakeholders and worked alongside the government leaders towards carefully resuming activities despite the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: Our engagement process contributed to the national decision to introduce pulse oximetry in routine child health services and update the national IMCI implementation package demonstrating country ownership, government leadership and multi-partner involvement, which are steppingstones towards scalability and sustainability. However, our experience clearly delineates that stakeholder engagement is a context-driven, time-consuming, resource-intensive, iterative, mercurial process that demands meticulous planning, prioritisation, inclusiveness, and adaptability. It is also influenced by the expertise, experience and positionality of the facilitating organization. Conclusions: Our experience has demonstrated the value and potential of the approach that we adopted for stakeholder engagement. However, the approach needs to be conceptualised coupled with the allocation of adequate resources and time commitment to implement it effectively.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Bangladesh , Criança , Humanos , Oximetria , Pandemias , Políticas , Participação dos Interessados
5.
Implement Sci Commun ; 2(1): 115, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is a proven low-cost intervention to prevent neonatal mortality of pre-term and low birth weight babies and is very relevant to Bangladesh. KMC provides thermal regulation and thus directly avert neonatal mortality. KMC includes early, continuous, and prolonged skin-to-skin contact between an infant and caregiver, exclusive breastfeeding, early discharge from the hospital, and post-discharge follow-up. The purpose of this study was to investigate the fidelity of this intervention's implementation according to national guidelines across all tiers of government (public) health facilities of Bangladesh. METHODS: We adopted a triangulation mixed-methods approach of both quantitative and qualitative components in this research to support and explain the information obtained from quantitative observation with the help of qualitative interviews on the fidelity of KMC practice. We used an observation checklist to find the fidelity of KMC practice and used semi-structured guidelines to explain and understand the moderators of fidelity through key informant interviews and in-depth interviews. We undertook eight facility visits in four districts, observed twenty-three neonates and their caregivers during KMC practice at those facilities, and conducted twenty-seven key informant interviews with facility managers, health care providers, and five in-depth interviews with caregivers. Extracted information was triangulated and arranged under the themes of the fidelity framework. RESULTS: Despite being a low-cost intervention, findings exhibit some adherence to the national guideline with several gaps in practice. Leadership played a critical role in ensuring the KMC practice. Specific components of KMC practice, like duration, nutrition maintenance, discharge criteria, and follow-up, were not consistent as recommended. Infrastructure, human resources, developmental partner support, and the demand-side and supply-side responsiveness played a critical role in enacting this human-centric approach's fidelity. The observed interruption found in the implementation process posed threats to achieve the intended outcome as these caused violations of the basic principles of KMC. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings will help find ways to effectively deliver this intervention so that fidelity of practice is maintained, enhancing KMC services' quality and advocating towards the successful scale-up of this program.

6.
BMJ Glob Health ; 4(6): e001643, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803507

RESUMO

Neonatal infections remain a leading cause of newborn deaths globally. In 2015, WHO issued guidelines for managing possible serious bacterial infection (PSBI) in young infants (0-59 days) with simpler antibiotic regimens if hospital referral is not feasible. Bangladesh was one of the first countries to adapt WHO guidance into national guidelines for implementation in primary healthcare facilities. Early implementation was led by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW) in 10 subdistricts of Bangladesh with support from USAID's MaMoni Health System Strengthening project. This mixed methods implementation research case study explores programme feasibility and acceptability through analysis of service delivery data from 4590 sick young infants over a 15-month period, qualitative interviews with providers and MOHFW managers and documentation by project staff. Multistakeholder collaboration was key to ensuring facility readiness and feasibility of programme delivery. For the 514 (11%) infants classified as PSBI, provider adherence to prereferral treatment and follow-up varied across infection subcategories. Many clinical severe infection cases for whom referral was not feasible received the recommended two doses of injectable gentamicin and follow-up, suggesting delivery of simplified antibiotic treatment is feasible. However, prereferral antibiotic treatment was low for infants whose families accepted hospital referral, which highlights the need for additional focus on managing these cases in training and supervision. Systems for tracking sick infants that accept hospital referral are needed, and follow-up of all PSBI cases requires strengthening to ensure sick infants receive the recommended treatment, to monitor outcomes and assess the effectiveness of the programme. Only 11.2% (95% CI 10.3 to 12.1) of the expected PSBI cases sought care from the selected service delivery points in the programme period. However, increasing trends in utilisation suggest improved awareness and acceptability of services among families of young infants as the programme matured. Future programme activities should include interviews with caregivers to explore the complexities around referral feasibility and acceptability of simplified antibiotic treatment.

7.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 020410, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine (CHX) cleansing of the umbilical cord stump is an evidence-based intervention that reduces newborn infections and is recommended for high-mortality settings. Bangladesh is one of the first countries to adopt and scale up CHX nationally. This study evaluates the implementation outcomes for the CHX scale up in Bangladesh and identifies and describes key milestones and processes for the scale up. METHODS: We adapted the RE-AIM framework for this study, incorporating the WHO/ExpandNet model of Scale Up. Adoption and incorporation milestones were assessed through program documents and interviews with national stakeholders (n = 25). Provider training records served as a measure of reach. Implementation was assessed through a survey of readiness to provide CHX at public facilities (n = 4479) and routine data on the proportion of all live births at public facilities (n = 813 607) that received CHX from December 2016 to November 2017. Six rounds of a rolling household survey with recently-delivered women in four districts (n = 6000 to 8000 per round) measured the effectiveness and maintenance of the scale up in increasing population-level coverage of CHX in those districts. RESULTS: More than 80 000 providers, supervisors, and managers across all 64 districts received a half-day training on CHX and essential newborn care between July 2015 and September 2016. Seventy-four percent of facilities had at least 70% of maternal and newborn health providers with CHX training, while only 46% had CHX in stock on the day of the assessment. The provision of CHX to newborns delivered at facilities steadily increased from 15 059 newborns (24%) in December 2016 to 71 704 (72%) in November 2017. In the final household survey of four districts, 33% of newborns were reported to receive CHX, and babies delivered at public facilities had 5.04 times greater odds (95% CI = 4.45, 5.72) of receiving CHX than those delivered at home. CONCLUSIONS: The scale up of CHX in Bangladesh achieved sustained national implementation in public health facilities. Institutionalization barriers, such as changes to supply logistics systems, had to be addressed before expansion was achieved. For greater public health impact, implementation must reach deliveries that take place at home and in the private sector.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Cordão Umbilical , Bangladesh , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/prevenção & controle , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Saúde Pública
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