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1.
Microbiol Spectr ; 12(3): e0383123, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315011

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 XBB is a group of highly immune-evasive lineages of the Omicron variant of concern that emerged by recombining BA.2-descendent lineages and spread worldwide during 2023. In this study, we combine SARS-CoV-2 genomic data (n = 11,065 sequences) with epidemiological data of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) cases collected in Brazil between October 2022 and July 2023 to reconstruct the space-time dynamics and epidemiologic impact of XBB dissemination in the country. Our analyses revealed that the introduction and local emergence of lineages carrying convergent mutations within the Spike protein, especially F486P, F456L, and L455F, propelled the spread of XBB* lineages in Brazil. The average relative instantaneous reproduction numbers of XBB* + F486P, XBB* + F486P + F456L, and XBB* + F486P + F456L + L455F lineages in Brazil were estimated to be 1.24, 1.33, and 1.48 higher than that of other co-circulating lineages (mainly BQ.1*/BE*), respectively. Despite such a growth advantage, the dissemination of these XBB* lineages had a reduced impact on Brazil's epidemiological scenario concerning previous Omicron subvariants. The peak number of SARI cases from SARS-CoV-2 during the XBB wave was approximately 90%, 80%, and 70% lower than that observed during the previous BA.1*, BA.5*, and BQ.1* waves, respectively. These findings revealed the emergence of multiple XBB lineages with progressively increasing growth advantage, yet with relatively limited epidemiological impact in Brazil throughout 2023. The XBB* + F486P + F456L + L455F lineages stand out for their heightened transmissibility, warranting close monitoring in the months ahead. IMPORTANCE: Brazil was one the most affected countries by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, with more than 700,000 deaths by mid-2023. This study reconstructs the dissemination of the virus in the country in the first half of 2023, a period characterized by the dissemination of descendants of XBB.1, a recombinant of Omicron BA.2 lineages evolved in late 2022. The analysis supports that XBB dissemination was marked by the continuous emergence of indigenous lineages bearing similar mutations in key sites of their Spike protein, a process followed by continuous increments in transmissibility, and without repercussions in the incidence of severe cases. Thus, the results suggest that the epidemiological impact of the spread of a SARS-CoV-2 variant is influenced by an intricate interplay of factors that extend beyond the virus's transmissibility alone. The study also underlines the need for SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance that allows the monitoring of its ever-shifting composition.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
2.
J Virol ; 98(3): e0199523, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38323813

RESUMO

Historically, antibody reactivity to pathogens and vaccine antigens has been evaluated using serological measurements of antigen-specific antibodies. However, it is difficult to evaluate all antibodies that contribute to various functions in a single assay, such as the measurement of the neutralizing antibody titer. Bulk antibody repertoire analysis using next-generation sequencing is a comprehensive method for analyzing the overall antibody response; however, it is unreliable for estimating antigen-specific antibodies due to individual variation. To address this issue, we propose a method to subtract the background signal from the repertoire of data of interest. In this study, we analyzed changes in antibody diversity and inferred the heavy-chain complementarity-determining region 3 (CDRH3) sequences of antibody clones that were selected upon influenza virus infection in a mouse model using bulk repertoire analysis. A decrease in the diversity of the antibody repertoire was observed upon viral infection, along with an increase in neutralizing antibody titers. Using kernel density estimation of sequences in a high-dimensional sequence space with background signal subtraction, we identified several clusters of CDRH3 sequences induced upon influenza virus infection. Most of these repertoires were detected more frequently in infected mice than in uninfected control mice, suggesting that infection-specific antibody sequences can be extracted using this method. Such an accurate extraction of antigen- or infection-specific repertoire information will be a useful tool for vaccine evaluation in the future. IMPORTANCE: As specific interactions between antigens and cell-surface antibodies trigger the proliferation of B-cell clones, the frequency of each antibody sequence in the samples reflects the size of each clonal population. Nevertheless, it is extremely difficult to extract antigen-specific antibody sequences from the comprehensive bulk antibody sequences obtained from blood samples due to repertoire bias influenced by exposure to dietary antigens and other infectious agents. This issue can be addressed by subtracting the background noise from the post-immunization or post-infection repertoire data. In the present study, we propose a method to quantify repertoire data from comprehensive repertoire data. This method allowed subtraction of the background repertoire, resulting in more accurate extraction of expanded antibody repertoires upon influenza virus infection. This accurate extraction of antigen- or infection-specific repertoire information is a useful tool for vaccine evaluation.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae , Orthomyxoviridae , Animais , Camundongos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Linfócitos B/citologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Células Clonais/citologia , Células Clonais/imunologia , Regiões Determinantes de Complementaridade/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/sangue , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia
3.
PLoS One ; 18(8): e0289568, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37585433

RESUMO

We propose a new method for bipartite link prediction using matrix factorization with negative sample selection. Bipartite link prediction is a problem that aims to predict the missing links or relations in a bipartite network. One of the most popular solutions to the problem is via matrix factorization (MF), which performs well but requires reliable information on both absent and present network links as training samples. This, however, is sometimes unavailable since there is no ground truth for absent links. To solve the problem, we propose a technique called negative sample selection, which selects reliable negative training samples using formal concept analysis (FCA) of a given bipartite network in advance of the preceding MF process. We conduct experiments on two hypothetical application scenarios to prove that our joint method outperforms the raw MF-based link prediction method as well as all other previously-proposed unsupervised link prediction methods.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Projetos de Pesquisa
4.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 2048, 2023 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37041143

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) Delta and Omicron spread globally during mid and late 2021, respectively. In this study, we compare the dissemination dynamics of these VOCs in the Amazonas state, one of Brazil's most heavily affected regions. We sequenced the virus genome from 4128 patients collected in Amazonas between July 1st, 2021, and January 31st, 2022, and investigated the viral dynamics using a phylodynamic approach. The VOCs Delta and Omicron BA.1 displayed similar patterns of phylogeographic spread but different epidemic dynamics. The replacement of Gamma by Delta was gradual and occurred without an upsurge of COVID-19 cases, while the rise of Omicron BA.1 was extremely fast and fueled a sharp increase in cases. Thus, the dissemination dynamics and population-level impact of new SARS-CoV-2 variants introduced in the Amazonian population after mid-2021, a setting with high levels of acquired immunity, greatly vary according to their viral phenotype.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Brasil , Imunidade Adaptativa
5.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36423165

RESUMO

New variants of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with high effective reproduction numbers are continuously being selected by natural selection. To establish effective control measures for new variants, it is crucial to know their transmissibility and replacement trajectory in advance. In this paper, we conduct retrospective prediction tests for the variant replacement from Alpha to Delta in England, using the relative reproduction numbers of Delta with respect to Alpha estimated from partial observations. We found that once Delta's relative frequency reached 0.15, the date when the relative frequency of Delta would reach 0.90 was predicted with maximum absolute prediction errors of three days. This means that the time course of the variant replacement could be accurately predicted from early observations. Together with the estimated relative reproduction number of a new variant with respect to old variants, the predicted replacement timing will be crucial information for planning control strategies against the new variant.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reprodução
6.
Math Biosci Eng ; 19(9): 9005-9017, 2022 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35942746

RESUMO

The Omicron variant spreads fastest as ever among the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses 2 (SARS-CoV-2) we had so far. The BA.1 and BA.2 sublineages of Omicron are circulating worldwide and it is urgent to evaluate the transmission advantages of these sublineages. Using a mathematical model describing trajectories of variant frequencies that assumes a constant ratio in mean generation times and a constant ratio in effective reproduction numbers among variants, trajectories of variant frequencies in Denmark from November 22, 2021 to February 26, 2022 were analyzed. We found that the mean generation time of Omicron BA.1 is 0.44-0.46 times that of Delta and the effective reproduction number of Omicron BA.1 is 1.88-2.19 times larger than Delta under the epidemiological conditions at the time. We also found that the mean generation time of Omicron BA.2 is 0.76-0.80 times that of BA.1 and the effective reproduction number of Omicron BA.2 is 1.25-1.27 times larger than Omicron BA.1. These estimates on the ratio of mean generation times and the ratio of effective reproduction numbers have epidemiologically important implications. The contact tracing for Omicron BA.2 infections must be done more quickly than that for BA.1 to stop further infections by quarantine. In the Danish population, the control measures against Omicron BA.2 need to reduce 20-21% of additional contacts compared to that against BA.1.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Reprodução , SARS-CoV-2/genética
7.
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 754255, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35968015

RESUMO

Age bins are frequently used in serological studies of infectious diseases in wildlife to deal with uncertainty in the age of sampled animals. This study analyzed how age binning and targeted sampling in serological surveillance affect the width of the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the estimated force of infection (FOI) of infectious diseases. We indicate that the optimal target population with the narrowest 95% CI differs depending on the expected FOI using computer simulations and mathematical models. In addition, our findings show that we can substantially reduce the number of animals required to infer transmission risk by tailoring targeted, age-based sampling to specific epidemiological situations.

8.
Evol Appl ; 15(7): 1062-1078, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35899249

RESUMO

Ticks are the second most important vector capable of transmitting diseases affecting the health of both humans and animals. Amblyomma testudinarium Koch 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae), is a hard tick species having a wide geographic distribution in Asia. In this study, we analyzed the composition of A. testudinarium whole mitogenomes from various geographical regions in Japan and investigated the population structure, demographic patterns, and phylogeographic relationship with other ixodid species. In addition, we characterized a potentially novel tick species closely related to A. testudinarium from Myanmar. Phylogeographic inference and evolutionary dynamics based on the 15 mitochondrial coding genes supported that A. testudinarium population in Japan is resolved into a star-like haplogroup and suggested a distinct population structure of A. testudinarium from Amami island in Kyushu region. Correlation analysis using Mantel test statistics showed that no significant correlation was observed between the genetic and geographic distances calculated between the A. testudinarium population from different localities in Japan. Finally, demographic analyses, including mismatch analysis and Tajima's D test, suggested a possibility of recent population expansion occurred within Japanese haplogroup after a bottleneck event. Although A. testudinarium has been considered widespread and common in East and Southeast Asia, the current study suggested that potentially several cryptic Amblyomma spp. closely related to A. testudinarium are present in Asia.

9.
Vaccine ; 40(30): 4026-4037, 2022 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35641357

RESUMO

The All-Japan Influenza Vaccine Study Group has been developing a more effective vaccine than the current split vaccines for seasonal influenza virus infection. In the present study, the efficacy of formalin- and/or ß-propiolactone-inactivated whole virus particle vaccines for seasonal influenza was compared to that of the current ether-treated split vaccines in a nonhuman primate model. The monovalent whole virus particle vaccines or split vaccines of influenza A virus (H1N1) and influenza B virus (Victoria lineage) were injected subcutaneously into naïve cynomolgus macaques twice. The whole virus particle vaccines induced higher titers of neutralizing antibodies against H1N1 influenza A virus and influenza B virus in the plasma of macaques than did the split vaccines. At challenge with H1N1 influenza A virus or influenza B virus, the virus titers in nasal swabs and the increases in body temperatures were lower in the macaques immunized with the whole virus particle vaccine than in those immunized with the split vaccine. Repertoire analyses of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes demonstrated that the number of B-lymphocyte subclones was increased in macaques after the 1st vaccination with the whole virus particle vaccine, but not with the split vaccine, indicating that the whole virus particle vaccine induced the activation of vaccine antigen-specific B-lymphocytes more vigorously than did the split vaccine at priming. Thus, the present findings suggest that the superior antibody induction ability of the whole virus particle vaccine as compared to the split vaccine is attributable to its stimulatory properties on the subclonal differentiation of antigen-specific B-lymphocytes.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Linfócitos B , Genes de Imunoglobulinas , Humanos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Macaca fascicularis , Vacinação , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados , Vírion
10.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 2265-2268, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34967453

RESUMO

The Omicron variant of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become widespread across the world in a flashing manner. As of December 7, 2021, a total of 758 Omicron cases were confirmed in Denmark. Using the nucleotide sequences of the Delta and Omicron variants registered from Denmark in the GISAID database, we found that the effective (instantaneous) reproduction number of Omicron is 3.19 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.82-3.61) times greater than that of Delta under the same epidemiological conditions. The proportion of Omicron infections among all SARS-CoV-2 infections in Denmark was expected to exceed 95% on December 28, 2021, with a 95% CI from December 25 to December 31, 2021. Given that the Delta variant or variants less transmissible than Delta are dominant in most countries, the rapid increase in Omicron in the virus population may be observed as soon as the Omicron is introduced. Preparing proactive control measures is vital, assuming the substantial advantage of the transmission by Omicron.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Reprodução , SARS-CoV-2/genética
11.
Euro Surveill ; 26(27)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240695

RESUMO

Using numbers of SARS-CoV-2 variants detected in Japan as at 13 June 2021, relative instantaneous reproduction numbers (RRI) of the R.1, Alpha, and Delta variants with respect to other strains circulating in Japan were estimated at 1.25, 1.44, and 1.95. Depending on the assumed serial interval distributions, RRI varies from 1.20-1.32 for R.1, 1.34-1.58 for Alpha, and 1.70-2.30 for Delta. The frequency of Delta is expected to take over Alpha in Japan before 23 July 2021.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Tóquio
12.
Virus Evol ; 7(1): veab049, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285812

RESUMO

In 2009, a new strain of H1N1 influenza A virus caused a pandemic, and its descendant strains are causing seasonal epidemics worldwide. Given the high mutation rate of influenza viruses, variant strains having different amino acids on hemagglutinin (HA) continuously emerge. To prepare vaccine strains for the next influenza seasons, it is an urgent task to predict which variants will be selected in the viral population. An analysis of 24,681 pairs of an amino acid sequence of HA of H1N1pdm2009 viruses and its patient age showed that the empirical fixation probability of new amino acids on HA significantly differed depending on their frequencies in the population, patient age distributions, and epitope flags. The selective advantage of a variant strain having a new amino acid was modeled by linear combinations of patients age distributions and epitope flags, and then the fixation probability of the new amino acid was modeled using Kimura's formula for advantageous selection. The parameters of models were estimated from the sequence data and models were tested with four-fold cross validations. The frequency of new amino acids alone can achieve high sensitivity, specificity, and precision in predicting the fixation of a new amino acid of which frequency is more than 0.11. The estimated parameter suggested that viruses with a new amino acid having a frequency in the population higher than 0.11 have a significantly higher selective advantage compared to viruses with the old amino acid at the same position. The model considering the Z-value of patient age rank-sums of new amino acids predicted amino acid substitutions on HA with a sensitivity of 0.78, specificity of 0.86, and precision of 0.83, showing significant improvement compared to the constant selective advantage model, which used only the frequency of the amino acid. These results suggested that H1N1 viruses tend to be selected in the adult population, and frequency of viruses having new amino acids and their patient ages are useful to predict amino acid substitutions on HA.

13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 741, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436882

RESUMO

Human activities interfere with wild animals and lead to the loss of many animal populations. Therefore, efforts have been made to understand how wildlife can rebound from anthropogenic disturbances. An essential mechanism to adapt to environmental and social changes is the fluctuations in the host gut microbiome. Here we give a comprehensive description of anthropogenically induced microbiome alterations in Asian elephants (n = 30). We detected gut microbial changes due to overseas translocation, captivity and deworming. We found that microbes belonging to Planococcaceae had the highest contribution in the microbiome alterations after translocation, while Clostridiaceae, Spirochaetaceae and Bacteroidia were the most affected after captivity. However, deworming significantly changed the abundance of Flavobacteriaceae, Sphingobacteriaceae, Xanthomonadaceae, Weeksellaceae and Burkholderiaceae. These findings may provide fundamental ideas to help guide the preservation tactics and probiotic replacement therapies of a dysbiosed gut microbiome in Asian elephants. More generally, these results show the severity of anthropogenic activities at the level of gut microbiome, altering the adaptation processes to new environments and the subsequent capability to maintain normal physiological processes in animals.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Disbiose/fisiopatologia , Ecossistema , Elefantes/microbiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Ásia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino
14.
J Clin Med ; 11(1)2021 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35011781

RESUMO

The world identified the rapidly increasing incidence of the causative variant of SARS-CoV-2 Pangolin B [...].

15.
mBio ; 11(1)2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964741

RESUMO

In contrast to influenza virus vaccination, natural infection induces long-lived and relatively broad immune responses. However, many aspects of the antibody response to natural infection are not well understood. Here, we assessed the immune response after H1N1 influenza virus infection in children and adults in a Nicaraguan household transmission study using an influenza virus protein microarray (IVPM). This technology allows us to simultaneously measure IgG and IgA antibody responses to hemagglutinins of many different virus strains and subtypes quantitatively with a high throughput. We found that children under 6 years of age responded to natural infection with a relatively narrow response that targeted mostly the hemagglutinin of the strain that caused the infection. Adults, however, have a much broader response, including a boost in antibodies to many group 1 subtype hemagglutinins. Also, a strong recall response against historic H1 hemagglutinins that share the K133 epitope with the pandemic H1N1 virus was observed. Of note, some children, while responding narrowly within H1 and group 1 hemagglutinins, induced a boost to H3 and other group 2 hemagglutinins when infected with H1N1 when they had experienced an H3N2 infection earlier in life. This is an interesting phenomenon providing evidence for immune imprinting and a significant new insight which might be leveraged in future universal influenza virus vaccine strategies. Finally, preexisting immunity to pandemic H1 hemagglutinins was significantly associated with protection from infection in both children and adults. In adults, preexisting immunity to non-H1 group 1 hemagglutinins was also significantly associated with protection from infection.IMPORTANCE It is known since Thomas Francis, Jr. published his first paper on original antigenic sin in 1960 that the first infection(s) with influenza virus leaves a special immunological imprint which shapes immune responses to future infections with antigenically related influenza virus strains. Imprinting has been implicated in both protective effects as well as blunting of the immune response to vaccines. Despite the fact that this phenomenon was already described almost 60 years ago, we have very little detailed knowledge of the characteristics and breadth of the immune response to the first exposure(s) to influenza virus in life and how this compares to later exposure as adults. Here, we investigate these immune responses in detail using an influenza virus protein microarray. While our findings are mostly descriptive in nature and based on a small sample size, they provide a strong basis for future large-scale studies to better understand imprinting effects.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Memória Imunológica , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Animais , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Criança , Reações Cruzadas , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Camundongos , Orthomyxoviridae/classificação , Filogenia , Vacinação
16.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 2765, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849902

RESUMO

In 2014 and 2015, the number of human cases of H5N1 avian influenza virus infections had increased dramatically in Egypt. This increase might be related to increase in the transmission potential of the virus among humans. To clarify the cause of the increase in H5N1 human cases, we investigate the transmissibility of H5N1 viruses among humans via estimating the basic reproduction number R 0 using nucleotide sequences and sampling dates of viruses. To this end, full-length hemagglutinin gene sequences of human and avian H5N1 influenza viruses isolated from 2006 to 2016 in Egypt were obtained from the NCBI influenza virus resource. Taking into account the phylogeny, genetic distance, sampling time difference among viruses, R 0 was estimated to be 0.05 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.13) assuming that human-to-human transmissions occurred within a city, 0.23(95% CI: 0.14, 0.35) assuming human-to-human transmissions among cities. Our results indicate that human-to-human transmission of H5N1 viruses in Egypt is limited, and the large increase in human cases is likely attributed to other factor than increase in human-to-human transmission potential.

17.
Viruses ; 11(12)2019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779121

RESUMO

After analyzing 27 new genomes from fowl adenovirus (FAdV) field isolates and so-far unsequenced prototypes, we report the first evidence for recombination in FAdVs. Recombination was confined to species FAdV-D and FAdV-E, accommodating the largest number of, and the intraspecies-wise most differentiated, types. The majority of detected events occurred in FAdV-E, involving segments with parental origin of all constitutive types. Together with the diversity of breakpoints, this suggests widespread recombination in this species. With possible constraints through species-specific genes and diversification patterns, the recombinogenic potential of FAdVs attains particular interest for inclusion body hepatitis (IBH), an important disease in chickens, caused by types from the recombination-prone species. Autonomously evolving, recombinant segments were associated with major sites under positive selection, among them the capsid protein hexon and fiber genes, the right-terminal ORFs 19, 25, and the ORF20/20A family. The observed mosaicism in genes indicated as targets of adaptive pressures points toward an immune evasion strategy. Intertypic hexon/fiber-recombinants demonstrated hybrid neutralization profiles, retrospectively explaining reported controversies on reference strains B3-A, T8-A, and X11-A. Furthermore, cross-neutralization supported sequence-based evidence for interdomain recombination in fiber and contributed to a tentatively new type. Overall, our findings challenge the purported uniformity of types responsible for IBH, urging more complete identification strategies for FAdVs. Finally, important consequences arise for in vivo studies investigating cross-protection against IBH.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Aviadenovirus/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Galinhas/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Animais , Aviadenovirus/imunologia , Proteção Cruzada , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Recombinação Genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/veterinária
18.
Virus Genes ; 55(5): 630-642, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292858

RESUMO

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) exerts a profound burden of viral encephalitis. We have investigated the differentially expressed transcripts in the neuronal transcriptome during JEV infection by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of virus-infected SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Gene ontology analysis revealed significant enrichment from two main pathways: endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-nucleus signaling (P value: 5.75E-18; false discovery rate [FDR] 3.11E-15) and the ER unfolded protein response (P value: 7.58E-18; FDR 3.11E-15). qPCR validation showed significant upregulation and differential expression (P < 0.01) of ER stress-signaling transcripts (SESN2, TRIB3, DDIT3, DDIT4, XBP1, and ATF4) at 24 h post-infection for both low (LN) and high (HN) neurovirulence JEV strains. Immunoblot analysis following JEV infection of SH-SY5Y cells showed an increase in levels of SESN2 protein following JEV infection. Similarly, Zika virus (MR766) infection of SH-SY5Y showed a titer-dependent increase in ER stress-signaling transcripts; however, this was absent or diminished for DDIT4 and ATF4, respectively, suggestive of differences in the induction of stress-response transcripts between flaviviruses. Interestingly, SLC7A11 and SLC3A2 mRNA were also both deregulated in JEV-infected SH-SY5Y cells and encode the two constituent subunits of the plasma membrane xCT amino acid antiporter that relieves oxidative stress by export of glutamate and import of cystine. Infection of SH-SY5Y and HEK293T cells by the JEV HN strain Sw/Mie/40/2004 lead to significant upregulation of the SLC7A11 mRNA to levels comparable to DDIT3. Our findings suggest upregulation of antioxidants including SESN2 and, also, the xCT antiporter occurs to counteract the oxidative stress elicited by JEV infection.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Neurônios/patologia , Neurônios/virologia , Proteínas Nucleares/biossíntese , Regulação para Cima , Sistema y+ de Transporte de Aminoácidos/biossíntese , Linhagem Celular , Biologia Computacional , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos
19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8502, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171799

RESUMO

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.

20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5045, 2019 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962460

RESUMO

The Smacoviridae has recently been classified as a family of small circular single-stranded DNA viruses. An increasing number of smacovirus genomes have been identified exclusively in faecal matter of various vertebrate species and from insect body parts. However, the genetic diversity and host range of smacoviruses remains to be fully elucidated. Herein, we report the genetic characterization of eleven circular replication-associated protein (Rep) encoding single-stranded (CRESS) DNA viruses detected in the faeces of Zambian non-human primates. Based on pairwise genome-wide and amino acid identities with reference smacovirus species, ten of the identified CRESS DNA viruses are assigned to the genera Porprismacovirus and Huchismacovirus of the family Smacoviridae, which bidirectionally encode two major open reading frames (ORFs): Rep and capsid protein (CP) characteristic of a type IV genome organization. The remaining unclassified CRESS DNA virus was related to smacoviruses but possessed a genome harbouring a unidirectionally oriented CP and Rep, assigned as a type V genome organization. Moreover, phylogenetic and recombination analyses provided evidence for recombination events encompassing the 3'-end of the Rep ORF in the unclassified CRESS DNA virus. Our findings increase the knowledge of the known genetic diversity of smacoviruses and highlight African non-human primates as carrier animals.


Assuntos
Vírus de DNA , Genoma Viral , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Proteínas Virais/genética , Animais , Vírus de DNA/classificação , Vírus de DNA/genética , Vírus de DNA/isolamento & purificação , Haplorrinos , Filogenia , Zâmbia
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