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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38777629

RESUMO

Chitosan (CHT) is a deacylated derivative of chitin and improves growth and yield performance, activates defensive genes, and also induces stomatal closure in plants. Glutathione (GSH) has significant functions in the growth, development, defense systems, signaling, and gene expression. Glutathione negatively regulates abscisic acid (ABA)-, methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-, and salicylic acid (SA)-induced stomatal closure. However, the negative regulation by GSH of CHT-induced stomatal closure is still unknown. Regulation of CHT-induced stomatal closure by GSH in guard cells was investigated using two GSH-deficient mutants, cad2-1 and ch1-1, and a GSH-decreasing chemical, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). The cad2-1 and ch1-1 mutations and CDNB treatment enhanced CHT-induced stomatal closure. Treatment with glutathione monoethyl ester (GSHmee) restored the GSH level in the guard cells of cad2-1 and ch1-1 and complemented the stomatal phenotype of the mutants. These results indicate that GSH negatively regulates CHT-induced stomatal closure in A. thaliana.

2.
J Environ Manage ; 360: 121117, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733848

RESUMO

The ecological health of freshwater rivers is deteriorating globally due to careless human activities, for instance, the emission of plastic garbage into the river. The current research was the first assessment of microplastics (MPs) pollution in water, sediment, and representative organisms (fish, crustacean, and bivalve) from the Surma River. Water, sediment, and organisms were sampled from six river sites (Site 1: Charkhai; Site 2: Golapganj; Site 3: Alampur; Site 4: Kazir Bazar; Site 5: Kanishail and Site 6: Lamakazi), and major water quality parameters were recorded during sampling. Thereafter, MPs in water, sediment, and organism samples were extracted, and then microscopically examined to categorize selected MPs types. The abundance of MPs, as well as size, and color distribution, were estimated. Polymer types were analyzed by ATR-FTIR, the color loss of MPs was recorded, the Pollution Load Index (PLI) was calculated, and the relationship between MPs and water quality parameters was analyzed. Sites 4 and 5 had comparatively poorer water quality than other sites. Microplastic fibers, fragments, and microbeads were consistently observed in water, sediment, and organisms. A substantial range of MPs in water, sediment, and organisms (37.33-686.67 items/L, 0.89-15.12 items/g, and 0.66-48.93 items/g, respectively) was recorded. There was a diverse color range, and MPs of <200 µm were prevalent in sampling areas. Six polymer types were identified by ATR-FTIR, namely Polyethylene (PE), Polyamide (PA), Polypropylene (PP), Cellulose acetate (CA), Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and Polystyrene (PS), where PE (41%) was recognized as highly abundant. The highest PLI was documented in Site 4 followed by Site 5 both in water and sediment. Likewise, Sites 4 and 5 were substantially different from other study areas according to PCA. Overall, the pervasiveness of MPs was evident in the Surma River, which requires further attention and prompt actions.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Microplásticos , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Qualidade da Água , Microplásticos/análise , Rios/química , Bangladesh , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Plásticos/análise , Animais , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/química
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(17): 9555-9566, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38648511

RESUMO

The filamentous fungus Penicillium sclerotiorum is significant in ecological and industrial domains due to its vast supply of secondary metabolites that have a diverse array of biological functions. We have gathered the metabolic potential and biological activities associated with P. sclerotiorum metabolites of various structures, based on extensive research of the latest literature. The review incorporated literature spanning from 2000 to 2023, drawing from reputable databases including Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and PubMed, among others. Ranging from azaphilones, meroterpenoids, polyketides, and peptides group exhibits fascinating potential pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor effects, holding promise in pharmaceutical and industrial sectors. Additionally, P. sclerotiorum showcases biotechnological potential through the production of enzymes like ß-xylosidases, ß-d-glucosidase, and xylanases, pivotal in various industrial processes. This review underscores the need for further exploration into its genetic foundations and cultivation conditions to optimize the yield of valuable compounds and enzymes, highlighting the unexplored potential of P. sclerotiorum in diverse applications across industries.


Assuntos
Penicillium , Metabolismo Secundário , Penicillium/metabolismo , Humanos , Animais , Policetídeos/metabolismo , Policetídeos/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia
4.
Microbiol Spectr ; 12(4): e0400823, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451229

RESUMO

Biological control is a more sustainable and environmentally friendly alternative to chemical fungicides for controlling Fusarium spp. infestations. In this work, Bacillus siamensis Sh420 isolated from wheat rhizosphere showed a high antifungal activity against Fusarium graminearum as a secure substitute for fungicides. Sh420 was identified as B. siamensis using phenotypic evaluation and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. An in vitro antagonistic study showed that Sh420's lipopeptide (LP) extract exhibited strong antifungal properties and effectively combated F. graminearum. Meanwhile, lipopeptides have the ability to decrease ergosterol content, which has an impact on the overall structure and stability of the plasma membrane. The PCR-based screening revealed the presence of antifungal LP biosynthetic genes in this strain's genomic DNA. In the crude LP extract of Sh420, we were able to discover several LPs such as bacillomycin, iturins, fengycin, and surfactins using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Microscopic investigations (fluorescent/transmission electron microscopy) revealed deformities and alterations in the morphology of the phytopathogen upon interaction with LPs. Sh420 LPs have been shown in grape tests to be effective against F. graminearum infection and to stimulate antioxidant activity in fruits by avoiding rust and gray lesions. The overall findings of this study highlight the potential of Sh420 lipopeptides as an effective biological control agent against F. graminearum infestations.IMPORTANCEThis study addresses the potential of lipopeptide (LP) extracts obtained from the strain identified as Bacillus siamensis Sh420. This Sh420 isolate acts as a crucial player in providing a sustainable and environmentally friendly alternative to chemical fungicides for suppressing Fusarium graminearum phytopathogen. Moreover, these LPs can reduce ergosterol content in the phytopathogen influencing the overall structure and stability of its plasma membrane. PCR screening provided confirmation regarding the existence of genes responsible for biosynthesizing antifungal LPs in the genomic DNA of Sh420. Several antibiotic lipopeptide compounds were identified from this bacterial crude extract using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Microscopic investigations revealed deformities and alterations in the morphology of F. graminearum upon interaction with LPs. Furthermore, studies on fruit demonstrated the efficacy of Sh420 LPs in mitigating F. graminearum infection and stimulating antioxidant activity in fruits, preventing rust and gray lesions.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Fungicidas Industriais , Fusarium , Antifúngicos/química , Fusarium/genética , Fungicidas Industriais/metabolismo , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Lipopeptídeos/farmacologia , DNA/metabolismo , Ergosterol , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
5.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 30(3): e14654, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38433018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Astrogliosis and white matter lesions (WML) are key characteristics of vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying VCID remain poorly understood. Stimulation of Na-K-Cl cotransport 1 (NKCC1) and its upstream kinases WNK (with no lysine) and SPAK (the STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase) play a role in astrocytic intracellular Na+ overload, hypertrophy, and swelling. Therefore, in this study, we assessed the effect of SPAK inhibitor ZT-1a on pathogenesis and cognitive function in a mouse model of VCID induced by bilateral carotid artery stenosis (BCAS). METHODS: Following sham or BCAS surgery, mice were randomly assigned to receive either vehicle (DMSO) or SPAK inhibitor ZT-1a treatment regimen (days 14-35 post-surgery). Mice were then evaluated for cognitive functions by Morris water maze, WML by ex vivo MRI-DTI analysis, and astrogliosis/demyelination by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. RESULTS: Compared to sham control mice, BCAS-Veh mice exhibited chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and memory impairments, accompanied by significant MRI DTI-detected WML and oligodendrocyte (OL) death. Increased activation of WNK-SPAK-NKCC1-signaling proteins was detected in white matter tissues and in C3d+ GFAP+ cytotoxic astrocytes but not in S100A10+ GFAP+ homeostatic astrocytes in BCAS-Veh mice. In contrast, ZT-1a-treated BCAS mice displayed reduced expression and phosphorylation of NKCC1, decreased astrogliosis, OL death, and WML, along with improved memory functions. CONCLUSION: BCAS-induced upregulation of WNK-SPAK-NKCC1 signaling contributes to white matter-reactive astrogliosis, OL death, and memory impairment. Pharmacological inhibition of the SPAK activity has therapeutic potential for alleviating pathogenesis and memory impairment in VCID.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência Vascular , Animais , Camundongos , Gliose/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cognição , Inflamação
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6947, 2024 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521802

RESUMO

Shigellosis remains a common gastrointestinal disease mostly in children < 5 years of age in developing countries. Azithromycin (AZM), a macrolide, is currently the first-line treatment for shigellosis in Bangladesh; ciprofloxacin (CIP) and ceftriaxone (CRO) are also used frequently. We aimed to evaluate the current epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and mechanism(s) of increasing macrolide resistance in Shigella in Bangladesh. A total of 2407 clinical isolates of Shigella from 2009 to 2016 were studied. Over the study period, Shigella sonnei was gradually increasing and become predominant (55%) over Shigella flexneri (36%) by 2016. We used CLSI-guided epidemiological cut-off value (ECV) for AZM in Shigella to set resistance breakpoints (zone-diameter ≤ 15 mm for S. flexneri and ≤ 11 mm for S. sonnei). Between 2009 and 2016, AZM resistance increased from 22% to approximately 60%, CIP resistance increased by 40%, and CRO resistance increased from zero to 15%. The mphA gene was the key macrolide resistance factor in Shigella; a 63MDa conjugative middle-range plasmid was harboring AZM and CRO resistance factors. Our findings show that, especially after 2014, there has been a rapid increase in resistance to the three most effective antibiotics. The rapid spread of macrolide (AZM) resistance genes among Shigella are driven by horizontal gene transfer rather than direct lineage.


Assuntos
Disenteria Bacilar , Shigella , Criança , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Disenteria Bacilar/tratamento farmacológico , Disenteria Bacilar/epidemiologia , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Azitromicina/farmacologia , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Ciprofloxacina/farmacologia , Ciprofloxacina/uso terapêutico , Ceftriaxona/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Inibidores da Síntese de Proteínas/farmacologia , Plasmídeos/genética
7.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38525657

RESUMO

AIM: To describe the aetiological risk factors, clinical characteristics, access to rehabilitation, and educational status of children with cerebral palsy (CP) in Suriname. METHOD: Hospital-based surveillance of children with CP aged younger than 18 years was conducted at the Academic Hospital Paramaribo, Suriname (known as the Suriname CP Register [SUR-CPR]). Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, aetiological risk factors, clinical characteristics, rehabilitation, and educational status. Registry data on aetiological risk factors were compared with available national prevalence rates in Suriname. Descriptive statistics were reported. RESULTS: Between August 2018 and March 2020, 82 children with CP (mean [SD] age 5 years 10 months [3 years 10 months]) attending the Academic Hospital Paramaribo were registered in the SUR-CPR. The mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 5 years 5 months (4 years 1 month). Spastic CP was predominant in 90.8% of children and 58.8% were classified in Gross Motor Function Classification System levels III to V. Overall, 43.9% had preterm birth compared with 13.9% reported nationally (p < 0.001) and 61.6% had birth-related complications compared with 15% reported nationally (p < 0.001). Additionally, 39.1% had birth asphyxia and 23.2% had early feeding difficulties. Sixty-two percent were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, 54.0% of whom required ventilation. Most children (82.5%) had CP acquired pre- or perinatally and 17.5% had CP acquired postneonatally. Seventeen percent had never received any rehabilitation services, and 31.9% of the school-aged children were not enrolled in any education system. INTERPRETATION: The high burden of known aetiological risk factors, delayed diagnosis, and severe functional impairment among children with CP registered at the Academic Hospital Paramaribo is concerning. Public health interventions targeting early diagnosis and early intervention could improve the functional outcome of children with CP in Suriname.

8.
Comput Biol Med ; 171: 108189, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447502

RESUMO

Recently, Large Language Models (LLMs) have demonstrated impressive capability to solve a wide range of tasks. However, despite their success across various tasks, no prior work has investigated their capability in the biomedical domain yet. To this end, this paper aims to evaluate the performance of LLMs on benchmark biomedical tasks. For this purpose, a comprehensive evaluation of 4 popular LLMs in 6 diverse biomedical tasks across 26 datasets has been conducted. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that conducts an extensive evaluation and comparison of various LLMs in the biomedical domain. Interestingly, we find based on our evaluation that in biomedical datasets that have smaller training sets, zero-shot LLMs even outperform the current state-of-the-art models when they were fine-tuned only on the training set of these datasets. This suggests that pre-training on large text corpora makes LLMs quite specialized even in the biomedical domain. We also find that not a single LLM can outperform other LLMs in all tasks, with the performance of different LLMs may vary depending on the task. While their performance is still quite poor in comparison to the biomedical models that were fine-tuned on large training sets, our findings demonstrate that LLMs have the potential to be a valuable tool for various biomedical tasks that lack large annotated data.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Idioma , Feminino , Humanos , Útero
9.
Microorganisms ; 12(2)2024 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38399806

RESUMO

Since thermophilic microorganisms are valuable sources of thermostable enzymes, it is essential to recognize the potential toxicity of silver nanoparticles used in diverse industrial sectors. Thermophilic bacteria Geobacillus vulcani 2Cx, Bacillus licheniformis 3CA, Paenibacillus macerans 3CA1, Anoxybacillus ayderensis FMB1, and Bacillus paralicheniformis FMB2-1 were selected, and their MIC and MBC values were assessed by treatment with AgNPs in a range of 62.5-1500 µg mL-1. The growth inhibition curves showed that the G. vulcani 2Cx, and B. paralicheniformis FMB2-1 strains were more sensitive to AgNPs, demonstrating a reduction in population by 71.1% and 31.7% at 62.5 µg mL-1 and by 82.9% and 72.8% at 250 µg mL-1, respectively. TEM and FT-IR analysis revealed that AgNPs caused structural damage, cytoplasmic leakage, and disruption of cellular integrity. Furthermore, cell viability showed a significant decrease alongside an increase in superoxide radical (SOR; O2-) production. ß-galactosidase biosynthesis decreased to 28.8% level at 500 µg mL-1 AgNPs for G. vulcani 2Cx, 32.2% at 250 µg mL-1 for A. ayderensis FMB1, and 38.8% only at 62.5 µg mL-1, but it was completely inhibited at 500 µg mL-1 for B. licheniformis 3CA. Moreover, B. paralicheniformis FMB2-1 showed a significant decrease to 11.2% at 125 µg mL-1. This study is the first to reveal the toxic effects of AgNPs on thermophilic bacteria.

10.
Environ Pollut ; 345: 123548, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355089

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) have been recognized as emerging aquatic pollutants receiving major concern due to their detrimental effects on aquatic life. Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus is a model species considered in toxicological studies to address the effects of pollutants in freshwater animals. However, comprehensive knowledge comparing the impacts on fish across various MPs polymers is scarce. Therefore, the overarching aim of the current study was to examine the bioconcentration of MPs polymers: polyvinylchloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and their toxic effects on growth, and behavioral responses, hematology, and histology of gills, liver, and intestine in O. niloticus. Fishes were subjected to a 21-day dietary exposure to MPs by assigning them into six treatment groups: T1 (4% of PVC), T2 (4% of PP), T3 (4% of PET), T4 (8% of PVC), T5 (8% of PP), T6 (8% of PET), and control (0% of MPs), to assess the effects on fish across the polymers and dosage. Results showed several abnormalities in anatomical and behavioral parameters, lower growth, and high mortality in MPs-exposed fish, indicating a dose-dependent relationship. The elevated dosage of polymers raised the bioavailability of PVC, PP, and PET in gills and gut tissues. Noteworthy erythrocyte degeneration referred to cytotoxicity and stress imposed by MPs, whereas the alterations in hematological parameters were possibly due to blood cell damage, also indicating mechanisms of defense against MPs toxicity. Histopathological changes in the gills, liver, and intestine confirmed the degree of toxicity and associated dysfunctions in fish. A higher sensitivity of O. niloticus to PET-MPs compared to other polymers is likely due to its chemical properties and species-specific morphological and physiological characteristics. Overall, the present study reveals valuable insights into the emerging threat of MPs toxicity in freshwater species, which could be supportive of future toxicological research.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Poluentes Ambientais , Hematologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Polipropilenos/toxicidade , Polietilenotereftalatos , Plásticos , Bioacumulação , Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
11.
J Orthop Case Rep ; 14(1): 48-53, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38292095

RESUMO

Introduction: Valgus deformity is characterized by an outward angulation of the knee joint. The most common cause of valgus deformity is osteoarthritis (OA), a prevalent progressive joint disease that causes chronic pain and functional limitations. Total knee replacement (TKR) is rarely done in patients with grade-I valgus deformity and young age. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of its kind. Case Report: A 34-year-old man presented to us with 15 years of persistent, progressively worsening right knee pain that was interfering with his daily activities. No non-operative treatment could alleviate his severe pain. Physical examination revealed a positive valgus stress test, limited knee extension, and an asymmetrical gait. He was diagnosed with a grade-I valgus deformity of the right osteoarthritic knee. History, physical examination, and radiological findings confirmed the diagnosis. In consideration of severe pain and impaired quality of life, we opted to perform TKR using a medial parapatellar approach. Regular follow-ups were done after the procedure. He experienced no pain or recurrence of deformity. He was very satisfied with the result. His Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA Index score at 12 months following surgery was 5, indicating a favorable outcome. Conclusion: This case exhibits the effectiveness of TKR in treating grade-I valgus deformity of the osteoarthritic knee with severe pain in a young adult, resulting in improved pain alleviation, mobility, joint alignment, and overall quality of life.

13.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 11(1): 133-142, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37955408

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a multifunctional cytokine that exerts both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects on the immune system as well as in the pathogenesis of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). We investigated whether the three common polymorphisms -1082 G/A(rs1800896), -819 C/T(rs1800871), and -592 C/A(rs1800872) in the promoter region of IL-10 have any influence on the susceptibility, severity, and clinical outcome of GBS. METHODS: IL-10 promoter polymorphisms were investigated in 152 patients with GBS and 152 healthy controls from Bangladesh using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and allele-specific oligonucleotide-PCR (ASO-PCR). Haplotype patterns and frequencies were analyzed using Heatmaply R-package, chi-square, and Fisher's exact test. The serum level of IL-10 was measured through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. p-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: IL-10 promoter polymorphisms -1082 G/A, -819 C/T, and -592 C/A were not associated with GBS susceptibility. The homozygous -819 TT genotype showed a tendency with susceptibility (p = 0.029; pc = 0.08) and was prevalent in axonal variants of GBS compared to demyelinating subtypes and controls (p = 0.042, OR = 8.67, 95% CI = 1.03-72.97; pc = 0.123 and p = 0.005, OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.55-11.40; pc = 0.015, respectively). Haplotype analysis revealed 19 patterns of genotypes and high IL-10 expression haplotype combinations (GCC/GTA, GCC/ATA, and GCC/GCA) may have influence on disease severity (p = 0.026; pc = 0.078). Serum expression of IL-10 was elevated in GBS patients ([GBS, 12.16 ± 45.71] vs. [HC, 0.65 ± 5.17] pg/mL; p = 0.0027) and varied with disease severity ([severe-GBS, 15.25 ± 51.72] vs. [mild-GBS, 3.59 ± 19.79] pg/mL, p = 0.046). INTERPRETATION: The -819 TT genotypes influence axonal GBS, and high frequency of IL-10 expression haplotype combination with elevated serum IL-10 may play an important role in disease severity.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Guillain-Barré , Interleucina-10 , Humanos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/genética , Haplótipos , Interleucina-10/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
14.
BMJ Open ; 13(12): e071315, 2023 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38070889

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the leading causes of childhood disability globally with a high burden in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Preliminary findings from the global LMIC CP Register (GLM CPR) suggest that the majority of CP in LMICs are due to potentially preventable causes. Such data are lacking in the Latin American region. Generating comparable epidemiological data on CP from this region could enable translational research and services towards early diagnosis and early intervention. We aim to establish a Latin American multicountry network and online data repository of CP called Latin American Cerebral Palsy Register (LATAM-CPR). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The LATAM-CPR will be modelled after the GLM CPR and will support new and emerging Latin American CP registers following a harmonised protocol adapted from the GLM CPR and piloted in Argentina (ie, Argentine Register of Cerebral Palsy). Both population-based and institution-based surveillance mechanisms will be adopted for registration of children with CP aged less than 18 years to the participating CP registers. The data collection form of the LATAM-CPR will include risk factors, clinical profile, rehabilitation, socioeconomical status of children with CP. Descriptive data on the epidemiology of CP from each participating country will be reported, country-specific and regional data will be compared. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Individual CP registers have applied ethics approval from respective national human research ethics committees (HREC) and/or institutional review boards prior to the establishment and inclusion into the LATAM-CPR. Ethical approval for LATAM-CPR has already been obtained from the HREC in the two countries that started (Argentina and Mexico). Findings will be disseminated and will be made publicly available through peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations and social media communications.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral , Pessoas com Deficiência , Criança , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Paralisia Cerebral/reabilitação , Coleta de Dados , Países em Desenvolvimento
15.
Proc Biol Sci ; 290(2013): 20231722, 2023 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38113942

RESUMO

Many microbes interact with one another, but the difficulty of directly observing these interactions in nature makes interpreting their adaptive value complicated. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum forms aggregates wherein some cells are sacrificed for the benefit of others. Within chimaeric aggregates containing multiple unrelated lineages, cheaters can gain an advantage by undercontributing, but the extent to which wild D. discoideum has adapted to cheat is not fully clear. In this study, we experimentally evolved D. discoideum in an environment where there were no selective pressures to cheat or resist cheating in chimaeras. Dictyostelium discoideum lines grown in this environment evolved reduced competitiveness within chimaeric aggregates and reduced ability to migrate during the slug stage. By contrast, we did not observe a reduction in cell number, a trait for which selection was not relaxed. The observed loss of traits that our laboratory conditions had made irrelevant suggests that these traits were adaptations driven and maintained by selective pressures D. discoideum faces in its natural environment. Our results suggest that D. discoideum faces social conflict in nature, and illustrate a general approach that could be applied to searching for social or non-social adaptations in other microbes.


Assuntos
Dictyostelium , Evolução Social
16.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 2023 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37946559

RESUMO

AIM: To provide a description of cerebral palsy (CP) registers globally, identify which aim to report on CP epidemiology, and report similarities and differences across topics of importance for the sustainability and collaboration between registers. METHOD: Representatives of all known CP registers globally (n = 57) were invited to participate. The online survey included 68 questions across aims, methodologies, output/impact, and stakeholder involvement. Responses were analysed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Forty-five registers participated, including three register networks. Twenty were newly established or under development, including 12 in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). An epidemiological aim was reported by 91% of registers. Funding is received by 85% of registers, most often from not-for-profit organizations. CP definitions are comparable across registers. While the minimum data set of a register network is used by most registers, only 25% of identified items are collected by all three register networks. Ninety per cent of registers measure research activities/output, and 64% measure research impact. People with lived experience are involved in 62% of registers. INTERPRETATION: There has been a recent surge in CP registers globally, particularly in LMICs, which will improve understanding of CP epidemiology. Ongoing efforts to address identified methodological differences are essential to validate comparison of results and support register collaboration.

17.
Nutrients ; 15(19)2023 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37836493

RESUMO

(1) Background: Data on immediate causes of malnutrition among children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) are limited in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We aimed to assess the dietary intake pattern, feeding characteristics, and nutritional status of children with CP in Bangladesh; (2) Methods: We conducted a descriptive observational study in Shahjadpur, Bangladesh. Children with CP registered into the Bangladesh CP Register were included. Socio-demographic, clinical, dietary intake, feeding, gastro-intestinal conditions, and anthropometric data were collected. Descriptive and inferential statistics were reported; (3) Results: 75 children (mean (SD) age 3.6 (2.7) years, 42.7% female) and their caregivers participated. Overall, 53.6% and 46.4% of children were underweight and stunted, respectively. Two-thirds children consumed ≤4 out of 8 food groups. Meat, poultry, and fish; dairy products; and sugar consumption was lower among underweight children (43.4%, 48.8%, 25.0%) than others (56.7%, 51.2% 75.0%). Inappropriate feeding position was observed in 39.2% of children. Meal duration was >30 min/meal for 21.7‒28.0% children. Among all, 12.0% had feeding difficulties, 88.0% had ≥1 gastro-intestinal conditions; (4) Conclusions: The study reports preliminary data on the feeding characteristics, dietary intake, and nutritional status of children with CP in rural Bangladesh. The findings are crucial for cost-effective interventions, prevention, and management of malnutrition among children with CP in Bangladesh and other LMICs.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral , Desnutrição , Humanos , Criança , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Magreza/epidemiologia , Paralisia Cerebral/complicações , Paralisia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/etiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar
18.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 14(9)2023 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37763949

RESUMO

Exploring bio-inspired nanomaterials (BINMs) and incorporating them into micro/nanodevices represent a significant development in biomedical applications. Nanomaterials, engineered to imitate biological structures and processes, exhibit distinctive attributes such as exceptional biocompatibility, multifunctionality, and unparalleled versatility. The utilization of BINMs demonstrates significant potential in diverse domains of biomedical micro/nanodevices, encompassing biosensors, targeted drug delivery systems, and advanced tissue engineering constructs. This article thoroughly examines the development and distinctive attributes of various BINMs, including those originating from proteins, DNA, and biomimetic polymers. Significant attention is directed toward incorporating these entities into micro/nanodevices and the subsequent biomedical ramifications that arise. This review explores biomimicry's structure-function correlations. Synthesis mosaics include bioprocesses, biomolecules, and natural structures. These nanomaterials' interfaces use biomimetic functionalization and geometric adaptations, transforming drug delivery, nanobiosensing, bio-inspired organ-on-chip systems, cancer-on-chip models, wound healing dressing mats, and antimicrobial surfaces. It provides an in-depth analysis of the existing challenges and proposes prospective strategies to improve the efficiency, performance, and reliability of these devices. Furthermore, this study offers a forward-thinking viewpoint highlighting potential avenues for future exploration and advancement. The objective is to effectively utilize and maximize the application of BINMs in the progression of biomedical micro/nanodevices, thereby propelling this rapidly developing field toward its promising future.

19.
Front Plant Sci ; 14: 1244743, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37746015

RESUMO

Introduction: Utilizing salt-affected marginal lands in coastal regions can help meet the growing demand for rice. We explored a nature-based solution involving wild halophytic rice (O. coarctata, Oc) and commercial rice BRRI Dhan 67 (O. sativa, Os) grown in close proximity to each other under salt stress. Methods: This was to investigate whether a paired planting strategy could help complement rice growth and yield under stress. We also investigated the gene expression and endophytic bacterial profiles of both Os and Oc in unpaired and paired conditions without and with salt. Results: Paired plants exhibited lower salt damage indicators such as smaller reduction in plant height, electrolyte leakage and chlorophyll loss, as well as higher K+/Na+ ratio under saline stress. Some of the 39 endophytic bacteria in the mutualism experiment were unique to Oc and transferred to Os when paired. Differentially expressed genes in leaves of paired Os versus unpaired Os were 1097 (994 up-regulated, 101 down-regulated) without salt and 893 (763 up-regulated, 130 down-regulated) under salt stress. The presence of Oc plants under salt stress influenced major biological processes in Os, including oxidative stress; chitinase activity; phenylalanine catabolic process and response to ABA. Protein binding and serine/threonine kinase activity were primarily affected in molecular function. The downregulated WRKY transcription factor 22 in paired conditions under salt stress played a role in the MAPK signaling pathway, reducing respiratory cell death. The upregulated auxin-responsive protein IAA18 gene, involved in hormone signaling and cell enlargement, was present only in paired plants. Discussion: Our findings therefore, offer insights into developing more effective cultivation strategies for sustainable rice production.

20.
Res Sq ; 2023 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37461575

RESUMO

Shigellosis remains a common gastrointestinal disease mostly in children <5 years of age in developing countries. Azithromycin (AZM), a macrolide, is currently the first-line treatment for shigellosis in Bangladesh; ciprofloxacin (CIP) and ceftriaxone (CRO) are also used frequently. We aimed to evaluate the current epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and mechanism(s) of increasing macrolide resistance in Shigella in Bangladesh. A total of 2407 clinical isolates of Shigella from 2009 to 2016 were studied. Over the study period, Shigella sonnei was gradually increasing and become predominant (55%) over Shigella flexneri (36%) by 2016. We used CLSI-guided epidemiological cut-off value (ECV) for AZM in Shigella to set resistance breakpoints (zone-diameter ≤ 15 mm for S. flexneri and ≤ 11 mm for S. sonnei). Between 2009 and 2016, AZM resistance increased from 22% to approximately 60%, CIP resistance increased by 40%, and CRO resistance increased from zero to 15%. The mphA gene was the key macrolide resistance factor in Shigella; a 63MDa conjugative middle-range plasmid was harboring AZM and CRO resistance factors. Our findings show that, especially after 2014, there has been a rapid increase in resistance to the three most effective antibiotics. The rapid spread of macrolide (AZM) resistance genes among Shigella are driven by horizontal gene transfer rather than direct lineage.

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