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1.
Cereb Circ Cogn Behav ; 6: 100216, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38510579

RESUMO

Background: The disruption of the neurovascular unit (NVU), which maintains the integrity of the blood brain barrier (BBB), has been identified as a critical mechanism in the development of cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. However, the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms linking NVU dysfunction to the disorders is incomplete, and reliable blood biomarkers to measure NVU dysfunction are yet to be established. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to identify biomarkers associated with BBB dysfunction in large vessel disease, small vessel disease (SVD) and vascular cognitive disorders (VCD). Methods: A literature search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and PsychINFO to identify blood biomarkers related to dysfunction of the NVU in disorders with vascular pathologies published until 20 November 2023. Studies that assayed one or more specific markers in human serum or plasma were included. Quality of studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Effects were pooled and methodological heterogeneity examined using the random effects model. Results: A total of 112 studies were included in this review. Where study numbers allowed, biomarkers were analysed using random effect meta-analysis for VCD (1 biomarker; 5 studies) and cerebrovascular disorders, including stroke and SVD (9 biomarkers; 29 studies) while all remaining biomarkers (n = 17 biomarkers; 78 studies) were examined through qualitative analysis. Results of the meta-analysis revealed that cerebrospinal fluid/serum albumin quotient (Q-Alb) reliably differentiates VCD patients from healthy controls (MD = 2.77; 95 % CI = 1.97-3.57; p < 0.0001) while commonly measured biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction (VEGF, VCAM-1, ICAM-1, vWF and E-selectin) and neuronal injury (NfL) were significantly elevated in vascular pathologies. A qualitative assessment of non-meta-analysed biomarkers revealed NSE, NfL, vWF, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, lipocalin-2, MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels to be upregulated in VCD, although these findings were not consistently replicated. Conclusions: This review identifies several promising biomarkers of NVU dysfunction which require further validation. A panel of biomarkers representing multiple pathophysiological pathways may offer greater discriminative power in distinguishing possible disease mechanisms of VCD.

2.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 158: 105570, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311046

RESUMO

This systematic review and a meta-analysis synthesised the results from contemporary, randomized and non-randomized controlled studies to assess lasting (one week minimum) changes on cognition/creativity, emotional processing and personality from serotonergic psychedelics. PubMed, Embase and PsycInfo were searched in July 2022. Risk of bias was assessed using Rob 2.0 and ROBINS-I. Ten studies met the eligibility criteria which involved 304 participants. No statistically significant effects were found for the majority outcome measures across the three constructs. A meta-analysis of emotional recognition outcomes found an overall significant effect for faster reaction times in the active treatment groups for disgust (SMD=-0.63, 95% CI=[-1.01 to -0.25], I2 = 65%) and sadness (SMD=-0.45, 95% CI=[-0.85 to -0.06], I2 = 60%). Future research should include larger samples, better control conditions, standardized doses and longer follow-up periods to confirm these preliminary findings.


Assuntos
Alucinógenos , Humanos , Cognição , Personalidade , Emoções
3.
Nat Rev Neurol ; 19(12): 737-753, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37957261

RESUMO

As disease-specific interventions for dementia are being developed, the ability to identify the underlying pathology and dementia subtypes is increasingly important. Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is the second most common cause of dementia after Alzheimer disease, but progress in identifying molecular biomarkers for accurate diagnosis of VCID has been relatively limited. In this Review, we examine the roles of large and small vessel disease in VCID, considering the underlying pathophysiological processes that lead to vascular brain injury, including atherosclerosis, arteriolosclerosis, ischaemic injury, haemorrhage, hypoperfusion, endothelial dysfunction, blood-brain barrier breakdown, inflammation, oxidative stress, hypoxia, and neuronal and glial degeneration. We consider the key molecules in these processes, including proteins and peptides, metabolites, lipids and circulating RNA, and consider their potential as molecular biomarkers alone and in combination. We also discuss the challenges in translating the promise of these biomarkers into clinical application.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência Vascular , Humanos , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Demência Vascular/diagnóstico , Demência Vascular/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo
4.
BMJ ; 380: e072909, 2023 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653033

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prospective associations of circulating levels of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) biomarkers (including plant derived α linolenic acid and seafood derived eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) with incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). DESIGN: Pooled analysis. DATA SOURCES: A consortium of 19 studies from 12 countries identified up to May 2020. STUDY SELECTION: Prospective studies with measured n-3 PUFA biomarker data and incident CKD based on estimated glomerular filtration rate. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Each participating cohort conducted de novo analysis with prespecified and consistent exposures, outcomes, covariates, and models. The results were pooled across cohorts using inverse variance weighted meta-analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome of incident CKD was defined as new onset estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. In a sensitivity analysis, incident CKD was defined as new onset estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and <75% of baseline rate. RESULTS: 25 570 participants were included in the primary outcome analysis and 4944 (19.3%) developed incident CKD during follow-up (weighted median 11.3 years). In multivariable adjusted models, higher levels of total seafood n-3 PUFAs were associated with a lower incident CKD risk (relative risk per interquintile range 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.86 to 0.98; P=0.009, I2=9.9%). In categorical analyses, participants with total seafood n-3 PUFA level in the highest fifth had 13% lower risk of incident CKD compared with those in the lowest fifth (0.87, 0.80 to 0.96; P=0.005, I2=0.0%). Plant derived α linolenic acid levels were not associated with incident CKD (1.00, 0.94 to 1.06; P=0.94, I2=5.8%). Similar results were obtained in the sensitivity analysis. The association appeared consistent across subgroups by age (≥60 v <60 years), estimated glomerular filtration rate (60-89 v ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2), hypertension, diabetes, and coronary heart disease at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Higher seafood derived n-3 PUFA levels were associated with lower risk of incident CKD, although this association was not found for plant derived n-3 PUFAs. These results support a favourable role for seafood derived n-3 PUFAs in preventing CKD.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácido alfa-Linolênico , Estudos Prospectivos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2511: 213-234, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35838963

RESUMO

Since the emergence of COVID-19, concerted worldwide efforts have taken place to minimize global spread of the contagion. Its widespread effects have also facilitated evolution of new strains, such as the delta and omicron variants, which emerged toward the end of 2020 and 2021, respectively. While these variants appear to be no more deadly than the previous alpha, beta, and gamma strains, and widespread population vaccinations notwithstanding, greater virulence makes the challenge of minimizing spread even greater. One of the peculiarities of this virus is the extreme heath impacts, with the great majority of individuals minimally affected, even sometimes unaware of infection, while for a small minority, it is deadly or produces diverse long-term effects. Apart from vaccination, another approach has been an attempt to identify treatments, for those individuals for whom the virus represents a threat of particularly severe health impact(s). These treatments include anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies, anticoagulant therapies, interleukin inhibitors, and anti-viral agents such as remdesivir. Nutritional factors are also under consideration, and a variety of clinical trials are showing promise for the use of specific fatty acids, or related compounds such as fat-soluble steroid vitamin D, to mitigate the more lethal aspects of COVID-19 by modulating inflammation and by anti-viral effects. Here we explore the potential protective role of fatty acids as a potential prophylactic as well as remedial treatment during viral infections, particularly COVID-19. We present a multiplexed method for the analysis of free and phospholipid bound fatty acids, which may facilitate research into the role of fatty acids as plasma biomarkers and therapeutic agents in minimizing pre- and post-infection health impacts.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2138: 49-81, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219740

RESUMO

The apolipoproteins are well known for their roles in both health and disease, as components of plasma lipoprotein particles, such as high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), chylomicrons, and metabolic, vascular- and inflammation-related disorders, such as cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Increasingly, their roles in neurovascular and neurodegenerative disorders are also being elucidated. They play major roles in lipid and cholesterol transport between blood and organs and are, therefore, critical to maintenance and homeostasis of the lipidome, with apolipoprotein-lipid interactions, including cholesterol, fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, and isoprostanes. Further, they have important pleiotropic roles related to aging and longevity, which are largely managed through their many structural variants, including multiple isoforms, and a diversity of post-translational modifications. Consequently, tools for the characterization and accurate quantification of apolipoproteins, including their diverse array of variant forms, are required to understand their salutary and disease related roles. In this chapter we outline three distinct quantitative approaches suitable for targeting apolipoproteins: (1) multiplex immunoassays, (2) mass spectrometric immunoassay, and (3) multiple reaction monitoring, mass spectrometric quantification. We also discuss management of pre-analytical and experimental design variables.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas/sangue , Plasma/metabolismo , Animais , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Humanos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos
7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2138: 207-216, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219750

RESUMO

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and its related metabolites (NADome) are important endogenous analytes that are thought to play important roles in cellular metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress, cancer, neurodegeneration, and aging in mammals. However, these analytes are unstable during the collection of biological fluids, which is a major limiting factor for their quantitation. Herein, we describe a highly robust and quantitative method using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry to quantify the NADome in whole blood, plasma, mononuclear cells, platelets, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and urine. This methodology represents a "gold standard" of measure for understanding biological pathways and developing targeted pharmacological interventions to modulate NAD+ biosynthesis and NAD-dependent mediators in health and disease.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Envelhecimento Saudável/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Envelhecimento/sangue , Envelhecimento/urina , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/metabolismo , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Envelhecimento Saudável/sangue , Envelhecimento Saudável/urina , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/urina , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , NAD/sangue , NAD/urina , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Urina/química
8.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 11: 177, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440155

RESUMO

Glutathione (GSH) is one of the most abundant thiol antioxidants in cells. Many chronic and age-related diseases are associated with a decline in cellular GSH levels or impairment in the catalytic activity of the GSH biosynthetic enzyme glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL). γ-glutamylcysteine (GGC), a precursor to glutathione (GSH), can replenish depleted GSH levels under oxidative stress conditions, by circumventing the regulation of GSH biosynthesis and providing the limiting substrate. Soluble amyloid-ß (Aß) oligomers have been shown to induce oxidative stress, synaptic dysfunction and memory deficits which have been reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Calcium ions, which are increased with age and in AD, have been previously reported to enhance the formation of Aß40 oligomers, which have been casually associated with the pathogenesis of the underlying neurodegenerative condition. In this study, we examined the potential beneficial effects of GGC against exogenous Aß40 oligomers on biomarkers of apoptosis and cell death, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation, in human astrocytes. Treatment with Aß40 oligomers significantly reduced the cell viability and apoptosis of astrocyte brain cultures and increased oxidative modifications of DNA, lipids, and protein, enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine release and increased the activity of the proteolytic matrix metalloproteinase enzyme, matric metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and reduced the activity of MMP-9 after 24 h. Co-treatment of Aß40 oligomers with GGC at 200 µM increased the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and led to significant increases in the levels of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and GSH and reduced the GSSG/GSH ratio. GGC also upregulated the level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and reduced the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1ß) and attenuated the changes in metalloproteinase activity in oligomeric Aß40-treated astrocytes. Our data provides renewed insight on the beneficial effects of increased GSH levels by GGC in human astrocytes, and identifies yet another potential therapeutic strategy to attenuate the cytotoxic effects of Aß oligomers in AD.

9.
Antioxid Redox Signal ; 30(2): 251-294, 2019 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29634344

RESUMO

Significance: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an essential pyridine nucleotide that serves as an essential cofactor and substrate for a number of critical cellular processes involved in oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production, DNA repair, epigenetically modulated gene expression, intracellular calcium signaling, and immunological functions. NAD+ depletion may occur in response to either excessive DNA damage due to free radical or ultraviolet attack, resulting in significant poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation and a high turnover and subsequent depletion of NAD+, and/or chronic immune activation and inflammatory cytokine production resulting in accelerated CD38 activity and decline in NAD+ levels. Recent studies have shown that enhancing NAD+ levels can profoundly reduce oxidative cell damage in catabolic tissue, including the brain. Therefore, promotion of intracellular NAD+ anabolism represents a promising therapeutic strategy for age-associated degenerative diseases in general, and is essential to the effective realization of multiple benefits of healthy sirtuin activity. The kynurenine pathway represents the de novo NAD+ synthesis pathway in mammalian cells. NAD+ can also be produced by the NAD+ salvage pathway. Recent Advances: In this review, we describe and discuss recent insights regarding the efficacy and benefits of the NAD+ precursors, nicotinamide (NAM), nicotinic acid (NA), nicotinamide riboside (NR), and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), in attenuating NAD+ decline in degenerative disease states and physiological aging. Critical Issues: Results obtained in recent years have shown that NAD+ precursors can play important protective roles in several diseases. However, in some cases, these precursors may vary in their ability to enhance NAD+ synthesis via their location in the NAD+ anabolic pathway. Increased synthesis of NAD+ promotes protective cell responses, further demonstrating that NAD+ is a regulatory molecule associated with several biochemical pathways. Future Directions: In the next few years, the refinement of personalized therapy for the use of NAD+ precursors and improved detection methodologies allowing the administration of specific NAD+ precursors in the context of patients' NAD+ levels will lead to a better understanding of the therapeutic role of NAD+ precursors in human diseases.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , NAD/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/etiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Animais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , NAD/antagonistas & inibidores , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Oxirredução , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 9: 66, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28405187

RESUMO

The accumulation of redox-active transition metals in the brain and metal dyshomeostasis are thought to be associated with the etiology and pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in particular. As well, distinct biometal imaging and role of metal uptake transporters are central to understanding AD pathogenesis and aging but remain elusive, due inappropriate detection methods. We therefore hypothesized that Octodon degus develop neuropathological abnormalities in the distribution of redox active biometals, and this effect may be due to alterations in the expression of lysosomal protein, major Fe/Cu transporters, and selected Zn transporters (ZnTs and ZIPs). Herein, we report the distribution profile of biometals in the aged brain of the endemic Chilean rodent O. degus-a natural model to investigate the role of metals on the onset and progression of AD. Using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, our quantitative images of biometals (Fe, Ca, Zn, Cu, and Al) appear significantly elevated in the aged O. degus and show an age-dependent rise. The metals Fe, Ca, Zn, and Cu were specifically enriched in the cortex and hippocampus, which are the regions where amyloid plaques, tau phosphorylation and glial alterations are most commonly reported, whilst Al was enriched in the hippocampus alone. Using whole brain extracts, age-related deregulation of metal trafficking pathways was also observed in O. degus. More specifically, we observed impaired lysosomal function, demonstrated by increased cathepsin D protein expression. An age-related reduction in the expression of subunit B2 of V-ATPase, and significant increases in amyloid beta peptide 42 (Aß42), and the metal transporter ATP13a2 were also observed. Although the protein expression levels of the zinc transporters, ZnT (1,3,4,6, and 7), and ZIP7,8 and ZIP14 increased in the brain of aged O. degus, ZnT10, decreased. Although no significant age-related change was observed for the major iron/copper regulator IRP2, we did find a significant increase in the expression of DMT1, a major transporter of divalent metal species, 5'-aminolevulinate synthase 2 (ALAS2), and the proto-oncogene, FOS. Collectively, our data indicate that transition metals may be enriched with age in the brains of O. degus, and metal dyshomeostasis in specific brain regions is age-related.

12.
Curr Alzheimer Res ; 14(8): 861-869, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28176625

RESUMO

Tannic acid (TA) is a naturally occurring plant-derived polyphenol found in several herbaceous and woody plants, including legumes, sorghum, beans, bananas, persimmons, rasberries, wines and a broad selection of teas. Clinically, TA has strong antioxidant/free radical scavenging, antiinflammatory, anti-viral/bacterial, and anti-carcinogenic properties. While the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unclear, this complex multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder remains the most common form of dementia, and is a growing public health concern worldwide. The neuroprotective effects of TA against AD have been shown in several in vitro and in vivo models of AD. Apart from its potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory roles, evidence suggests that TA is also a natural inhibitor of ß-secretase (BACE1) activity and protein expression. BACE1 is the primary enzyme responsible for the production and deposition of Aß peptide. TA also destabilises neurotoxic amyloid beta (Aß) fibrils in vitro. Apart from its effects on the Aß cascade, TA can also inhibit the in vitro aggregation of tau peptide, a core component of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). This review summarizes the relevance of TA and TA-related vegetable extracts (tannins) in the pathogenesis of AD and its enzymatic targets. It also highlights the significance of TA as an important lead compound against AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Taninos/uso terapêutico , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/metabolismo , Animais , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Humanos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Taninos/química
13.
Metabolomics ; 14(1): 15, 2017 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830318

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an essential pyridine nucleotide that serves as a key hydride transfer coenzyme for several oxidoreductases. It is also the substrate for intracellular secondary messenger signalling by CD38 glycohydrolases, DNA repair by poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase, and epigenetic regulation of gene expression by a class of histone deacetylase enzymes known as sirtuins. The measurement of NAD+ and its related metabolites (hereafter, the NAD+ metabolome) represents an important indicator of cellular function. OBJECTIVES: A study was performed to develop a sensitive, selective, robust, reproducible, and rapid method for the concurrent quantitative determination of intracellular levels of the NAD+ metabolome in glial and oocyte cell extracts using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). METHODS: The metabolites were separated on a versatile amino column using a dual HILIC-RP gradient with heated electrospray (HESI) tandem mass spectrometry detection in mixed polarity multiple reaction monitoring mode. RESULTS: Quantification of 17 metabolites in the NAD+ metabolome in U251 human astroglioma cells could be achieved. Changes in NAD+ metabolism in U251 cell line, and murine oocytes under different culture conditions were also investigated. CONCLUSION: This method can be used as a sensitive profiling tool, tailoring chromatography for metabolites that express significant pathophysiological changes in several disease conditions and is indispensable for targeted analysis.


Assuntos
Extratos Celulares/análise , NAD/análise , NAD/metabolismo , Animais , Astrócitos/química , Astrocitoma/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Humanos , Metabolômica/métodos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Oócitos/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
14.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 16(17): 1951-60, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26845555

RESUMO

Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) is a naturally occurring phytochemical present in red wine, grapes, berries, chocolate and peanuts. Clinically, resveratrol has exhibited significant antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and anti-cancer properties. Although resveratrol was first isolated in 1940, it was not until the last decade that it was recognised for its potential therapeutic role in reducing the risk of neurodegeneration, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in particular. AD is the primary cause of progressive dementia. Resveratrol has demonstrated neuroprotective effects in several in vitro and in vivo models of AD. Apart from its potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory roles, evidence suggests that resveratrol also facilitates non-amyloidogenic breakdown of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), and promotes removal of neurotoxic amyloid beta (Aß) peptides, a critical step in preventing and slowing down AD pathology. Resveratrol also reduces damage to neuronal cells via a variety of additional mechanisms, most notably is the activation of NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylases enzymes, termed sirtuins. However in spite of the considerable advances in clarifying the mechanism of action of resveratrol, it is unlikely to be effective as monotherapy in AD due to its poor bioavailability, biotransformation, and requisite synergism with other dietary factors. This review summarizes the relevance of resveratrol in the pathophysiology of AD. It also highlights why resveratrol alone may not be an effective single therapy, and how resveratrol coupled to other compounds might yet prove an effective therapy with multiple targets.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Estilbenos/uso terapêutico , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Humanos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Resveratrol , Estilbenos/farmacologia
15.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 9: 167, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26005404

RESUMO

Although there are seven mammalian sirtuins (SIRT1-7), little is known about their expression in the aging brain. To characterize the change(s) in mRNA and protein expression of SIRT1-7 and their associated proteins in the brain of "physiologically" aged Wistar rats. We tested mRNA and protein expression levels of rat SIRT1-7, and the levels of associated proteins in the brain using RT-PCR and western blotting. Our data shows that SIRT1 expression increases with age, concurrently with increased acetylated p53 levels in all brain regions investigated. SIRT2 and FOXO3a protein levels increased only in the occipital lobe. SIRT3-5 expression declined significantly in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, associated with increases in superoxide and fatty acid oxidation levels, and acetylated CPS-1 protein expression, and a reduction in MnSOD level. While SIRT6 expression declines significantly with age acetylated H3K9 protein expression is increased throughout the brain. SIRT7 and Pol I protein expression increased in the frontal lobe. This study identifies previously unknown roles for sirtuins in regulating cellular homeostasis and healthy aging.

16.
PLoS One ; 10(3): e0116092, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25785936

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with increased oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Markers of increased protein, lipid and nucleic acid oxidation and reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes have been reported in AD plasma. Amyloid plaques in the AD brain elicit a range of reactive inflammatory responses including complement activation and acute phase reactions, which may also be reflected in plasma. Previous studies have shown that human AD plasma may be cytotoxic to cultured cells. We investigated the effect of pooled plasma (n = 20 each) from healthy controls, individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) on cultured microglial cells. AD plasma and was found to significantly decrease cell viability and increase glycolytic flux in microglia compared to plasma from healthy controls. This effect was prevented by the heat inactivation of complement. Proteomic methods and isobaric tags (iTRAQ) found the expression level of complement and other acute phase proteins to be altered in MCI and AD plasma and an upregulation of key enzymes involved in the glycolysis pathway in cells exposed to AD plasma. Altered expression levels of acute phase reactants in AD plasma may alter the energy metabolism of glia.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/sangue , Glicólise , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Neuroglia/enzimologia , Plasma , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Neuroglia/patologia
17.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 28(2): 155-64, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25602247

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alzheimer's disease is a complex multifactorial age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Current transgenic animal models do not fully recapitulate human Alzheimer's disease at the molecular, cellular and behavioural levels. This review aims to address the clinical relevance of using 'physiologically' aged rats, dogs and Octodon degus, as more representative 'natural' ecologically valid models to elucidate mechanistic aspects of Alzheimer's disease, and for the development of therapeutic agents to attenuate age-related cognitive decline. RECENT FINDINGS: Aged rats, dogs and O. degus decline cognitively and ultimately develop Alzheimer's disease-like symptoms in response to the natural ageing process. Aged rats provide a tractable and popular model to examine the neurobiological basis underlying cognitive decline with age, but they do not develop Alzheimer's disease pathology. Progressive accumulation of abnormal amyloid-beta in extracellular plaques and surrounding cerebral vasculature is a common feature in human Alzheimer's disease, aged canine model and most nonhuman primates. Interestingly, the O. degus develops amyloid-beta deposits, neurofibrillary tangles containing hyperphosphorylated tau protein, altered cholinergic transmission and cognitive deficits analogous to those observed in Alzheimer's disease. Natural animal models better represent the full pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease and are not only a viable alternative to transgenic models, but also are arguably the preferable model. SUMMARY: 'Natural' models are useful to elucidate the neurobiological basis of Alzheimer's disease and develop effective therapeutic strategies that can be translated into human clinical trials.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Animais , Pesquisa Biomédica , Humanos
18.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 6: 138, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25076902

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly, affecting over 27 million people worldwide. AD represents a complex neurological disorder which is best understood as the consequence of a number of interconnected genetic and lifestyle variables, which culminate in multiple changes to brain structure and function. These can be observed on a gross anatomical level in brain atrophy, microscopically in extracellular amyloid plaque and neurofibrillary tangle formation, and at a functional level as alterations of metabolic activity. At a molecular level, metal dyshomeostasis is frequently observed in AD due to anomalous binding of metals such as Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), and Zinc (Zn), or impaired regulation of redox-active metals which can induce the formation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species and neuronal damage. Metal chelators have been administered therapeutically in transgenic mice models for AD and in clinical human AD studies, with positive outcomes. As a result, neuroimaging of metals in a variety of intact brain cells and tissues is emerging as an important tool for increasing our understanding of the role of metal dysregulation in AD. Several imaging techniques have been used to study the cerebral metallo-architecture in biological specimens to obtain spatially resolved data on chemical elements present in a sample. Hyperspectral techniques, such as particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM), synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) can reveal relative intensities and even semi-quantitative concentrations of a large set of elements with differing spatial resolution and detection sensitivities. Other mass spectrometric and spectroscopy imaging techniques such as laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LA ESI-MS), MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can be used to correlate changes in elemental distribution with the underlying pathology in AD brain specimens. Taken together, these techniques provide new techniques to probe the pathobiology of AD and pave the way for identifying new therapeutic targets. The current review aims to discuss the advantages and challenges of using these emerging elemental and molecular imaging techniques, and highlight clinical achievements in AD research using bioimaging techniques.

19.
Biogerontology ; 15(2): 177-98, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24337988

RESUMO

Over the last decade, the importance of NAD(+) has expanded beyond its role as an essential cofactor for energy metabolism. NAD(+) has emerged as a major signalling molecule that serves as the sole substrate for several enzymatic reactions including the DNA repair enzyme, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), NAD-dependent protein deacetylases or CD38, and transcriptional factors by a new class of histone deacetylases known as sirtuins. NAD(+) levels are regulated by the metabolic status and cellular stress caused by oxidative stress and DNA damage. Since a detailed study of NAD(+) metabolism in the healthy ageing mammalian brain is nascent, we examined the effect of ageing on intracellular NAD(+) metabolism in different brain regions in female Wistar rats in young (3 months), middle aged (12 months) and older adults (24 months). Our results are the first to show a significant decline in intracellular NAD(+) levels and NAD:NADH ratio with ageing in the CNS, occurring in parallel to an increase in lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation (o- and m-tyrosine) and a decline in total antioxidant capacity. Hyperphosphorylation of H2AX levels was also observed together with increased PARP-1 and PARP-2 expression, and CD38 activity, concomitantly with reduced NAD(+) and ATP levels and SIRT1 function in the cortex, brainstem, hippocampus and cerebellum. Reduced activity of mitochondrial complex I-IV and impaired maximum mitochondrial respiration rate were also observed in the ageing rat brain. Among the multiple physiological pathways associated with NAD(+) catabolism, our discovery of CD38 as the major regulator of cellular NAD(+) levels in rat neurons indicates that CD38 is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of age-related neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase/antagonistas & inibidores , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase/genética , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase/metabolismo , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/genética , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/metabolismo , Adenosina Difosfato Ribose/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/biossíntese , Animais , Dano ao DNA , Transporte de Elétrons , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Carbonilação Proteica , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual
20.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 25(3): 226-30, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22327552

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sirtuins are a family of enzymes highly conserved in evolution and involved in mechanisms known to promote healthy ageing and longevity. This review aims to discuss recent advances in understanding the role of sirtuins, in particular mammalian SIRT1, in promoting longevity and its potential molecular basis for neuroprotection against cognitive ageing and Alzheimer's disease pathology. RECENT FINDINGS: Accumulative increase in oxidative stress during ageing has been shown to decrease SIRT1 activity in catabolic tissue, possibly by direct inactivation by reactive oxygen. SIRT1 overexpression prevents oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and increases resistance to oxidative stress through regulation of the FOXO family of forkhead transcription factors. In addition, resveratrol strongly stimulates SIRT1 deacetylase activity in a dose-dependent manner by increasing its binding affinity to both the acetylated substrate and NAD(+). Recently, SIRT1 has been shown to affect amyloid production through its influence over the ADAM10 gene. Upregulation of SIRT1 can also induce the Notch pathway and inhibit mTOR signalling. SUMMARY: Recent studies have revealed some of the mechanisms and pathways that are associated with the neuroprotective effects of SIRT1.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Transtornos Cognitivos/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/fisiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Restrição Calórica , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Cognitivos/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Longevidade/fisiologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/uso terapêutico , Sirtuínas/fisiologia , Sirtuínas/uso terapêutico
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