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1.
Plant Cell ; 2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299379

RESUMO

The flower-infecting fungus Ustilaginoidea virens causes rice false smut, which is a severe emerging disease threatening rice (Oryza sativa) production worldwide. False smut not only reduces yield, but more importantly produces toxins on grains, posing a great threat to food safety. U. virens invades spikelets via the gap between the two bracts (lemma and palea) enclosing the floret and specifically infects the stamen and pistil. Molecular mechanisms for the U. virens-rice interaction are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that rice flowers predominantly employ chitin-triggered immunity against U. virens in the lemma and palea, rather than in the stamen and pistil. We identify a crucial U. virens virulence factor, named UvGH18.1, which carries glycoside hydrolase activity. Mechanistically, UvGH18.1 functions by binding to and hydrolyzing immune elicitor chitin and interacting with the chitin receptor CHITIN ELICITOR BINDING PROTEIN (OsCEBiP) and co-receptor CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE1 (OsCERK1) to impair their chitin-induced dimerization, suppressing host immunity exerted at the lemma and palea for gaining access to the stamen and pistil. Conversely, pretreatment on spikelets with chitin induces a defense response in the lemma and palea, promoting resistance against U. virens. Collectively, our data uncover a mechanism for a U. virens virulence factor and the critical location of the host-pathogen interaction in flowers and provide a potential strategy to control rice false smut disease.

2.
Nat Plants ; 9(2): 228-237, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36646829

RESUMO

Crops with broad-spectrum resistance loci are highly desirable in agricultural production because these loci often confer resistance to most races of a pathogen or multiple pathogen species. Here we discover a natural allele of proteasome maturation factor in rice, UMP1R2115, that confers broad-spectrum resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae, Rhizoctonia solani, Ustilaginoidea virens and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Mechanistically, this allele increases proteasome abundance and activity to promote the degradation of reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzymes including peroxidase and catalase upon pathogen infection, leading to elevation of H2O2 accumulation for defence. In contrast, inhibition of proteasome function or overexpression of peroxidase/catalase-encoding genes compromises UMP1R2115-mediated resistance. More importantly, introduction of UMP1R2115 into a disease-susceptible rice variety does not penalize grain yield while promoting disease resistance. Our work thus uncovers a broad-spectrum resistance pathway integrating de-repression of plant immunity and provides a valuable genetic resource for breeding high-yield rice with multi-disease resistance.


Assuntos
Magnaporthe , Oryza , Resistência à Doença/genética , Oryza/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Catalase/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Alelos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Magnaporthe/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
3.
Mol Plant ; 15(11): 1790-1806, 2022 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36245122

RESUMO

Grain formation is fundamental for crop yield but is vulnerable to abiotic and biotic stresses. Rice grain production is threatened by the false smut fungus Ustilaginoidea virens, which specifically infects rice floral organs, disrupting fertilization and seed formation. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the U. virens-rice interaction and the genetic basis of floral resistance. Here, we report that U. virens secretes a cytoplasmic effector, UvCBP1, to facilitate infection of rice flowers. Mechanistically, UvCBP1 interacts with the rice scaffold protein OsRACK1A and competes its interaction with the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase OsRBOHB, leading to inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Although the analysis of natural variation revealed no OsRACK1A variants that could avoid being targeted by UvCBP1, expression levels of OsRACK1A are correlated with field resistance against U. virens in rice germplasm. Overproduction of OsRACK1A restores the OsRACK1A-OsRBOHB association and promotes OsRBOHB phosphorylation to enhance ROS production, conferring rice floral resistance to U. virens without yield penalty. Taken together, our findings reveal a new pathogenic mechanism mediated by an essential effector from a flower-specific pathogen and provide a valuable genetic resource for balancing disease resistance and crop yield.


Assuntos
Oryza , Oryza/genética , Oryza/microbiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Flores/genética , Flores/microbiologia , Sementes
4.
New Phytol ; 236(6): 2216-2232, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36101507

RESUMO

Rice production is threatened by multiple pathogens. Breeding cultivars with broad-spectrum disease resistance is necessary to maintain and improve crop production. Previously we found that overexpression of miR160a enhanced rice blast disease resistance. However, it is unclear whether miR160a also regulates resistance against other pathogens, and what the downstream signaling pathways are. Here, we demonstrate that miR160a positively regulates broad-spectrum resistance against the causative agents of blast, leaf blight and sheath blight in rice. Mutations of miR160a-targeted Auxin Response Factors result in different alteration of resistance conferred by miR160a. miR160a enhances disease resistance partially by suppressing ARF8, as mutation of ARF8 in MIM160 background partially restores the compromised resistance resulting from MIM160. ARF8 protein binds directly to the promoter and suppresses the expression of WRKY45, which acts as a positive regulator of rice immunity. Mutation of WRKY45 compromises the enhanced blast resistance and bacterial leaf blight resistance conferred by arf8 mutant. Overall, our results reveal that a microRNA coordinates rice broad-spectrum disease resistance by suppressing multiple target genes that play different roles in disease resistance, and uncover a new regulatory pathway mediated by the miR160a-ARF8 module. These findings provide new resources to potentially improve disease resistance for breeding in rice.


Assuntos
Magnaporthe , Oryza , Resistência à Doença/genética , Magnaporthe/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal
5.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 788876, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35498644

RESUMO

Magnaporthe oryzae is the causative agent of rice blast, a devastating disease in rice worldwide. Based on the gene-for-gene paradigm, resistance (R) proteins can recognize their cognate avirulence (AVR) effectors to activate effector-triggered immunity. AVR genes have been demonstrated to evolve rapidly, leading to breakdown of the cognate resistance genes. Therefore, understanding the variation of AVR genes is essential to the deployment of resistant cultivars harboring the cognate R genes. In this study, we analyzed the nucleotide sequence polymorphisms of eight known AVR genes, namely, AVR-Pita1, AVR-Pii, AVR-Pia, AVR-Pik, AVR-Pizt, AVR-Pi9, AVR-Pib, and AVR-Pi54 in a total of 383 isolates from 13 prefectures in the Sichuan Basin. We detected the presence of AVR-Pik, AVR-Pi54, AVR-Pizt, AVR-Pi9, and AVR-Pib in the isolates of all the prefectures, but not AVR-Pita1, AVR-Pii, and AVR-Pia in at least seven prefectures, indicating loss of the three AVRs. We also detected insertions of Pot3, Mg-SINE, and indels in AVR-Pib, solo-LTR of Inago2 in AVR-Pizt, and gene duplications in AVR-Pik. Consistently, the isolates that did not harboring AVR-Pia were virulent to IRBLa-A, the monogenic line containing Pia, and the isolates with variants of AVR-Pib and AVR-Pizt were virulent to IRBLb-B and IRBLzt-t, the monogenic lines harboring Pib and Piz-t, respectively, indicating breakdown of resistance by the loss and variations of the avirulence genes. Therefore, the use of blast resistance genes should be alarmed by the loss and nature variations of avirulence genes in the blast fungal population in the Sichuan Basin.

6.
Plant J ; 110(1): 166-178, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997660

RESUMO

Many rice microRNAs have been identified as fine-tuning factors in the regulation of agronomic traits and immunity. Among them, Osa-miR535 targets SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like 14 (OsSPL14) to positively regulate tillers but negatively regulate yield and immunity. Here, we uncovered that Osa-miR535 targets another SPL gene, OsSPL4, to suppress rice immunity against Magnaporthe oryzae. Overexpression of Osa-miR535 significantly decreased the accumulation of the fusion protein SPL4TBS -YFP that contains the target site of Osa-miR535 in OsSPL4. Consistently, Osa-miR535 mediated the cleavage of OsSPL4 mRNA between the 10th and 11th base pair of the predicted binding site at the 3' untranslated region. Transgenic rice lines overexpressing OsSPL4 (OXSPL4) displayed enhanced blast disease resistance accompanied by enhanced immune responses, including increased expression of defense-relative genes and up-accumulated H2 O2 . By contrast, the knockout mutant osspl4 exhibited susceptibility. Moreover, OsSPL4 binds to the promoter of GH3.2, an indole-3-acetic acid-amido synthetase, and promotes its expression. Together, these data indicate that Os-miR535 targets OsSPL4 and OsSPL4-GH3.2, which may parallel the OsSPL14-WRKY45 module in rice blast disease resistance.


Assuntos
Magnaporthe , Oryza , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Magnaporthe/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
7.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 20(4): 646-659, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726307

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play vital roles in plant development and defence responses against various stresses. Here, we show that blocking miR1871 improves rice resistance against Magnaporthe oryzae and enhances grain yield simultaneously. The transgenic lines overexpressing miR1871 (OX1871) exhibit compromised resistance, suppressed defence responses and reduced panicle number resulting in slightly decreased yield. In contrast, the transgenic lines blocking miR1871 (MIM1871) show improved resistance, enhanced defence responses and significantly increased panicle number leading to enhanced yield per plant. The RNA-seq assay and defence response assays reveal that blocking miR1871 resulted in the enhancement of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Intriguingly, miR1871 suppresses the expression of LOC_Os06g22850, which encodes a microfibrillar-associated protein (MFAP1) locating nearby the cell wall and positively regulating PTI responses. The mutants of MFAP1 resemble the phenotype of OX1871. Conversely, the transgenic lines overexpressing MFAP1 (OXMFAP1) or overexpressing both MFAP1 and miR1871 (OXMFAP1/OX1871) resemble the resistance of MIM1871. The time-course experiment data reveal that the expression of miR1871 and MFAP1 in rice leaves, panicles and basal internode is dynamic during the whole growth period to manipulate the resistance and yield traits. Our results suggest that miR1871 regulates rice yield and immunity via MFAP1, and the miR8171-MFAP1 module could be used in rice breeding to improve both immunity and yield.


Assuntos
Magnaporthe , Oryza , Ascomicetos , Resistência à Doença/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Magnaporthe/fisiologia , Oryza/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
8.
Rice (N Y) ; 14(1): 87, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674053

RESUMO

microRNAs act as fine-tuners in the regulation of plant growth and resistance against biotic and abiotic stress. Here we demonstrate that rice miR1432 fine-tunes yield and blast disease resistance via different modules. Overexpression of miR1432 leads to compromised resistance and decreased yield, whereas blocking miR1432 using a target mimic of miR1432 results in enhanced resistance and yield. miR1432 suppresses the expression of LOC_Os03g59790, which encodes an EF-hand family protein 1 (OsEFH1). Overexpression of OsEFH1 leads to enhanced rice resistance but decreased grain yield. Further study revealed that miR1432 and OsEFH1 are differentially responsive to chitin, a fungus-derived pathogen/microbe-associated molecular pattern (PAMP/MAMP). Consistently, blocking miR1432 or overexpression of OsEFH1 improves chitin-triggered immunity responses. In contrast, overexpression of ACOT, another target gene regulating rice yield traits, has no significant effects on rice blast disease resistance. Altogether, these results indicate that miR1432 balances yield and resistance via different target genes, and blocking miR1432 can simultaneously improve yield and resistance.

9.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 729560, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527014

RESUMO

MicroRNAs fine-tune plant growth and resistance against multiple biotic and abiotic stresses. The trade-off between biomass and resistance can penalize crop yield. In this study, we have shown that rice miR530 regulates blast disease resistance, yield, and growth period. While the overexpression of miR530 results in compromised blast disease resistance, reduced grain yield, and late maturity, blocking miR530 using a target mimic (MIM530) leads to enhanced resistance, increased grain yield, and early maturity. Further study revealed that the accumulation of miR530 was decreased in both leaves and panicles along with the increase of age. Such expression patterns were accordant with the enhanced resistance from seedlings to adult plants, and the grain development from panicle formation to fully-filled seeds. Divergence analysis of miR530 precursor with upstream 1,000-bp promoter sequence in 11 rice species revealed that miR530 was diverse in Oryza sativa japonica and O. sativa indica group, which was consistent with the different accumulation of miR530 in japonica accessions and indica accessions. Altogether, our results indicate that miR530 coordinates rice resistance, yield, and maturity, thus providing a potential regulatory module for breeding programs aiming to improve yield and disease resistance.

10.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 733245, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34421978

RESUMO

Ustilaginoidea virens is a biotrophic fungal pathogen specifically colonizing rice floral organ and causes false smut disease of rice. This disease has emerged as a serious problem that hinders the application of high-yield rice cultivars, by reducing grain yield and quality as well as introducing mycotoxins. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of U. virens are still enigmatic. Here we demonstrate that U. virens employs a secreted protein UvCBP1 to manipulate plant immunity. In planta expression of UvCBP1 led to compromised chitin-induced defense responses in Arabidopsis and rice, including burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS), callose deposition, and expression of defense-related genes. In vitro-purified UvCBP1 protein competes with rice chitin receptor OsCEBiP to bind to free chitin, thus impairing chitin-triggered rice immunity. Moreover, UvCBP1 could significantly promote infection of U. virens in rice flowers. Our results uncover a mechanism of a floral fungus suppressing plant immunity and pinpoint a universal role of chitin-battlefield during plant-fungi interactions.

11.
Math Biosci Eng ; 17(5): 5449-5476, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120561

RESUMO

We formulate a mathematical model to explore the transmission dynamics of human papillomavirus (HPV). In our model, infected individuals can recover with a limited immunity that results in a lower probability of being infected again. In practice, it is necessary to revaccinate individuals within a period after the first vaccination to ensure immunity to HPV infection. Accordingly, we include vaccination and revaccination in our model. The model exhibits backward bifurcation as a result of imperfect protection after recovery and because the basic reproduction number is less than one. We conduct sensitivity analysis to identify the factors that markedly affect HPV infection rates and propose an optimal control problem that minimizes vaccination and screening cost. The optimal controls are characterized according to Pontryagin's maximum principle and numerically solved by the symplectic pseudospectral method.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Número Básico de Reprodução , Feminino , Humanos , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Vacinação
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 237: 149-158, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880260

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Fructus Alpinia zerumbet (FAZ), a dry and ripe fruit of Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt. et Smith, is widely used as a spice to treat cardiovascular diseases in clinic as a miao folk medicine in Guizhou Province of China. Essential oil extracted from FAZ (EOFAZ) is the key bioactive ingredients. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to examine the effects and mechanisms of EOFAZ on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endothelial cell injury, inflammation and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For the in vitro study, LPS-treated human aortic endothelial cells were used to perform PCR, western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. For the in vivo study, male mouse were divided into four groups, vehicle control group and LPS group received 0.5% Tween-80 in saline; and two EOFAZ groups receive different dose of EOFAZ (90 mg kg -1·day-1, 180 mg kg -1·day-1) respectively. Each group was fed for 7 days by intragastrical administration at daily base. Then, except vehicle control group received saline, mice in other three groups were administered with LPS (1 mg kg -1, dissolved in saline) by intraperitoneal injection. 24 h later, Aorta tissue was collected and frozen immediately in liquid N2, stored at -80 °C for western blot analysis. RESULTS: We found that EOFAZ completely prevented LPS-induced HAEC activation and inflammation in vitro and in vivo, as assessed by expression of endothelial adhesion molecules, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Similarly, EOFAZ significantly blunted LPS-induced endothelial injury, as tested by MTT assay, LDH release and caspase-3 activation. We further demonstrated that TLR4-dependent NF-κB signaling may be involved in the process. CONCLUSION: EOFAZ protected against LPS-induced endothelial cell injury and inflammation likely via inhibition of TLR4-dependent NF-κB signaling.


Assuntos
Alpinia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Animais , Aorta/citologia , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Frutas , Humanos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/genética , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Masculino , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/genética , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/metabolismo
13.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 24(3): 921-4, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27342534

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish and evaluate the methods of internal quality control in blood donor screening by nucleic acid test (NAT). METHODS: After HBV-DNA standard quality control (QC) sample (60 IU/ml) was diluted by pooling 6 samples, the concentration was 10.0 IU/ml, which was approach twice of the low limit. When the pooling result turned out reactive, the pooling samples need to be split into single sample to process. Meanwhile, the standard QC samples were tested as well. The same batch QC samples were tested 20 times respectively, calculate the mean (x̄), standard deviation (SD) and CV. Make Levey-Jennings QC curves by setting x̄±2SD as warning, x̄±3SD as rejected. The Levey-Jennings quality controls chart was mapped by using Microsoft Excel. RESULTS: After 20 times test of mixed/split samples, the x̄±2SD were 33.03±1.47 and 30.08±0.98, the x̄±3SD were 33.03±2.20 and 30.08±1.47, the CV were 2.22% and 1.63%, respectively. The P value of t test was 0.08 and 0.17 respectively, there was no statistically significant difference between the 2 group. CONCLUSION: When establish an internal QC system in the screening laboratory by nucleic acid testing, the concentration of the QC samples should be equal to normal specimens. This type of QC system may validate the extraction and amplification of the nucleic acid, and improve the stability of the test results.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Seleção do Doador , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/normas , Humanos , Controle de Qualidade
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi ; 35(10): 1200-4, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26677671

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish discriminant functions of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) by studying it from quantitative diagnosis angle, hoping to reduce interference of subjective factors in diagnosing and differentially diagnosing Chinese medical syndromes of IBS-D. METHODS: A Chinese medical clinical epidemiological survey was carried out in 439 IBS-D patients using Clinical Information Collection Table of IBS. Initial syndromes were obtained by cluster analysis. They were analyzed using step-by-step discrimination by taking information of four Chinese medical diagnostic methods and serum brain-gut peptides (BGP) as variables. RESULTS: Clustering results were Gan stagnation Pi deficiency syndrome (GSPDS), Pi-Wei weakness syndrome (PWWS), Gan stagnation qi stasis syndrome (GSQSS), Pi-Shen yang deficiency syndrome (PSYDS), Pi-Wei damp-heat syndrome (PWDHS), cold-damp disturbing Pi syndrome (CDDPS). Of them, GSPDS was mostly often seen with effective percentage of 34. 2%, while CDDPS was the least often seen with effective percentage of 5.5%. A total of 5 discriminant functions for GSPDS, PWWS, GSQSS, PSYDS, and PWDHS were obtained by step-by-step dis- crimination method. The retrospective misjudgment rate was 4.1% (16/390), while the cross-validation misjudgment rate was 15.4% (60/390). CONCLUSION: The establishment of discriminant functions is of value in objectively diagnosing and differentially diagnosing Chinese medical syndromes of IBS-D.


Assuntos
Diarreia/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/diagnóstico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Alarminas , Encéfalo , Análise por Conglomerados , Diarreia/classificação , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/classificação , Qi , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Deficiência da Energia Yang
16.
Planta Med ; 77(15): 1759-65, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21509717

RESUMO

Artemisinin is an effective antimalarial drug isolated from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. Due to its increasing market demand and the low yield in A. annua, there is a great interest in increasing its production. In this paper, in an attempt to increase artemisinin content of A. ANNUA by suppressing the expression of ß-caryophyllene synthase, a sesquiterpene synthase competing as a precursor of artemisinin, the antisense fragment (750 bp) of ß-caryophyllene synthase cDNA was inserted into the plant expression vector pBI121 and introduced into A. annua by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PCR and Southern hybridization confirmed the stable integration of multiple copies of the transgene in 5 different transgenic lines of A. annua. Reverse transcription PCR showed that the expression of endogenous CPS in the transgenic lines was significantly lower than that in the wild-type control A. annua plants, and ß-caryophyllene content decreased sharply in the transgenic lines in comparison to the control. The artemisinin content of one of the transgenic lines showed an increase of 54.9 % compared with the wild-type control. The present study demonstrated that the inhibition pathway in the precursor competition for artemisinin biosynthesis by anti-sense technology is an effective means of increasing the artemisinin content of A. annua plants.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Artemisia annua/metabolismo , Artemisininas/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Ligases/genética , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/metabolismo , Artemisia annua/enzimologia , Artemisia annua/genética , DNA Antissenso/genética , DNA Complementar/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Folhas de Planta/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/enzimologia , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Plantas Medicinais , Plasmídeos , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , Plântula/enzimologia , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo
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