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1.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 364, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605113

RESUMO

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) showcases geocarpic behavior, transitioning from aerial flowering to subterranean seed development. We recently obtained an atavistic variant of this species, capable of producing aerial and subterranean pods on a single plant. Notably, although these pod types share similar vigor levels, they exhibit distinct differences in their physical aspects, such as pod size, color, and shell thickness. We constructed 63 RNA-sequencing datasets, comprising three biological replicates for each of 21 distinct tissues spanning six developmental stages for both pod types, providing a rich tapestry of the pod development process. This comprehensive analysis yielded an impressive 409.36 Gb of clean bases, facilitating the detection of 42,401 expressed genes. By comparing the transcriptomic data of the aerial and subterranean pods, we identified many differentially expressed genes (DEGs), highlighting their distinct developmental pathways. By providing a detailed workflow from the initial sampling to the final DEGs, this study serves as an important resource, paving the way for future research into peanut pod development and aiding transcriptome-based expression profiling and candidate gene identification.


Assuntos
Arachis , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Transcriptoma , Arachis/genética , Arachis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
Plant Physiol ; 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38412470

RESUMO

Poplar (Populus) is a well-established model system for tree genomics and molecular breeding, and hybrid poplar is widely used in forest plantations. However, distinguishing its diploid homologous chromosomes is difficult, complicating advanced functional studies on specific alleles. In this study, we applied a trio-binning design and PacBio High-Fidelity long-read sequencing to obtain haplotype-phased telomere-to-telomere genome assemblies for the two parents of the well-studied F1 hybrid "84K" (Populus alba × P. tremula var. glandulosa). Almost all chromosomes, including the telomeres and centromeres, were completely assembled for each haplotype subgenome apart from two small gaps on one chromosome. By incorporating information from these haplotype assemblies and extensive RNA-seq data, we analyzed gene expression patterns between the two subgenomes and alleles. Transcription bias at the subgenome level was not uncovered, but extensive expression differences were detected between alleles. We developed machine-learning (ML) models to predict allele-specific expression (ASE) with high accuracy and identified underlying genome features most highly influencing ASE. One of our models with 15 predictor variables achieved 77% accuracy on the training set and 74% accuracy on the testing set. ML models identified gene body CHG methylation, sequence divergence, and transposon occupancy both upstream and downstream of alleles as important factors for ASE. Our haplotype-phased genome assemblies and ML strategy highlight an avenue for functional studies in Populus and provide additional tools for studying ASE and heterosis in hybrids.

4.
Plant Cell Environ ; 47(5): 1797-1812, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38314665

RESUMO

As the most abundant form of methylation modification in messenger RNA (mRNA), the distribution of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) has been preliminarily revealed in herbaceous plants under salt stress, but its function and mechanism in woody plants were still unknown. Here, we showed that global m6A levels increased during poplar response to salt stress. Methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeRIP-seq) revealed that m6A significantly enriched in the coding sequence region and 3'-untranslated regions in poplar, by recognising the conserved motifs, AGACU, GGACA and UGUAG. A large number of differential m6A transcripts have been identified, and some have been proved involving in salt response and plant growth and development. Further combined analysis of MeRIP-seq and RNA-seq revealed that the m6A hypermethylated and enrich in the CDS region preferred to positively regulate expression abundance. Writer inhibitor, 3-deazaneplanocin A treatment increased the sensitivity of poplar to salt stress by reducing mRNA stability to regulate the expression of salt-responsive transcripts PagMYB48, PagGT2, PagNAC2, PagGPX8 and PagARF2. Furthermore, we verified that the methyltransferase PagFIP37 plays a positively role in the response of poplar to salt stress, overexpressed lines have stronger salt tolerance, while RNAi lines were more sensitive to salt, which relied on regulating mRNA stability in an m6A manner of salt-responsive transcripts PagMYB48, PagGT2, PagNAC2, PagGPX8 and PagARF2. Collectively, these results revealed the regulatory role of m6A methylation in poplar response to salt stress, and revealed the importance and mechanism of m6A methylation in the response of woody plants to salt stress for the first time.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Populus , 60697 , Estresse Salino/genética , Metiltransferases/genética , Populus/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética
5.
Photosynth Res ; 2023 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38108929

RESUMO

The quality of light is an important abiotic factor that affects the growth and development of green plants. Ultraviolet, red, blue, and far-red light all have demonstrated roles in regulating green plant growth and development, as well as light morphogenesis. However, the mechanism underlying photosynthetic organism responses to green light throughout the life of them are not clear. In this study, we exposed the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to green light and analyzed the dynamics of transcriptome changes. Based on the whole transcriptome data from C. reinhardtii, a total of 9974 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified under green light. The Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses indicated that these DEGs were mainly related to "carboxylic acid metabolic process," "enzyme activity," "carbon metabolism," and "photosynthesis and other processes." At the same time, 253 differentially expressed long non-coding RNAs (DELs) were characterized as green light responsive. We also made a detailed analysis of the responses of photosynthesis- and pigment synthesis-related genes in C. reinhardtii to green light and found that these genes exhibited obvious dynamic expression. Lastly, we constructed a co-expression regulatory network, comprising 49 long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and 20 photosynthesis and pigment related genes, of which 9 mRNAs were also the predicted trans/cis-targets of 8 lncRNAs, these results suggested that lncRNAs may affect the expression of mRNAs related to photosynthesis and pigment synthesis. Our findings give a preliminary explanation of the response mechanism of C. reinhardtii to green light at the transcriptional level.

7.
Front Plant Sci ; 14: 1290913, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38023918

RESUMO

The Quercus variabilis, a deciduous broadleaved tree species, holds significant ecological and economical value. While a chromosome-level genome for this species has been made available, it remains riddled with unanchored sequences and gaps. In this study, we present a nearly complete comprehensive telomere-to-telomere (T2T) and haplotype-resolved reference genome for Q. variabilis. This was achieved through the integration of ONT ultra-long reads, PacBio HiFi long reads, and Hi-C data. The resultant two haplotype genomes measure 789 Mb and 768 Mb in length, with a contig N50 of 65 Mb and 56 Mb, and were anchored to 12 allelic chromosomes. Within this T2T haplotype-resolved assembly, we predicted 36,830 and 36,370 protein-coding genes, with 95.9% and 96.0% functional annotation for each haplotype genome. The availability of the T2T and haplotype-resolved reference genome lays a solid foundation, not only for illustrating genome structure and functional genomics studies but also to inform and facilitate genetic breeding and improvement of cultivated Quercus species.

8.
Front Plant Sci ; 14: 1273648, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37900760

RESUMO

Terpenes and terpenoids are key natural compounds for plant defense, development, and composition of plant oil. The synthesis and accumulation of a myriad of volatile terpenoid compounds in these plants may dramatically alter the quality and flavor of the oils, which provide great commercial utilization value for oil-producing plants. Terpene synthases (TPSs) are important enzymes responsible for terpenic diversity. Investigating the differentiation of the TPS gene family could provide valuable theoretical support for the genetic improvement of oil-producing plants. While the origin and function of TPS genes have been extensively studied, the exact origin of the initial gene fusion event - it occurred in plants or microbes - remains uncertain. Furthermore, a comprehensive exploration of the TPS gene differentiation is still pending. Here, phylogenetic analysis revealed that the fusion of the TPS gene likely occurred in the ancestor of land plants, following the acquisition of individual C- and N- terminal domains. Potential mutual transfer of TPS genes was observed among microbes and plants. Gene synteny analysis disclosed a differential divergence pattern between TPS-c and TPS-e/f subfamilies involved in primary metabolism and those (TPS-a/b/d/g/h subfamilies) crucial for secondary metabolites. Biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) analysis suggested a correlation between lineage divergence and potential natural selection in structuring terpene diversities. This study provides fresh perspectives on the origin and evolution of the TPS gene family.

9.
BMC Genomics ; 24(1): 637, 2023 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37875812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polyadenylation is a crucial process that terminates mRNA molecules at their 3'-ends. It has been observed that alternative polyadenylation (APA) can generate multiple transcripts from a single gene locus, each with different polyadenylation sites (PASs). This leads to the formation of several 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) that vary in length and composition. APA has a significant impact on approximately 60-70% of eukaryotic genes and has far-reaching implications for cell proliferation, differentiation, and tumorigenesis. RESULTS: In this study, we conducted long-read, single-molecule sequencing of mRNA from peanut seeds. Our findings revealed that over half of all peanut genes possess over two PASs, with older developing seeds containing more PASs. This suggesting that the PAS exhibits high tissue specificity and plays a crucial role in peanut seed maturation. For the peanut acetyl-CoA carboxylase A1 (AhACCA1) gene, we discovered four 3' UTRs referred to UTR1-4. RT-PCR analysis showed that UTR1-containing transcripts are predominantly expressed in roots, leaves, and early developing seeds. Transcripts containing UTR2/3 accumulated mainly in roots, flowers, and seeds, while those carrying UTR4 were constitutively expressed. In Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, we transiently expressed all four UTRs, revealing that each UTR impacted protein abundance but not subcellular location. For functional validation, we introduced each UTR into yeast cells and found UTR2 enhanced AhACCA1 expression compared to a yeast transcription terminator, whereas UTR3 did not. Furthermore, we determined ACC gene structures in seven plant species and identified 51 PASs for 15 ACC genes across four plant species, confirming that APA of the ACC gene family is universal phenomenon in plants. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that APA is widespread in peanut seeds and plays vital roles in peanut seed maturation. We have identified four 3' UTRs for AhACCA1 gene, each showing distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. Through subcellular location experiment and yeast transformation test, we have determined that UTR2 has a stronger impact on gene expression regulation compared to the other three UTRs.


Assuntos
Acetil-CoA Carboxilase , Arachis , Arachis/genética , Arachis/metabolismo , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Poliadenilação , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
11.
Brief Bioinform ; 25(1)2023 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38189536

RESUMO

Accurate subgenome phasing is crucial for understanding the origin, evolution and adaptive potential of polyploid genomes. SubPhaser and WGDI software are two common methodologies for subgenome phasing in allopolyploids, particularly in scenarios lacking known diploid progenitors. Triggered by a recent debate over the subgenomic origins of the cultivated octoploid strawberry, we examined four well-documented complex allopolyploidy cases as benchmarks, to evaluate and compare the accuracy of the two software. Our analysis demonstrates that the subgenomic structure phased by both software is in line with prior research, effectively tracing complex allopolyploid evolutionary trajectories despite the limitations of each software. Furthermore, using these validated methodologies, we revisited the controversial issue regarding the progenitors of the octoploid strawberry. The results of both methodologies reaffirm Fragaria vesca and Fragaria iinumae as progenitors of the octoploid strawberry. Finally, we propose recommendations for enhancing the accuracy of subgenome phasing in future studies, recognizing the potential of integrated tools for advanced complex allopolyploidy research and offering a new roadmap for robust subgenome-based phylogenetic analysis.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Fragaria , Filogenia , Fragaria/genética , Poliploidia , Software
12.
Front Plant Sci ; 14: 1297817, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38312356

RESUMO

Xanthoceras sorbifolium (yellowhorn) is a woody oil plant with super stress resistance and excellent oil characteristics. The yellowhorn oil can be used as biofuel and edible oil with high nutritional and medicinal value. However, genetic studies on yellowhorn are just in the beginning, and fundamental biological questions regarding its very long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) biosynthesis pathway remain largely unknown. In this study, we reconstructed the VLCFA biosynthesis pathway and annotated 137 genes encoding relevant enzymes. We identified four oleosin genes that package triacylglycerols (TAGs) and are specifically expressed in fruits, likely playing key roles in yellowhorn oil production. Especially, by examining time-ordered gene co-expression network (TO-GCN) constructed from fruit and leaf developments, we identified key enzymatic genes and potential regulatory transcription factors involved in VLCFA synthesis. In fruits, we further inferred a hierarchical regulatory network with MYB-related (XS03G0296800) and B3 (XS02G0057600) transcription factors as top-tier regulators, providing clues into factors controlling carbon flux into fatty acids. Our results offer new insights into key genes and transcriptional regulators governing fatty acid production in yellowhorn, laying the foundation for efforts to optimize oil content and fatty acid composition. Moreover, the gene expression patterns and putative regulatory relationships identified here will inform metabolic engineering and molecular breeding approaches tailored to meet biofuel and bioproduct demands.

13.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 1001583, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36212310

RESUMO

Quercus variabilis (Fagaceae) is an ecologically and economically important deciduous broadleaved tree species native to and widespread in East Asia. It is a valuable woody species and an indicator of local forest health, and occupies a dominant position in forest ecosystems in East Asia. However, genomic resources from Q. variabilis are still lacking. Here, we present a high-quality Q. variabilis genome generated by PacBio HiFi and Hi-C sequencing. The assembled genome size is 787 Mb, with a contig N50 of 26.04 Mb and scaffold N50 of 64.86 Mb, comprising 12 pseudo-chromosomes. The repetitive sequences constitute 67.6% of the genome, of which the majority are long terminal repeats, accounting for 46.62% of the genome. We used ab initio, RNA sequence-based and homology-based predictions to identify protein-coding genes. A total of 32,466 protein-coding genes were identified, of which 95.11% could be functionally annotated. Evolutionary analysis showed that Q. variabilis was more closely related to Q. suber than to Q. lobata or Q. robur. We found no evidence for species-specific whole genome duplications in Quercus after the species had diverged. This study provides the first genome assembly and the first gene annotation data for Q. variabilis. These resources will inform the design of further breeding strategies, and will be valuable in the study of genome editing and comparative genomics in oak species.

14.
New Phytol ; 235(2): 801-809, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35460274

RESUMO

With advanced sequencing technology, dozens of complex polyploid plant genomes have been characterized. However, for many polyploid species, their diploid ancestors are unknown or extinct, making it impossible to unravel the subgenomes and genome evolution directly. We developed a novel subgenome-phasing algorithm, SubPhaser, specifically designed for a neoallopolyploid or a homoploid hybrid. SubPhaser first searches for the subgenome-specific sequence (k-mer), then assigns homoeologous chromosomes into subgenomes, and further provides tools to annotate and investigate specific sequences. SubPhaser works well on neoallopolyploids and homoploid hybrids containing subgenome-specific sequences like wheat, but fails on autopolyploids lacking subgenome-specific sequences like alfalfa, indicating that SubPhaser can phase neoallopolyploid/homoploid hybrids with high accuracy, sensitivity and performance. This highly accurate, highly sensitive, ancestral data free chromosome phasing algorithm, SubPhaser, offers significant application value for subgenome phasing in neoallopolyploids and homoploid hybrids, and for the subsequent exploration of genome evolution and related genetic/epigenetic mechanisms.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Poliploidia , Diploide , Epigênese Genética , Triticum/genética
15.
Tree Physiol ; 42(8): 1587-1600, 2022 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35234958

RESUMO

In plants, ultraviolet (UV)-light is an important driver for growth and natural distribution, and is also a valuable tool for manipulating productivity as well as biotic interactions. Understanding of plant responses to different UV radiation is sparse, especially from a systems biology perspective and particularly for conifers. Here, we evaluated the physiological and transcriptomic responses to the short-term application of high-irradiance UV-B and UV-C waves on Pinus tabuliformis Carr., a major conifer in Northern China. By undertaking time-ordered gene coexpression network analyses and network comparisons incorporating physiological traits and gene expression variation, we uncovered communalities but also differences in P. tabuliformis responses to UV-B and UV-C. Both types of spectral bands caused a significant inhibition of photosynthesis, and conversely, the improvement of antioxidant capacity, flavonoid production and signaling pathways related to stress resistance, indicating a clear switch from predominantly primary metabolism to enhanced defensive metabolism in pine. We isolated distinct subnetworks for photoreceptor-mediated signal transduction, maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) regulation and flavonoid biosynthesis in response to UV-B and UV-C radiation. From these subnetworks, we further identified phototropins as potentially important elements in both UV-B and UV-C signaling and, for the first time, suggesting peptide hormones to be involved in promoting flavonoid biosynthesis against UV-B, while these hormones seem not to be implicated in the defense against UV-C exposure. The present study employed an effective strategy for disentangling the complex physiological and genetic regulatory mechanisms in a nonmodel plant species, and thus, provides a suitable reference for future functional evaluations and artificial UV-light mediated growing strategies in plant production.


Assuntos
Pinus , Raios Ultravioleta , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fotossíntese , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II , Pinus/genética , Pinus/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo
16.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 766389, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34880890

RESUMO

In-depth genome characterization is still lacking for most of biofuel crops, especially for centromeres, which play a fundamental role during nuclear division and in the maintenance of genome stability. This study applied long-read sequencing technologies to assemble a highly contiguous genome for yellowhorn (Xanthoceras sorbifolium), an oil-producing tree, and conducted extensive comparative analyses to understand centromere structure and evolution, and fatty acid biosynthesis. We produced a reference-level genome of yellowhorn, ∼470 Mb in length with ∼95% of contigs anchored onto 15 chromosomes. Genome annotation identified 22,049 protein-coding genes and 65.7% of the genome sequence as repetitive elements. Long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) account for ∼30% of the yellowhorn genome, which is maintained by a moderate birth rate and a low removal rate. We identified the centromeric regions on each chromosome and found enrichment of centromere-specific retrotransposons of LINE1 and Gypsy in these regions, which have evolved recently (∼0.7 MYA). We compared the genomes of three cultivars and found frequent inversions. We analyzed the transcriptomes from different tissues and identified the candidate genes involved in very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis and their expression profiles. Collinear block analysis showed that yellowhorn shared the gamma (γ) hexaploidy event with Vitis vinifera but did not undergo any further whole-genome duplication. This study provides excellent genomic resources for understanding centromere structure and evolution and for functional studies in this important oil-producing plant.

17.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 773090, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34899800

RESUMO

Sour or wild jujube fruits and dried seeds are popular food all over the world. In this study, we reported a high-quality genome assembly of sour jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa), with a size of 406 Mbp and scaffold N50 of 30.3 Mbp, which experienced only γ hexaploidization event, without recent genome duplication. Population structure analysis identified four jujube subgroups (two domesticated ones, i.e., D1 in West China and D2 in East/SouthEast China, semi-wild, and wild), which underwent an evolutionary history of a significant decline of effective population size during the Last Glacial Period. The respective selection signatures of three subgroups were discovered, such as strong peaks on chromosomes #3 in D1, #1 in D2, and #4 in wild. Genes under the most significant selection on chromosomes #4 in wild were confirmed to be involved in fruit variations among jujube accessions, in transcriptomic analysis. Our study offered novel insights into the jujube population structure and domestication and provided valuable genomic resources for jujube improvement in stress response and fruit flavor in the future.

18.
Hortic Res ; 8(1): 177, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465761

RESUMO

Polyploidization plays a key role in plant evolution, but the forces driving the fate of homoeologs in polyploid genomes, i.e., paralogs resulting from a whole-genome duplication (WGD) event, remain to be elucidated. Here, we present a chromosome-scale genome assembly of tetraploid scarlet sage (Salvia splendens), one of the most diverse ornamental plants. We found evidence for three WGD events following an older WGD event shared by most eudicots (the γ event). A comprehensive, spatiotemporal, genome-wide analysis of homoeologs from the most recent WGD unveiled expression asymmetries, which could be associated with genomic rearrangements, transposable element proximity discrepancies, coding sequence variation, selection pressure, and transcription factor binding site differences. The observed differences between homoeologs may reflect the first step toward sub- and/or neofunctionalization. This assembly provides a powerful tool for understanding WGD and gene and genome evolution and is useful in developing functional genomics and genetic engineering strategies for scarlet sage and other Lamiaceae species.

19.
Hortic Res ; 8(1): 188, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354050

RESUMO

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the most valued spice plants worldwide; it is prized for its culinary and folk medicinal applications and is therefore of high economic and cultural importance. Here, we present a haplotype-resolved, chromosome-scale assembly for diploid ginger anchored to 11 pseudochromosome pairs with a total length of 3.1 Gb. Remarkable structural variation was identified between haplotypes, and two inversions larger than 15 Mb on chromosome 4 may be associated with ginger infertility. We performed a comprehensive, spatiotemporal, genome-wide analysis of allelic expression patterns, revealing that most alleles are coordinately expressed. The alleles that exhibited the largest differences in expression showed closer proximity to transposable elements, greater coding sequence divergence, more relaxed selection pressure, and more transcription factor binding site differences. We also predicted the transcription factors potentially regulating 6-gingerol biosynthesis. Our allele-aware assembly provides a powerful platform for future functional genomics, molecular breeding, and genome editing in ginger.

20.
Sci Data ; 8(1): 174, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267227

RESUMO

LTR retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) are ubiquitous and represent the dominant repeat element in plant genomes, playing important roles in functional variation, genome plasticity and evolution. With the advent of new sequencing technologies, a growing number of whole-genome sequences have been made publicly available, making it possible to carry out systematic analyses of LTR-RTs. However, a comprehensive and unified annotation of LTR-RTs in plant groups is still lacking. Here, we constructed a plant intact LTR-RTs dataset, which is designed to classify and annotate intact LTR-RTs with a standardized procedure. The dataset currently comprises a total of 2,593,685 intact LTR-RTs from genomes of 300 plant species representing 93 families of 46 orders. The dataset is accompanied by sequence, diverse structural and functional annotation, age determination and classification information associated with the LTR-RTs. This dataset will contribute valuable resources for investigating the evolutionary dynamics and functional implications of LTR-RTs in plant genomes.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Plantas/genética , Retroelementos , Sequências Repetidas Terminais , Evolução Molecular , Anotação de Sequência Molecular
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