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1.
Neuropharmacology ; : 108010, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061899

RESUMO

The ability to learn the reward-value and action-outcome contingencies in dynamic environment is critical for flexible adaptive behavior and development of effective pharmacological control of goal-directed behaviors represents an important challenge for improving the deficits in goal-directed behavior which may underlie seemingly disparate symptoms across psychiatric disorders. Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) is emerging as a novel neuromodulatory target for controlling goal-directed behavior for its unique neuromodulatory features: the ability to integrate dopamine and glutamate signaling, the "brake" constraint of various cognitive processes and the balanced control of goal-directed and habit actions. However, the contribution and circuit mechanisms of the striatopallidal A2ARs in nucleus accumbens (NAc) to control of goal-directed behavior remain to be determined. Here, we employed newly developed opto-A2AR and the focal A2AR knockdown strategies to demonstrate the causal role of NAc A2AR in control of goal-directed behavior. Furthermore, we dissected out multiple distinct behavioral mechanisms underlying which NAc A2ARs control goal-directed behavior: (i) NAc A2ARs preferentially control goal-directed behavior at the expense of habit formation. (ii) NAc A2ARs modify the animals' sensitivity to the value of the reward without affecting the action-outcome contingency. (iii) A2AR antagonist KW6002 promotes instrumental actions by invigorating motivation. (iv) NAc A2ARs facilitate Pavlovian incentive value transferring to instrumental action. (v) NAc A2ARs control goal-directed behavior probably not through NAc-VP pathway. These insights into the behavioral and circuit mechanisms for NAc A2AR control of goal-directed behavior facilitate translational potential for A2AR antagonists in reversal of deficits in goal-directed decision-making associated with multiple neuropsychiatric disorders.

2.
Brain Behav Immun ; 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014577

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a destructive polyneuropathy that can result in loss of sensorimotor function and sphincter dysfunction, and even death in critical situations. MicroRNAs (miRs) are a series of non-coding RNA molecules that are involved in transcriptional regulation. Previous studies have demonstrated that modulation of multiple miRs is involved in neurological recovery after SCI. However, the functions of miR-340-5p in SCI remain uncertain. Therefore, we probed the therapeutic effect and mechanism of miR-340-5p in microglia in vitro and in vivo in SCI rats. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blotting were employed to examine the alterations in miR-340-5p and P38 levels in SCI rats. miR-340-5p targets in microglia were ascertained using luciferase reporter assays, immunofluorescence analyses, and western blotting. We also established an SCI model and administered miR-340-5p. The effects of miR-340-5p on the amelioration of inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis following SCI were assessed using immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, and histological analyses. Finally, locomotor function recovery was determined using the Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan rating scale. In our study, the expression profiles and luciferase assay results clarified that P38 was a target of miR-340-5p, which was associated with activation of the P38-MAPK signaling pathway. Elevation of miR-340-5p decreased P38 expression, subsequently inhibiting the inflammatory reaction. SCI-induced secondary neuroinflammation was relieved under miR-340-5p treatment. Moreover, by controlling neuroinflammation, the increased levels of miR-340-5p might counter oxidative stress and reduce the degree of apoptosis. We also observed decreasing gliosis and glial scar formation and increasing neurotrophin expression at the chronic stage of SCI. Together, these potential effects of miR-340-5p treatment ultimately improved locomotor function recovery in SCI rats.

3.
Food Funct ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020140

RESUMO

Polar compounds from frying oils have been found to be harmful to health. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have largely remained elusive. In this study, mass spectrometry-based metabolomics was used to investigate the toxicological effects of polar compounds. The serum and hepatic metabolites from polar compound-treated mice were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Multi-variate statistical analysis showed that a total of 36 serum metabolites and 18 hepatic metabolites were altered in the polar compound-treated mice as compared with that for normal diet-fed animals. These metabolic changes suggested novel alterations in lipid metabolism with the increase in phospholipids, fatty acids, and cholesterol and the decrease in choline, betaine and l-acetylcarnitine. The TCA cycle and carbohydrate, amino acid and purine metabolism were also impaired, with a significant elevation of d-glucose, d-maltose, ß-mannobiose, branched chain amino acids, aromatic amino acids, and uric acid and a decline in succinate, serine, aspartate, arginine and ornithine. Pearson correlation analysis demonstrated the strong correlations between specific metabolic alterations and the redox index. Our overall findings reveal that polar compounds may progressively cause lipid deposition, impaired energy metabolism and oxidative stress, resulting in toxicological effects on the mammalian health.

4.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-6, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024407

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the auditory performance and speech intelligibility of 100 children with bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss up to 3 years after cochlear implantation.Methods: A cohort study was established consisting of 100 children who received cochlear implantation at Shandong Ear Nose and Throat Hospital from 2012 to 2015. Children were examined after 1 month, 1, 2, and 3 years of implantation to assess auditory performance and speech intelligibility using standard tools. The paired Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to assess whether the scores obtained at different testing points differed significantly. The Mann-Whitney test was utilized to examine the between-group differences (e.g., age at implantation).Results: Three years after implantation, 60% out of 100 children reached the maximal category (7) of categorical auditory performance and 37% achieved the highest category (5) of speech intelligibility rating. Significant improvements were found over time in categorical auditory performance category and speech intelligibility rating (from month 1 to year 1, p < 0.001; from year 1 to year 2, p < 0.001; and from year 2 to year 3, p < 0.001). Larger improvements in auditory outcomes and speech intelligibility were observed in children with a younger age at implantation and those who received speech therapy.Conclusions: Cochlear implantation appears to make a significant, positive contribution to the development of communication skills of young congenital and prelingually deaf children in China. These improvements continue for up to 3 years after implantation. Positive outcomes appear to be associated with earlier age at implantation and receipt of speech therapy.Implications for rehabilitationBilateral sensorineural hearing loss.Bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in children can cause delay in speech development, poor language skills and potentially disorders in psychological behaviour and social isolation.Cochlear implantation (CI) is an effective strategy that helps children with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss gain the ability to hear and continue to develop language.This study shows that the auditory performance and speech intelligibility of deaf children who speak Mandarin continued to improve up to 3 years of implantation, when follow-up ceased.

5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(4): 1147-1156, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917573

RESUMO

Processing technology has a significant effect on the functional quality of vegetable oil, but the exact mechanism is not yet very well known so far. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of extract methods on the composition and nutrition of peanut oil. Peanut oil was prepared by cold pressing, hot pressing, and enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction, and their trace components were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Serum and liver samples from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats fed with different extract oils were profiled by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and LC-MS. The component analysis showed that different process technologies cause differentiation of trace active ingredients. Metabolomics analysis revealed that a high-fat diet causes serum and hepatic metabolic disorders, which can be ameliorated by hot-pressed and hydroenzymatic peanut oil, including downregulation of partial amino acids, fatty acids, phospholipids, and carbohydrates in cold-pressed peanut oil as well as the upregulation of palmitic acid, uric acid, and pyrimidine in enzyme-assisted aqueous oils. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) uncovered strong associations between specific metabolic alterations and peanut oil trace components. The data obtained in this study offers a new insight on the roles of oil processing.

6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 340, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953413

RESUMO

Mikania micrantha is one of the top 100 worst invasive species that can cause serious damage to natural ecosystems and substantial economic losses. Here, we present its 1.79 Gb chromosome-scale reference genome. Half of the genome is composed of long terminal repeat retrotransposons, 80% of which have been derived from a significant expansion in the past one million years. We identify a whole genome duplication event and recent segmental duplications, which may be responsible for its rapid environmental adaptation. Additionally, we show that M. micrantha achieves higher photosynthetic capacity by CO2 absorption at night to supplement the carbon fixation during the day, as well as enhanced stem photosynthesis efficiency. Furthermore, the metabolites of M. micrantha can increase the availability of nitrogen by enriching the microbes that participate in nitrogen cycling pathways. These findings collectively provide insights into the rapid growth and invasive adaptation.

7.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(11): 1697-1700, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939947

RESUMO

(CH3CH2NH3)3BiX6 and (CH2ClCH2NH3)3BiX6 (X = Cl, Br) obtained by halogen substitution not only realize the adjustment of the phase transition in a relatively wide temperature range, but also optimize the semiconductor performance. This will promote the exploration and construction of semiconductor materials with tunable temperatures and lower band gaps.

8.
Environ Int ; 136: 105483, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current available evidence regarding the detrimental effects of low-level ambient air pollution on conventional semen parameters is inconclusive. In nonreproductive systems, air pollutant exposure has been demonstrated to induce oxidative stress (OS), which is a crucial mechanism that mediates sperm damage and male infertility. Thus, it may be essential to investigate the effects of air pollution on sperm quality in terms of the perspectives of OS and relative molecular damage. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the associations of major air pollutant exposure to oxidative stress-mediated alterations in semen, including seminal plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), sperm mtDNA copy number, and integrity. METHODS: The present study used data gathered from 516 young men participating in the Male Reproductive Health in Chongqing College student (MARCHS) cohort study during the follow-up stage in 2014 (n = 427 on the old campus, which is located in an urban area and has worse air quality, and n = 89 on the new campus, which is not urban and has better air quality). Data regarding major air pollutant exposure during 0-90, 0-9, 10-14 and 70-90 days before each semen examination (corresponding to the entire and three key periods of sperm development, respectively) were collected. The Mann-Whitney U nonparametric test was employed to compare distributions of major air pollutants and to explore differences in MDA, mtDNA copy number, and mtDNA integrity between the two campuses. A linear regression model was used as multivariable analysis to investigate associations of major air pollutant exposure with these biomarkers of oxidative damage to sperm and to adjust for potential confounders. RESULTS: During all four key periods of sperm development, compared with college students on the new campus, college students on the old campus were exposed to higher levels of PM10, PM2.5, NO2, and CO, and had higher air quality index (AQI) values, indicating that these participants suffered from worse air quality. The levels of seminal plasma MDA in college students on the old campus were higher than those for the new campus (2.0 nmol/ml; 0.7, 3.6 vs. 1.6 nmol/ml; 0.4, 3.4, p < 0.001) (medians with 5th and 95th percentiles). There were no significant differences in sperm mtDNA copy number and mtDNA integrity between the two campuses. Furthermore, daily average PM10 exposure during 0-90 days before semen ejaculation was found to be significantly and positively associated with seminal plasma MDA level (10.4; 95% CI, 4.4, 16.4) (percentage change per 10-unit increase in air pollutant concentration; same meanings for the results below); daily average SO2 exposure for 70-90 days and NO2 exposure for 0-9 days prior to sampling were also positively associated with MDA level (74.7; 95% CI, 32.1, 119 and 11.9; 95% CI, 4.8, 19.0, respectively). AQI for 0-90 days and 70-90 days prior to sampling positively correlated with seminal plasma MDA concentrations (11.4; 95% CI, 4.7, 18.1 and 12.2; 95% CI, 5.3, 19.1, respectively). Additionally, daily average SO2 exposures for 10-14 and 0-9 days prior to sampling were negatively associated with sperm mtDNA copy number and mtDNA integrity, respectively (-9.0; 95% CI, -16.4, -1.6 and -38.3; 95% CI, -64.1, -11.8, respectively). However, only the correlations between SO2 exposure and AQI value for 70-90 days prior to sampling and MDA levels remained significant after multiplicity adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that bad air quality, especially SO2 exposure during certain periods of sperm development, might be correlated with oxidative damage to sperm. These findings can deepen the understanding of the potential impacts of air pollution on sperm quality.

9.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 16(1): 800-810, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774674

RESUMO

Upon phosphorylation of specific sites, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binding protein 2 (4E-BP2) undergoes a fundamental structural transformation from a disordered state to a four-stranded ß-sheet, leading to decreased binding affinity for its partner. This change reflects the significant effects of phosphate groups on the underlying energy landscapes of proteins. In this study, we combine high-temperature molecular dynamics simulations and discrete path sampling to construct energy landscapes for a doubly phosphorylated 4E-BP218-62 and two mutants (a single site mutant D33K and a double mutant Y54A/L59A). The potential and free energy landscapes for these three systems are multifunneled with the folded state and several alternative states lying close in energy, suggesting perhaps a multifunneled and multifunctional protein. Hydrogen bonds between phosphate groups and other residues not only stabilize these low-lying conformations to different extents but also play an important role in interstate transitions. From the energy landscape perspective, our results explain some interesting experimental observations, including the low stability of doubly phosphorylated 4E-BP2 and its moderate binding to eIF4E and the inability of phosphorylated Y54A/L59A to fold.


Assuntos
Fatores de Iniciação em Eucariotos/química , Termodinâmica , Fatores de Iniciação em Eucariotos/genética , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Fosforilação , Mutação Puntual , Conformação Proteica , Dobramento de Proteína , Estabilidade Proteica
10.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 45(1): 32-37, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415459

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Post-hoc analysis of a prospective, multicenter cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of smoking on rates of postoperative adverse events (AEs) in patients undergoing high-risk adult spine deformity surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Smoking is a known predictor of medical complications after adult deformity surgery, but the effect on complications, implant failure and other AEs has not been adequately described in prospective studies. METHODS: Twenty-six patients with a history of current smoking were identified out of the 272 patients enrolled in the SCOLI-RISK-1 study who underwent complex adult spinal deformity surgery at 15 centers, with 2-year follow-up. The outcomes and incidence of AEs in these patients were compared to the nonsmoking cohort (n = 244) using univariate analysis, with additional multivariate regression to adjust for the effect of patient demographics, complexity of surgery, and other confounders. RESULTS: The number of levels and complexity of surgery in both cohorts were comparable. In the univariate analysis, the rates of implant failure were almost double (odds ratio 2.28 [0.75-6.18]) in smoking group (n = 7; 26.9%)) that observed in the nonsmoking group (n = 34; 13.9%), but this was not statistically significant (P = 0.088). Surgery-related excessive bleeding (>4 L) was significantly higher in the smoking group (n = 5 vs. n = 9; 19.2% vs. 3.7%; OR 6.22[1.48 - 22.75]; P = 0.006). Wound infection rates and respiratory complications were similar in both groups. In the multivariate analysis, the smoking group demonstrated a higher incidence of any surgery-related AEs over 2 years (n = 13 vs. n = 95; 50.0% vs. 38.9%; OR 2.12 [0.88-5.09]) (P = 0.094). CONCLUSION: In this secondary analysis of patients from the SCOLI-RISK-1 study, a history of smoking significantly increased the risk of excessive intraoperative bleeding and nonsignificantly increased the rate of implant failure or surgery-related AEs over 2 years. The authors therefore advocate a smoking cessation program in patients undergoing complex adult spine deformity surgery. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2.

11.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 20(1): 268-282, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482680

RESUMO

The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, is one of the most damaging insect pests to rice production worldwide. Although C. suppressalis has been the focus of numerous studies examining cold tolerance and diapause, plant-insect interactions, pesticide targets and resistance, and the development of RNAi-mediated pest management, the absence of a high-quality genome has limited deeper insights. To address this limitation, we generated a draft C. suppressalis genome constructed from both Illumina and PacBio sequences. The assembled genome size was 824.35 Mb with a contig N50 of 307 kb and a scaffold N50 of 1.75 Mb. Hi-C scaffolding assigned 99.2% of the bases to one of 29 chromosomes. Based on universal single-copy orthologues (BUSCO), the draft genome assembly was estimated to be 97% complete and is predicted to encompass 15,653 protein-coding genes. Cold tolerance is an extreme survival strategy found in animals. However, little is known regarding the genetic basis of the winter ecology of C. suppressalis. Here, we focused our orthologous analysis on those gene families associated with animal cold tolerance. Our finding provided the first genomic evidence revealing specific cold-tolerant strategies in C. suppressalis, including those involved in glucose-originated glycerol biosynthesis, triacylglycerol-originated glycerol biosynthesis, fatty acid synthesis and trehalose transport-intermediate cold tolerance. The high-quality C. suppressalis genome provides a valuable resource for research into a broad range of areas in molecular ecology, and subsequently benefits developing modern pest control strategies.

12.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1866(3): 165649, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870714

RESUMO

Genome-wide changes in gene translational efficiency during the development of heart failure are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that aberrant changes in translational efficiency of cardiac genes are associated with the development of myocyte decompensation in response to persistent stress stimuli. We demonstrated that chronic pressure overload in mice resulted in a genome-wide reprogramming of translational efficiency, with >50% of the translatome exhibiting decreased translational efficiencies during the transition from myocardial compensation to decompensation. Importantly, these translationally repressed genes included those involved in angiogenesis and energy metabolism. Moreover, we showed that the stress-induced translational reprogramming was accompanied by persistent activation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α)-mediated stress response pathway. Counteracting the endogenous eIF2α functions by cardiac-specific overexpression of an eIF2α-S51A mutant ameliorated the development of myocyte decompensation, with concomitant improvements in translation of cardiac functional genes and increases in angiogenic responses. These data suggest that the mismatch between transcription and translation of the cardiac genes with essential functions may represent a novel molecular mechanism underlying the development of myocyte decompensation in response to chronic stress stimuli, and the eIF2α pathway may be a viable therapeutic target for recovering the optimal translation of the repressed cardiac genes.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 706: 135975, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-optimal weather conditions and air pollution pose a significant threat to children's health. However, the relative impact of different environmental exposures on childhood allergic diseases remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to quantify the relative impact of meteorological factors and air pollutants on childhood allergic diseases in Shanghai, China. METHODS: Data on clinical visits due to childhood asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR) and atopic dermatitis (AD) from 2007 to 2017 in Shanghai were collected from Shanghai Children's Medical Center and Xinhua Hospital. The meteorological data (i.e. daily mean temperature, temperature difference, air pressure, air pressure difference, precipitation, relative humidity, sunshine and wind speed) for the same period were obtained from the Shanghai Meteorological Center. Air pollution data (PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2 and O3) were provided by the Shanghai Environmental Protection Agency. Quasi-Poisson regression with distributed lag non-linear models and Poisson regression combined with generalized linear models were used to assess the relative impact of meteorological factors and air pollutants on childhood allergic diseases. RESULTS: There were a total of 2,410,392 cases of childhood allergic diseases, including 975,771 asthma, 646,975 AR and 787,646 AD. Most of environmental factors were significantly associated with childhood allergic diseases. Daily mean temperature (standard ß: -0.076 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.086, -0.067)) and air pressure (standard ß: 0.075 (95% CI: 0.068, 0.082)) seemed to play more important roles than other environmental factors in the occurrence of these allergic diseases. The numbers of these allergic diseases attributable to an interquartile range (IQR) change in meteorological factors also appeared to be greater than those attributable to an IQR change in air pollutants. CONCLUSIONS: Both climatic variation and air pollution were associated with childhood allergic diseases, but the former appeared to play a more important role in the occurrence of these diseases. These findings may have significant implications for the development of tailored strategies to prevent these rapidly-increasing diseases worldwide.

14.
J Cell Biochem ; 121(1): 313-321, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297866

RESUMO

Lung cancer has been proved to be one of the most common kinds of cancers around the globe. Meanwhile, as the predominant type of lung cancer, lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) has received increasing attention in cancer research. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to be associated with oncogenesis and progression of various cancers. However, many lncRNAs have not been thoroughly detected in LUAD. In this study, through bioinformatics analysis we found that zinc finger protein multitype 2 antisense RNA 1 (ZFPM2-AS1) was associated with poor prognosis of LUAD patients. Also, ZFPM2-AS1 was detected to be overexpressed in LUAD tissues and cells. Furthermore, ZFPM2-AS1 could promote the proliferation of LUAD cells. Next, miR-18b-5p was found to bind with and negatively regulated by ZFPM2-AS1. VMA21, target gene of miR-18b-5p, could bind with and be negatively regulated by miR-18b-5p. More importantly, both ZFPM2-AS1 and VMA21 were found to be attached to the RNA-induced silencing complex constructed from miR-18b-5p and Ago2. Also, ZFPM2-AS1 could regulate the expression of VMA21. Therefore, ZFPM2-AS1 were confirmed to regulate VMA21 by competitively binding with miR-18b-5p. Finally, rescue assays confirmed that ZFPM2-AS1 could regulate LUAD cell proliferation via miR-18b-5p/VMA21 axis.

15.
Dose Response ; 17(4): 1559325819891010, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827416

RESUMO

Liquid biopsy has the great potential of detecting early diseases before deterioration and is valued for screening abnormalities at early stage. In oncology, circulating DNA derived from shed cancer cells reflects the tissue of origin, so it could be used to locate tissue sites during early screening. However, the heterogenous parameters of different types limit the clinical application, making it inaccessible to encompass all the cancer types. Instead, for reproducible scenario as pregnancy, fetal cell-free DNA has been well utilized for screening aneuploidies. Noninvasive and convenient as is, it would be of great value in the next decades far more than early diagnosis. This review recapitulates the discovery and development of tumor and fetal cell-free DNA. The common factors are also present that could be taken into consideration when collecting, transporting, and preserving samples. Meanwhile, several protocols used for purifying cell-free DNA, either classic ones or through commercial kits, are compared carefully. In addition, the development of technologies for analyzing cell-free DNA have been summarized and discussed in detail, especially some up-to-date approaches. At the end, the potential prospect of circulating DNA is bravely depicted. In summary, although there would be a lot of efforts before it's prevalent, cell-free DNA remains a promising tool in point-of-care diagnostic medicine.

16.
Materials (Basel) ; 12(23)2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805684

RESUMO

In order to reduce the influence of polar zone effect in cross-coupling arc by changing inter-wire arc (IWA) configuration, the influence of polarity arrangement of the IWA on droplet transfer was studied. The change of voltage-current waveform and the process of droplet transfer were recorded and analyzed by a high-speed camera and electric signal synchronous acquisition system. The results show that when the IWA polarity is arranged as anode on the bottom and cathode on top, the anode spot force always promotes the droplet transfer and reduces the critical current value of spray transfer. However, with the increase in the input voltage of the IWA, the resistance of the cathode spot force becomes obvious, which hinders the droplet transfer. While the IWA polarity is arranged as anode on top and cathode on the bottom, increasing the input voltage of the IWA obviously reduces the plasma arc voltage. The critical current of spray transfer increases in anode droplet, while the cathode droplet is mainly globular transfer, and there is no spatter explosion process. Through a comprehensive comparison of the droplet transfer process of anode and cathode under the different IWA polarity arrangement, the process of anode and cathode in the IWA polarity arrangement of the anode on top and the cathode on the bottom is more stable than that in the IWA polarity arrangement of the anode on the bottom and the cathode on top, mainly because the cathode spot force under high current do not hinder the cathode droplet.

17.
Dose Response ; 17(4): 1559325819891004, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839757

RESUMO

The vast majority of cancers are treatable when diagnosed early. However, due to the elusive trace and the limitation of traditional biopsies, most cancers have already spread widely and are at advanced stages when they are first diagnosed, causing ever-increasing mortality in the past decades. Hence, developing reliable methods for early detection and diagnosis of cancer is indispensable. Recently, extracellular vesicles (EVs), as circulating phospholipid vesicles secreted by cells, are found to play significant roles in the intercellular communication as well as the setup of tumor microenvironments and have been identified as one of the key factors in the next-generation technique for cancer diagnosis. However, EVs present in complex biofluids that contain various contaminations such as nonvesicle proteins and nonspecific EVs, resulting in the interference of screening for desired biomarkers. Therefore, applicable isolation and enrichment methods that guarantee scale-up of sample volume, purity, speed, yield, and tumor specificity are necessary. In this review, we introduce current technologies for EV separation and summarize biomarkers toward EV-based cancer liquid biopsy. In conclusion, a novel systematic isolation method that guarantees high purity, recovery rate, and tumor specificity is still missing. Besides that, a dual-model EV-based clinical trial system includes isolation and detection is a hot trend in the future due to efficient point-of-care needs. In addition, cancer-related biomarkers discovery and biomarker database establishment are essential objectives in the research field for diagnostic settings.

18.
Nanomedicine ; 24: 102135, 2019 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843660

RESUMO

The upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) exhibit versatility applications aiming at biological domains for decades on account of superior optical characteristics. Nevertheless, the UCNPs are confronted with tremendous difficulties in biological field owing to large grain size, low fluorescence efficiency, and single function. Herein, the small-sized CaF2: Yb3+/Er3+ UCNPs coated with NaGdF4 shells (activator and inert, UCNPs-RBHA-Pt-PEG) not only burst out strong fluorescence, but also provide prominent diagnosability by taking advantage of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as well as temperature sensing and inhibiting capability for CT26 tumor tissues based on synergetic therapy modality of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and chemotherapy. Ultimately, the tumor sizes decrease visibly after injected with UCNPs-RBHA-Pt-PEG and simultaneously irradiated with near infrared (NIR) light at low power density (0.35 W/cm2, 6 min). In summary, the small-sized and strong-fluorescent single nanoparticles with multi-functions may provide a valuable enlightenment for diagnosis and treatment of cancer in the future.

19.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(3): 383-390, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880884

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are cationic small peptide chains that have good antimicrobial activity against a variety of bacteria, fungi, and viruses. AMP-17 is a recombinant insect AMP obtained by a prokaryotic expression system. However, the full antifungal activity, physicochemical characteristics, and cytotoxicity of AMP-17 were previously unknown. AMP-17 was shown to have good antifungal activity against five pathogenic fungi, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 9.375-18.75 µg/ml, and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of 18.75-37.5 µg/ml. Notably, the antifungal activity of AMP-17 against Cryptococcus neoformans was superior to that of other Candida spp. In addition, the hemolytic rate of AMP-17 was only 1.47%, even at the high concentration of 16× MIC. AMP-17 was insensitive to temperature and high salt ion concentration, with temperatures of 98°C and -80°C, and NaCl and MgCl2 concentrations of 50-200 mmol/l, having no significant effect on antifungal activity. However, AMP-17 was sensitive to proteases, trypsin, pepsin, and proteinase K. The elucidation of antifungal activity, physicochemical properties and cytotoxicity of AMP-17 provided an experimental basis for its safety evaluation and application, as well as indicated that AMP-17 might be a promising drug.Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are cationic small peptide chains that have good antimicrobial activity against a variety of bacteria, fungi, and viruses. AMP-17 is a recombinant insect AMP obtained by a prokaryotic expression system. However, the full antifungal activity, physicochemical characteristics, and cytotoxicity of AMP-17 were previously unknown. AMP-17 was shown to have good antifungal activity against five pathogenic fungi, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 9.375­18.75 µg/ml, and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of 18.75­37.5 µg/ml. Notably, the antifungal activity of AMP-17 against Cryptococcus neoformans was superior to that of other Candida spp. In addition, the hemolytic rate of AMP-17 was only 1.47%, even at the high concentration of 16× MIC. AMP-17 was insensitive to temperature and high salt ion concentration, with temperatures of 98°C and ­80°C, and NaCl and MgCl2 concentrations of 50­200 mmol/l, having no significant effect on antifungal activity. However, AMP-17 was sensitive to proteases, trypsin, pepsin, and proteinase K. The elucidation of antifungal activity, physicochemical properties and cytotoxicity of AMP-17 provided an experimental basis for its safety evaluation and application, as well as indicated that AMP-17 might be a promising drug.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Moscas Domésticas/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemolíticos/química , Hemolíticos/isolamento & purificação , Hemolíticos/farmacologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775283

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Evidence of school-based physical activity (PA) on academic performance in children and adolescents was inconsistent, especially in high school students who face a high academic burden. In this study, we tested the efficacy of a strengthened physical education (PE) program on academic outcomes in Shanghai. METHODS: A quasi-experimental design was conducted to investigate the effect of strengthened PE on academic scores by calculating the grade-cohort difference before and after the intervention. PE curriculum switched from traditional short duration (40 minutes) general fitness training to long duration (90 minutes) specialized sports (e.g., football, aerobics). A total of 460 high school students (236 pre-intervention and 224 post-intervention) were enrolled in grade 10 and followed for two and three semesters. The academic outcome was assessed by district-standardized test scores. A difference-in-difference approach was employed. RESULTS: After two semesters, the standardized Chinese language scores and English language scores for the post intervention group were increased by 0.61 SD (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44, 0.78, p < 0.001) and 0.28 SD (95% CI: 0.09, 0.47, p = 0.01). However, the standardized math scores for the post intervention group were decreased in girls. After three semesters, standardized Chinese language scores for the post intervention group were increased by 0.27 SD (95% CI: 0.06, 0.48, p = 0.01). Math scores and English language scores decreased by 0.18 SD (95% CI: -0.36, -0.01, p = 0.04) and 0.23 SD (95% CI: -0.38, -0.09, p = 0.00), respectively. CONCLUSION: A school-based physical education program had mixed effects on academic scores in high school students.

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