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1.
J Mol Neurosci ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146809

RESUMO

A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12031-020-01746-x.

2.
BMC Microbiol ; 20(1): 336, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The long-held notion that, without urinary tract or circulatory infection, bladder urine and blood are sterile biofluids has been disproven. There have been no previous reports on the kidney pelvis urinary microbiome after bladder disinfection in kidney stone patients. This study aimed to determine whether a kidney pelvis urinary microbiome is present after eliminating the influence of the bladder urinary microbiome, whether the microbiome composition is different in patients with stone kidney pelvis (SKP) and non-stone kidney pelvis (NSKP), and the correlation between SKP and patient clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Comparisons of bacterial diversity and community structure exhibited that urine in bladder was similar to SKP and NSKP. However, the comparisons showed that urine samples were different from blood. The most common operational taxonomic units were shared by all three types of urine samples. Corynebacterium was significantly higher in SKP compared to NSKP. Several bacteria were associated with patient characteristics, including Lactobacillus, which was positively correlated with fasting blood glucose, and Prevotella was negatively correlated with BMI. Lactobacillus was significantly higher in SKP compared to blood but not in NSKP compared to blood. CONCLUSIONS: The composition of the kidney pelvis urinary microbiome after disinfection of the bladder and its similarity to the bladder microbiome indicate that bladder urine can be used to replace kidney pelvis urine in microbiome research. Additionally, the comparison of SKP and NSKP and clinical associations suggest that the occurrence of kidney stones is responsible for the SKP urinary microbiome.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cost-sharing impact on hospital service utilization of different services is a critical issue that has not been well addressed worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the cost-sharing effects based on income status on hospital service utilization of different services among elderly people in Japan and provide a comprehensive examination and discussion for the reasonability of a cost-sharing system. METHODS: The data were extracted from the Latter-Stage Elderly Healthcare Insurance database in the fiscal year 2016. A total of 610 182 insured people aged ≥75 years old, with 155 773 hospitalization patients, were identified. Hospitalization rate, length of stay (LOS), and total hospitalization cost were used to test the statistical significance among patients categorized by income levels. Generalized linear models for total hospitalization cost were constructed based on bed types to further assess different hospital service utilization. RESULTS: For medical chronic care and psychiatric beds, which both required long-term care treatment, much higher hospitalization rates were observed in the patients with low- and middle-income levels than patients with high-income level. The LOS and total hospitalization cost of the patients with low- and middle-income levels were significantly higher than the patients with high-income level treated in medical chronic care and psychiatric beds. For psychiatric beds, the total hospitalization cost for patients with low-income level was significantly higher than that for patients with highincome level. CONCLUSION: The cost-sharing policy in Japan, especially the cap for out-of-pocket needs further determination. The importance of community-based care services needs to be emphasized, and the collaboration between hospitals and community-based care facilities should be enhanced.

5.
Nanoscale ; 12(40): 20580-20589, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029606

RESUMO

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a good platform for the fabrication of single atomic site catalysts (SACs) due to their large specific surface area, rich pore structure, large number of unsaturated coordination metal sites and their intriguing and controllable structures. The influencing factors of each strategy used to synthesize SACs based on MOFs, such as the finetuning ligand strategy, heteroatom doping (N, P, S) strategy, space restriction strategy, bimetallic strategy, metal cluster defect strategy, substrate to capture strategy, and various post-treatment strategies have not been discussed. Here, we will discuss the influencing factors of each strategy and the relationship between the different methods, which are used to synthesize SACs based on MOFs.

6.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 263, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy has improved patient survival in a variety of cancers, but only a minority of cancer patients respond. Multiple studies have sought to identify general biomarkers of ICB response, but elucidating the molecular and cellular drivers of resistance for individual tumors remains challenging. We sought to determine whether a tumor with defined genetic background exhibits a stereotypic or heterogeneous response to ICB treatment. RESULTS: We establish a unique mouse system that utilizes clonal tracing and mathematical modeling to monitor the growth of each cancer clone, as well as the bulk tumor, in response to ICB. We find that tumors derived from the same clonal populations showed heterogeneous ICB response and diverse response patterns. Primary response is associated with higher immune infiltration and leads to enrichment of pre-existing ICB-resistant cancer clones. We further identify several cancer cell-intrinsic gene expression signatures associated with ICB resistance, including increased interferon response genes and glucocorticoid response genes. These findings are supported by clinical data from ICB treatment cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates diverse response patterns from the same ancestor cancer cells in response to ICB. This suggests the value of monitoring clonal constitution and tumor microenvironment over time to optimize ICB response and to design new combination therapies. Furthermore, as ICB response may enrich for cancer cell-intrinsic resistance signatures, this can affect interpretations of tumor RNA-seq data for response-signature association studies.

7.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(10): 860, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060563

RESUMO

GATA6 acts as an oncogene or tumour suppressor in different cancers. Previously, we found that aberrant expression of GATA6 promoted metastasis in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). However, the mechanism by which GATA6 promotes metastasis in CCA is unclear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of GATA6 in CCA cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Our results showed that GATA6 expression was positively associated with N-cadherin and vimentin expression but negatively associated with E-cadherin expression in 91 CCA samples. GATA6 promoted EMT and metastasis in CCA cells in vitro and in vivo based on knockdown and overexpression analyses. ChIP-sequencing data revealed that MUC1 is a novel downstream target of GATA6. GATA6 upregulated MUC1 expression through binding to both the 1584 and 1456 GATA-motifs in the promoter region and enhancing its transcription by luciferase reporter assays and point-mutant assays. MUC1 expression was positively associated with N-cadherin and vimentin expression but negatively associated with E-cadherin expression in 91 CCA samples. In addition, MUC1 promoted EMT in CCA cells based on knockdown and overexpression analyses. Moreover, MUC1 knockdown significantly abrogated the GATA6-induced EMT in CCA cells, indicating that MUC1 promoted EMT through upregulating MUC1 in CCA cells. ß-Catenin is a putative transcriptional coactivator that regulates EMT in cancers. Our data showed that MUC1 expression was positively associated with nuclear ß-catenin expression in 91 CCA samples. MUC1 upregulated nuclear ß-catenin expression in CCA cells. Moreover, MUC1 bound to ß-catenin in CCA cells based on protein immunoprecipitation analyses. MUC1 knockdown significantly decreased the binding of MUC1 to ß-catenin, and thereby decreased nuclear ß-catenin protein levels in CCA cells, indicating that MUC1 bound to ß-catenin and increased its nuclear expression in CCA cells. Together, our results show that GATA6 promotes EMT through MUC1/ß-catenin pathway in CCA, indicating potential implications for anti-metastatic therapy.

8.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(5): 1510-1515, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067946

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical prognostic factors of initially-treated AML children with t(8;21)/RUNX1-RUNX1T1+. METHODS: Clinical data of 41 initially-treated AML children with t(8;21)/RUNX1-RUNX1T1+ in our hospital in period from January 2009 to January 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. The baseline clinical characteristics, cumulative recurrence, event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were recorded, and the influencing factors of prognosis were evaluated by χ2 test and Cox regression model. RESULTS: The complete remission (CR) rates in the first course and the second course of induction chemotherapy were respectively 82.93% (34/41) and 97.56% (40/41). The median EFS time and OS time were 30 months and 31 months respectively. The EFS rate and OS rate of children with CR after the first treatment course were significantly higher than those of children without CR (P<0.05). The EFS rate of male children was significantly higher than that of female children (P<0.05). The OS rate of children < 10 years old was significantly higher than that of children≥10 years old (P<0.05). The expression level of RUNX1-RUNX1T1 gene after the second induction remission was the influencing factor of cumulative recurrence rate, EFS rate and OS rate in children (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis by Cox regression model showed that the decreased levels of RUNX1-RUNX1T1 gene expression < 3 log after the second induction remission was the independent risk factor for EFS rate and OS rate in children (P<0.05). The cumulative recurrence rate of children with RUNX1-RUNX1T1 gene expression increase for>1 log after decreased 3 log was significantly higher than that of children with≤1 log (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Iuithally-treated AML children with t(8;21)/RUNX1-RUNX1T1+ show the fine clinical prognosis after standard chemotherapy. The expression level of RUNX1-RUNX1T1 gene should be closely relates with the recurrence and long-term survival of AML children.


Assuntos
Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Criança , Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Prognóstico , Proteína 1 Parceira de Translocação de RUNX1 , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
J Virol ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999031

RESUMO

Protection of a majority of viral vaccines is mediated by CD4 T cell-dependent humoral immunity. The methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) dictates the differentiation of naïve CD4 T cells into distinct effector T helper subsets at the onset of acute viral infection. However, whether and how EZH2 manipulates differentiated virus-specific CD4 T cell expansion remains to be elucidated. Here, we found EZH2 is integral for virus-specific CD4 T cell expansion in a mouse model of acute viral infection. By a mechanism that involves fine-tuning the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, EZH2 participates in integrating metabolic pathways to support cell expansion. The genetic ablation of EZH2 leads to impaired cellular metabolism and consequent poor CD4 T cell response to acute viral infection. Thus, we identified EZH2 as a novel regulator in virus-specific CD4 T cell expansion during acute viral infection.IMPORTANCECD4 T cell response is critical in curtailing viral infection or eliciting efficacious viral vaccination. Highly efficient expansion of virus-specific CD4 T cells culminates qualified CD4 T cell response. Here, we found that the epigenetic regulator EZH2 is prerequisite for virus-specific CD4 T cell response, with a mechanism coupling of cell expansion and metabolism. Thus, our study provides valuable insights for strategies targeting EZH2 to improve efficacy of CD4 T cell-based viral vaccine and to help treat diseases associated with aberrant CD4 T cell response.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124719

RESUMO

Tuning the electronic structure of single-atom active sites via engineering atomic configuration is an effective strategy to boost oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), but still remains challenging because of the lack of rational guidance and effective methods. Here, we demonstrate the correlation between atomic configuration induced electronic density of single-atom Co active sites and ORR performance by combining density functional theory (DFT) calculations and electrochemical analysis. Guided by DFT calculations, we designed and synthesized a MOFs-derived Co single-atom catalyst with the optimal Co 1 -N 3 PS active moiety incorporated in hollow carbon polyhedron (Co 1 -N 3 PS/HC). As predicted, Co 1 -N 3 PS/HC exhibits outstanding alkaline ORR activity with a half-wave potential of 0.920 V and superior ORR kinetics with record-level kinetic current and ultralow Tafel slope of 31 mV dec -1 , exceeding the Pt/C and almost all non-precious ORR electrocatalysts. Even in more challenging acidic media, the ORR kinetics of Co 1 -N 3 PS/HC still surpasses that of Pt/C. This work offers an atomic-level insight into the relationship between electronic density of active site and catalytic property, promoting rational design of highly efficient catalysts.

11.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868912

RESUMO

Tcf-1 (encoded by Tcf7) not only plays critical roles in promoting T cell development and differentiation but also has been identified as a tumor suppressor involved in preventing T cell malignancy. However, the comprehensive mechanisms of Tcf-1 involved in T cell transformation remain poorly understood. In this study, Tcf7fl/fl mice were crossed with Vav-cre, Lck-cre, or Cd4-cre mice to delete Tcf-1 conditionally at the beginning of the HSC, DN2-DN3, or DP stage, respectively. The defective T cell development phenotypes became gradually less severe as the deletion stage became more advanced in distinct mouse models. Interestingly, consistent with Tcf7-/- mice, Tcf7fl/flVav-cre mice developed aggressive T cell lymphoma within 45 weeks, but no tumors were generated in Tcf7fl/flLck-cre or Tcf7fl/flCd4-cre mice. Single-cell RNA-seq (ScRNA-seq) indicated that ablation of Tcf-1 at distinct phases can subdivide DN1 cells into three clusters (C1, C2, and C3) and DN2-DN3 cells into three clusters (C4, C5, and C6). Moreover, Tcf-1 deficiency redirects bifurcation among divergent cell fates, and clusters C1 and C4 exhibit high potential for leukemic transformation. Mechanistically, we found that Tcf-1 directly binds and mediates chromatin accessibility for both typical T cell regulators and proto-oncogenes, including Myb, Mycn, Runx1, and Lyl1 in the DN1 phase and Lef1, Id2, Dtx1, Fyn, Bcl11b, and Zfp36l2 in the DN2-DN3 phase. The aberrant expression of these genes due to Tcf-1 deficiency in very early T cells contributes to subsequent tumorigenesis. Thus, we demonstrated that Tcf-1 plays stage-specific roles in regulating early thymocyte development and transformation, providing new insights and evidence for clinical trials on T-ALL leukemia.

12.
Vet Res ; 51(1): 111, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891183

RESUMO

In our previous studies, a novel T. spiralis peptidase (TsP) was identified among the excretory/secretory (ES) proteins of T. spiralis intestinal infective larvae (IIL) and T. spiralis at the adult worm (AW) stage using immunoproteomics, but the biological function of TsP in the life cycle of T. spiralis is not clear. The objective of this study was to investigate the biological properties and functions of TsP in larval intrusion and protective immunity induced by immunization with rTsP. The complete TsP cDNA sequence was cloned and expressed. The results of RT-PCR, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIFA) and western blotting revealed that TsP is a surface and secretory protein expressed in T. spiralis at different stages (muscle larvae, IIL, AWs and newborn larvae) that is principally localized at the epicuticle of the nematode. rTsP facilitated the larval intrusion of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and intestinal mucosa, whereas anti-rTsP antibodies suppressed larval intrusion; these facilitative and suppressive roles were dose-dependently related to rTsP or anti-rTsP antibodies. Immunization of mice with rTsP triggered an obvious humoral immune response (high levels of IgG, IgG1/IgG2a, and sIgA) and also elicited systemic (spleen) and intestinal local mucosal (mesenteric lymph node) cellular immune responses, as demonstrated by an evident increase in the cytokines IFN-γ and IL-4. Immunization of mice with rTsP reduced the numbers of intestinal adult worms by 38.6% and muscle larvae by 41.93%. These results demonstrate that TsP plays a vital role in the intrusion, development and survival of T. spiralis in hosts and is a promising candidate target molecule for anti-Trichinella vaccines.

13.
Genomics ; 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927008

RESUMO

Aging is a very complicated biological process that can change gene expressions. The Chinese rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta lasiota; CR) is closely related to humans. We explored gene expression with increasing age and DNA methylation changes in young and old CRs. Results showed blood transcriptome and DNA methylome significantly changed from young to old CRs. The age-associated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were associated with age-related biological features, such as immunity, blood coagulation, and biosynthetic process. The measurements of coagulation indicators confirmed old CRs had shorter coagulation time than young CRs, and the activities of coagulation factor II (FII) and factor VIII (FVIII) were enhanced in old CRs. Humans and CRs exhibited the same enhanced blood coagulation with age phenotype. Our study found aging is a critical factor affecting gene expression in CRs, and also provided new insights into the blood coagulation changes in non-human primates.

14.
Neurol Res ; : 1-7, 2020 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: As an intravenous anesthetic, propofol has been exhibited to provide excellent clinical analgesia. Whether propofol has amelioration property for NP and neuroinflammation remains unexplored. The present study was arranged to probe the role of propofol in the mitigation of NP and neuroinflammation in rats and underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Rats were randomly classified into the following groups: Model, Sham, Control, Propofol, GW9662, and Saline groups. The radiant heat stimulation was used to measure paw withdrawal latency (PWL), and mechanical stimulation was employed to detect paw withdrawal threshold (PWT). Subsequently, the expression of GFAP was assessed by immunofluorescence to reflect the activation of astrocyte. qRT-PCR and Western blot were utilized for the performance of mRNA and protein expression levels of PPAR γ as well as inflammation factors (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6). RESULTS: Pentobarbital sodium anesthesia significantly shortened the PWL and PWT, suppressed PPAR γ expression in rats in addition to elevating astrocyte activation and inflammation response. Propofol treatment attenuated the NP of rats as evidenced by restrained astrocyte activation level and inflammation factor levels. Rats treated with propofol had markedly heightened PPAR γ expression. PPAR γ exposure ameliorated NP and inflammation degree, which demonstrated by elevated astrocyte activation and inflammation levels as well as suppressed PWL and PWT in rats injected with PPAR γ inhibitor. Besides, PPAR γ decreased the expression level of ß-catenin. CONCLUSION: Propofol ameliorates NP and neuroinflammation of rats by up-regulating PPAR γ expression to block the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway.

15.
Energy (Oxf) ; : 118701, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868962

RESUMO

The still escalating COVID-19 pandemic also has a substantial impact on energy structure, requirements and related emissions. The consumption is unavoidable and receives a lower priority in the critical situation. However, as the pandemic continues, the impacts on energy and environment should be assessed and possibly reduced. This study aims to provide an overview of invested energy sources and environmental footprints in fighting the COVID-19. The required energy and resources consumption of Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) and testing kits have been discussed. The protecting efficiency returned on environmental footprint invested for masks has been further explored. The main observation pinpointed is that with a proper design standard, material selection and user guideline, reusable PPE could be an effective option with lower energy consumption/environmental footprint. Additional escalated energy consumption for aseptic and disinfection has been assessed. This includes the energy stemming from emergency and later managed supply chains. The outcomes emphasised that diversifying solutions to achieve the needed objective is a vital strategy to improve the susceptibility and provide higher flexibility in minimising the environmental footprints. However, more comprehensive research proof for the alternative solution (e.g. reusable option) towards low energy consumption without compromise on the effectiveness should be offered and advocated.

16.
Iran J Basic Med Sci ; 23(9): 1239-1244, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963747

RESUMO

Objectives: Endometritis is the inflammation of the uterine lining that is associated with infertility. It affects milk production and reproductive performance and leads to huge economic losses in dairy cows. Dimethyl itaconate (DI), a promising chemical agent, has recently been proved to have multiple health-promoting effects. However, the effects of DI on endometritis remain to be unknown. Materials and Methods: In this study, we assessed the anti-inflammatory effects of DI on Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endometritis in mice. The endometritis was induced by LPS treatment for 24 hr, and DI was given 24 hr before induction of LPS. Results: As a result, DI administered mice significantly suffered less impairment of uterine tissue and less recruitment of inflammatory cells than LPS administered mice. In addition, DI markedly inhibited uterine myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and pro-inflammatory cytokines of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) induced by LPS. Moreover, LPS-induced toll-like receptor 4/ nuclear factor-kappa B (TLR4/NF-κB) activation was suppressed by DI. In addition, the expressions of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase (HO-1) were upregulated by DI. Conclusion: These findings suggest that DI has anti-inflammatory functions in the LPS-induced mice and may be a therapeutic agent against endometritis.

17.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 45(8): 603-10, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869568

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway in hippocampus and frontal cortex of diabetic rats with cognitive impairment (CI), as well as the mechanism of EA in protection against CI in diabetic rats. METHODS: Thirty SD rats were divided into normal, model and EA groups (n=10 rats/group). The diabetic model was established by i.p.injection of Streptozotocin solution(25 mg/kg), followed by high-fat diet raising for 1 month, and the CI rats was confirmed by Morris water maze tasks. The rats in the EA group were given acupuncture at "Zusanli" (ST36) "Neiting" (ST44) and "Yishu" (EX-B3) 20 min/d, among which ST36 and ST44 were treated with EA. The treatment was conducted 6 times a week for 4 weeks. The fasting blood glucose (FBG) contents were assayed by glucometer before and after treatment. The rats' learning-memory ability was detected by Morris water maze tasks. The expression levels of IL-6、IL-1ß、TNF-α、p38 MAPK、p-p38 MAPK、STAT3 and p-STAT3 in hippocampus and frontal cortex were detected by Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR, separately. The mean fluorescence intensity of p38 MAPK and STAT3 was observed by immunofluorescence histochemistry. RESULTS: After modeling, FBG and the escape latency of Morris water maze tasks were significantly increased in the model group compared with the normal group (P<0.001, P<0.01). Following EA treatment, the increased FBG and average escape latency were markedly reversed in the EA group relevant to the model group (P<0.05). Compared with the normal group, the proteins and mRNAs expression of IL-6, IL-1ß, TNF-α, p38 MAPK, p-p38 MAPK, STAT3 and p-STAT3 in hippocampus and frontal cortex were significantly increased in the model group (P<0.001), as well as the mean fluorescence intensity of p38 MAPK and STAT3 in hippocampus and frontal cortex (P<0.001). Following EA intervention, the proteins and mRNAs expression of IL-6, IL-1ß, TNF-α, p38 MAPK, p-p38 MAPK, STAT3 and p-STAT3, and the mean fluorescence intensity of p38 MAPK and STAT3 in hippocampus and frontal cortex were down-regulated(P<0.001, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: EA can inhibit the over production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in diabetic rats with CI, possibly by regulating the expression of p38 MAPK and STAT3 pathway.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Eletroacupuntura , Animais , Citocinas , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator de Transcrição STAT3 , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 142014, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920389

RESUMO

COVID-19 has been sweeping the world. The overall number of infected persons has been increased from 5 M in March 2020 to over 22 M in August 2020 and growing, which seems not to get its peak at the current stage. This has contributed to waste generation and different phases of challenges in waste management practices. The impacts including change in waste amount, composition, timing/frequency (temporal), distribution (spatial) and risk, which affects the handling and treatment practices. Recent impacts, challenges and developments on waste management in the response of COVID-19 have been assessed in this update. Singapore, the cities of Shanghai in China and Brno in the Czech Republic (a member state of the European Union), representing different pandemic development situation and also various cultural attitudes, are specifically analysed and discussed with current data. However, it should be noted that it is still fast developing. A varying trend in term of the waste amount is identified. Shanghai is showing a ~23% decline in household waste amount; however, Singapore is showing a ~3% increase, and Brno is showing a ~1% increase in household waste amount but ~40% decline in business and industrial waste. Manual sorting and recycling have been reported as restricted due to safety precaution. This is supported by the interview communication with ZEVO SAKO (the largest incineration plant in the Czech Republic). This study highlighted that the practices or measures at each place could serve as a guideline and reference. However, adaption is required according to the geographical and socioeconomic factors.

19.
J Surg Oncol ; 2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the capacity of the combined ratio of biomarkers to predict the recurrence of Stage I-III endometrial cancer (EC). METHODS: A total of 473 patients were enrolled after screening. The cut-off value of the ratio was calculated by the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). The univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to assess the correlation between the combined ratio and the recurrence of EC. The differences of clinicopathological parameters between the two groups divided based on the threshold were compared. RESULT: The ROC curve showed that 0.92 was the optimal cut-off value of the ratio ([ER + PR]/[P53 + Ki67]). The multivariate analysis demonstrated that only International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage (p = .031) and the combined ratio (p = .004) were independent risk factors of recurrence. The 3-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival of patients in the low-ratio group were 54.1% and 66.8%, respectively; while in the high-ratio group were 94.9% and 97.9%, respectively (p < .001). The 3-year RFS of 194 patients, who did not receive the adjuvant therapy, was 54.7% and 97.2% between two groups (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The optimal cut-off value (0.92) of the combined ratio was demonstrated to be better to predict the recurrence of EC than a single immunohistochemical marker.

20.
J Clean Prod ; : 123673, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32836914

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) poses a significant threat to the population and urban sustainability worldwide. The surge mitigation is complicated and associates many factors, including the pandemic status, policy, socioeconomics and resident behaviours. Modelling and analytics with spatial-temporal big urban data are required to assist the mitigation of the pandemic. This study proposes a novel perspective to analyse the spatial-temporal potential exposure risk of residents by capturing human behaviours based on spatial-temporal car park availability data. Near real-time data from 1,904 residential car parks in Singapore, a classical megacity, are collected to analyse car mobility and its spatial-temporal heat map. The implementation of the circuit breaker, a COVID-19 measure, in Singapore has reduced the mobility and heat (daily frequency of mobility) significantly at about 30.0 %. It contributes to a 44.3 % to 55.4 % reduction in the transportation-related air emissions under two scenarios of travelling distance reductions. Urban sustainability impacts in both environment and economy are discussed. The spatial-temporal potential exposure risk mapping with space-time interactions is further investigated via an extended Bayesian spatial-temporal regression model. The maximal reduction rate of the defined potential exposure risk lowers to 37.6 % by comparison with its peak value. The big data analytics of changes in car mobility behaviour and the resultant potential exposure risks can provide insights to assist in (a) designing a flexible circuit breaker exit strategy, (b) precise management via identifying and tracing hotspots on the mobility heat map, and (c) making timely decisions by fitting curves dynamically in different phases of COVID-19 mitigation. The proposed method has the potential to be used by decision-makers worldwide with available data to make flexible regulations and planning.

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