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1.
J Cell Physiol ; 236(2): 1375-1390, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128793

RESUMO

Myeloid-related protein 8/14 (MRP8/14) participates in various inflammatory responses, however, its effect on macrophage efferocytosis remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that MRP8/14 significantly inhibits the efferocytosis of apoptotic thymocytes by mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), which later proves to be associated with the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) or for reducing the expression of growth arrest-specific protein 6 and milk fat globule epidermal growth factor 8, independent of RAGE. Furthermore, MRP8/14 promotes polarization of BMDMs from the M2 - to M1 -like phenotype by upregulating expression of M1 -related surface receptor proteins and signature M1 -marker genes and by downregulating signature M2 -marker gene expression, which depends on Toll-like receptor 4 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/nuclear factor κB pathways. Thus, we report a significant inhibitory effect of MRP8/14 on macrophage efferocytosis and MRP8/14-mediated phenotypic polarization, which may be helpful in developing novel therapeutic strategies leading to inflammation resolution.

2.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115568, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254717

RESUMO

Previous studies have associated the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with increased exposures to metals and metalloids such as arsenic. In this study, we used an animal-to-human translational strategy to identify key molecular changes that potentially mediated the effects of arsenic exposures on ASD development. In a previously established rat model, we have induced autistic behaviors in rat pups with gestational arsenic exposures (10 and 45 µg/L As2O3 in drinking water). Neuronal apoptosis and the associated epigenetic dysregulations in frontal cortex were assayed to screen potential mediating pathways, which were subsequently validated with qPCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry analyses. Furthermore, the identified pathway, along with serum levels of 26 elements including arsenic, were characterized in a case-control study with 21 ASD children and 21 age-matched healthy controls. In animals, we found that arsenic exposures caused difficulties of social interaction and increased stereotypic behaviors in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by increased neuronal apoptosis and upregulation of Hipk2-p53 pathway in the frontal cortex. In humans, we found that serum levels of Hipk2 and p53 were 24.7 (95%CI: 8.5 to 43.4) % and 23.7 (95%CI: 10.5 to 38.5) % higher in ASD children than in healthy controls. ASD children had significantly higher serum levels of 15 elements, among which arsenic, silicon, strontium, and vanadium were positively associated with both Hipk2 and p53. Results from both the rat arsenic exposure and human case-control studies suggest a likely role of Hipk2-p53 pathway in ASD development induced by exposures to environmental pollutants such as arsenic.

3.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 173: 112822, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221512

RESUMO

Besides serving in wastewater treatment and energy generation fields, electroactive biofilm (EAB) has been employed as a sensitive bio-elements in a biosensor to monitor water quality by delivering electrical signals without additional mediators. Increasing studies have applied EAB-based biosensor in specific pollutant detection, typically biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) detection, as well as in early-warning of composite pollutants. Based on a comprehensive review of literatures, this study reveals how EAB outputs electrical signal, how we can evaluate and improve this performance, and what information we can expect from EAB-based biosensor. Since BOD detection and early-warning are normally confusing, this study manages to differentiate these two applications through distinguished purposes and metrics. Based on the introductions of progresses and applications of EAB-based biosensors so far, several novel strategies toward the future development of EAB-based biosensors are proposed.

4.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 11: 553577, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33133013

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors of occult carcinoma in clinically solitary papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients, and to put emphasis on the predictive value of risk-scoring model to determine the optimal scope of surgery. Methods: A total of 573 clinically solitary PTC patients who underwent total thyroidectomy (TT) from two hospitals were retrospectively analyzed. Clinicopathological features were collected, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine risk factors of occult carcinoma. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze the risk factors of recurrence. A scoring model was constructed according to independent risk factors of contralateral occult carcinoma. Results: 19.2% of clinically solitary PTC patients had occult carcinoma, among which 3.7% patients had ipsilateral occult carcinoma and 15.5% patients had contralateral occult carcinoma. Factors such as male, the presence of benign nodule, and vascular invasion increase the risk of ipsilateral occult carcinoma. Tumor size >1 cm, the presence of benign nodule, extrathyroidal extension, central lymph node metastasis, lateral lymph node metastasis are independent predictors of contralateral occult carcinoma. Contralateral occult carcinoma is the independent predictor of recurrence. A 10-point risk-scoring model was established to predict the contralateral occult carcinoma in clinically solitary PTC patients. Conclusion: Lobectomy is sufficient for clinically solitary PTC patients with risk factors of ipsilateral occult carcinoma. For clinically solitary PTC patients with score ≥4, careful preoperative evaluations are required to rule out the contralateral occult carcinoma. Even if contralateral occult carcinoma is not detected preoperatively, TT is recommended for high-risk patients.

5.
Langmuir ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205988

RESUMO

Smart surfaces prepared using superhydrophobic coatings have been used to control the movement of tiny aqueous droplets for many years. However, the control of both aqueous droplets and oily droplets is still a challenge. Herein, a novel smart superamphiphobic composite film is developed with a superamphiphobic and magnetic surface as well as a soft elastic substrate for liquid droplets manipulation. The raspberry-like nanoparticles on the surface are synthesized by co-hydrolyzation of fluoroalkyl silane and tetraethoxysilane on iron oxide nanoparticles. The resulting composite nanoparticles (F/SiO2@Fe3O4 NPs) exhibit excellent superhydrophobicity (WCA of about 170°) and superoleophobicity (OCA of about 160°) as well as magnetism (saturated magnetization value of 12.0 emug-1). The morphologies of the F/SiO2@Fe3O4 NPs were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Chemical composition and magnetization value of these magnetic nanoparticles as well as the magnetic field induced droplets manipulation behavior of the smart surface were also evaluated. The smart surface can realize the manipulation of both water droplets and oil droplets, which demonstrates potential applications in microfluidic technologies.

6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150367

RESUMO

Four medical staff cases of Chlamydia psittaci pneumonia in a COVID-19 screening ward, as well as the experience in dealing with such a nosocomial infection event, were described. It reminds that atypical pneumonia except for COVID-19 should also be considered when clustering cases occurred even during a COVID-19 pneumonia pandemic.

7.
Aquat Toxicol ; 229: 105678, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197688

RESUMO

The rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis, is a widely used model species in marine ecotoxicology for evaluating pollutions, toxins, and harmful algae. In this paper, the marine ecotoxicology of Brachionus plicatilis was reviewed, including toxicity measurements of harmful algae species and environmental stresses. In addition, marine pollution involving pesticides, heavy metals, drugs, petroleum, and petrochemicals were addressed. Methods for measuring toxicity were also discussed. The standard acute lethal assay and the chronic population dynamics test were indicated as common methods of toxicity evaluating using B. plicatilis. Research on other biomarkers, such as behaviour, enzyme activity, or gene expression, are also reported here, with potential applications for fast detection or the scientific exploration of underlying molecular mechanisms. It is suggested that the methods selected should reflect the experimental purpose. Additionally, series assays should be conducted for comprehensive evaluation of ecotoxicity as well as to elucidate the correct mechanisms. Genetic methods, such as transcriptomics, were suggested as useful tools for exploring the toxicity mechanism using the rotifer B. plicatilis.

8.
J Clin Neurosci ; 81: 83-89, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222976

RESUMO

Pigmented tumors are rare neoplasm of central nervous system. Melanocytic tumor, including primary and metastatic lesions, is the most common type. Owing to the rarity, the differential diagnosis of pigmented tumors and clinical management of melanocytic tumor remain challenge. Therefore, focusing on melanocytic tumors, the clinical, radiological, histopathological features and treatment outcomes were presented and analyzed in this study. We identified 22 melanocytic tumors, 2 melanotic medulloblastomas, 2 melanotic ependymomas and 1 melanotic schwannoma. Compared with metastatic melanocytic tumors (MMTs), primary melanocytic tumors (PMTs) were characterized by younger age (36.11 ± 17.96 vs. 51.69 ± 12.58 years, p = 0.0262), lower possibility to be multiple lesions (11.1%vs. 61.5%, p = 0.0306), higher proportion of hypointensity on T2-weighted images (66.7% vs. 15.4%, p = 0.0260) and higher frequency in black appearance (77.8% vs. 23.1%, p = 0.0247). During the follow-up, 4 PMTs and 11 MMTs (71.4%) experienced tumor progression. PMTs had better prognosis than MMTs that progression-free survival (PFS) rate of PMT was 50.0% but decreased to 23.1% for MMTs at 12 months (p = 0.0123). Cox proportional hazards regression revealed that multiplicity of tumor was an independent predictor for PFS. None of patient with multiple tumors was in PFS after 12 months' follow-up whereas PFS rate was 40.5% for single tumor (p = 0.0002). In conclusion, radiological appearances, especially hypointensity on T2-weighted images, might be an indication for PMT. MMTs are more likely to be multiple intraparenchymal masses in elder patients located in supratentorial region. Current treatments included operation, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are not competent to control tumor progression and other therapeutic modalities are urgently needed.

9.
Eur J Pharmacol ; : 173723, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159933

RESUMO

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been considered as a promising strategy in developing novel therapeutic agents for cardiovascular diseases through inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Protocatechualdehyde (PCA) is a natural phenolic compound from medicinal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza with cardiomyocyte protection. However, the potential mechanism of PCA on cardiovascular ischemic injury is largely unexplored. Here, we found that PCA exerted markedly anti-apoptotic effect in oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)-induced H9c2 cells (Rat embryonic ventricular H9c2 cardiomyocytes), which was detected by 3-(4, 5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Hoechst 33258 and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) assays. PCA also obviously protected cardiomyocytes in myocardial fibrosis model of mice, which was determined by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) staining. Transcriptomics coupled with bioinformatics analysis revealed a complex pharmacological signaling network especially for PCA-mediated ER stress on cardiomyocytes. Further mechanism study suggested that PCA suppressed ER stress via inhibiting protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring enzyme1α (IRE1α), and transcription factor 6α (ATF6α) signaling pathway through Western blot, DIOC6 and ER-Tracker Red staining, leading to a protective effect against ER stress-mediated cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Taken together, our observations suggest that PCA is a major component from Salvia miltiorrhiza against cardiovascular ischemic injury by suppressing ER stress-associated PERK, IRE1α and ATF6α signaling pathways.

10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245739

RESUMO

A formal hydroxylation/cyclization of cyclopropanemethanols with DMSO is described, which involves isomerization and cyclization under Tf2O catalysis. This reaction undergoes ring-opening of the cyclopropane moiety to generate homoallylic alcohols, which react with DMSO to produce 3-benzylidenetetrahydrofurans. With various substituted groups on cyclopropanemethanols the reactions proceed smoothly and the desired 3-benzylidenetetrahydrofurans are obtained in moderate to good yields.

11.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33233902

RESUMO

Pyroptosis is an inflammatory cell death that is dependent on caspase. Similarly to "necrosis", pyroptosis is not only accidental, but is also a specific form of programmed cell death, with the morphological characteristics of formation of pores on the cell membrane, cell swelling and rupture of the plasma membrane. Recent studies have demonstrated that pyroptosis plays an important role in the occurrence and development of liver diseases. Here, we focus on the mechanisms of pyroptosis, as well as the relationship between pyroptosis and liver diseases.

12.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence among student men who have sex with men (MSM) in college is more than 5.0% and keeps on increasing in China. This study aims to clarify the proportion of HIV recent infection, its propeller and the source among college student MSM. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter cross-sectional study in seven major Chinese cities during 2012-2013. HIV recent infections (≤168 days) and incidence was measured and estimated by BED HIV-1 capture enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA) testing strategy. HIV-related behaviors and transmitted drug resistance (TDR) were investigated and compared between the college student MSM, < 25-year-old non-student youth MSM (NSYM), and ≥25-year-old non-student non-youth MSM (NSNYM), using structured survey, and analyses of drug resistance. RESULTS: Overall, 4496 (4496/4526, 99.3%) were eligible for enrollment, comprising 565 college student MSM, 1094 NSYM, and 2837 NSNYM. The proportion of HIV recent infection were 70.3% (26/37), 50.8% (65/128) and 35.1% (95/271), the HIV incidence rate were 10.0 (95% CI: 6.2-13.9)/100 person-year (PY), 12.9 (95% CI: 9.8-16.1)/100PY, 6.8 (95% CI: 5.4-8.2)/100 PY, and TDR prevalences were 7.4% (2/27), 2.0%, (2/98) and 4.9% (11/226), among student MSM, NSYM, and NSNYM, respectively. Among HIV positive student MSM with age <21 years, the proportion of HIV recent infection is 90.9% (10/11). Factors independently associated with HIV recent infection in student MSM was usage of recreational drug in the past 6 months (adjusted [aOR]: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.0-5.8). CONCLUSIONS: College student MSM had higher proportion of HIV recent infection and TDR than the youth and older MSM in China during 2012-2013. The HIV infections were more likely to happen during the early year of college life among student MSM.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129515

RESUMO

Sn-based metal oxides and composites have been widely investigated as candidate anodes for lithium-ion batteries. However, continuous capacity fade caused by serious volumetric expansion and crystal pulverization is often noticed during lithiation and alloying processes. In this study, we design a novel heterogeneous structural composite by constructing sandwich-structured graphene hollow spheres limited Mn2SnO4/SnO2 heterostructures (Mn2SnO4/SnO2@SG), of which infiltration of Mn source promotes the dissolution-redeposition of SnO2 in hollow-spherical graphene (SnO2@SG) and their in-situ transformation into Mn2SnO4; and the uniform distributed Mn2SnO4 and SnO2 nanoparticles are adjacent each other to form heterostructure within the sandwiched graphene hollow spheres. By comparing with the single metal oxide SnO2@SG material, the influence of the microstructure, chemical composition, element valence state and electrochemical properties of the heterostructured Mn2SnO4/SnO2@SG is investigated. The results show that the construction of Mn2SnO4/SnO2 heterostructure dramatically improves electronic/ionic transport kinetics and increases lithium storage reversibility, therefore leading to distinctly superior rate capability (823.8 mAh g-1 at 5 C) and cycling capacity. An ultra-high discharge capacity of 1180.4 mA h g-1 is maintained up to 100 cycles at 100 mA g-1. The promising electrochemical performances can be attributed to the sandwiched-structure hollow graphene spherical skeleton and the formation of unique Mn2SnO4/SnO2 heterostructures.

14.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Trial of Org 10 172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) system is the most widely used aetiological categorisation system in clinical practice and research. Limited studies have validated the accuracy of routine aetiological diagnosis of patients with ischaemic stroke according to the TOAST criteria when the reported subtype is assumed to be correct. We investigated the agreement between centralised and non-centralised (site-reported, at discharge) stroke subtypes in the Third China National Stroke Registry (CNSR-III), and analysed the influence of classification consistency on evaluation during hospitalisation and for secondary prevention strategy. METHODS: All patients with ischaemic stroke from the CNSR-III study with complete diffusion-weighted imaging data were included. We used multivariable Cox proportional-hazard regression models to evaluate the factors associated with consistency between centralised and non-centralised stroke subtypes. Sensitivity analyses were conducted of the subgroup of patients with complete information. RESULTS: This study included 12 180 patients (mean age, 62.3 years; and women, 31.4%). Agreement between centralised and non-centralised subtype was the highest for the large-artery atherosclerosis subtype stroke (77.4% of centralised patients), followed by the small-vessel occlusion subtype (40.6% of centralised patients). Agreements for cardioembolism and stroke of other determined aetiology subtypes were 38.7% and 12.2%, respectively. Patient-level and hospital-level factors were associated with the inconsistency between centralised/non-centralised aetiological subtyping. This inconsistency was related to differences in secondary prevention strategies. Only 15.3% of the newly diagnosed patients with cardioembolism underwent centralised subtyping with indications to receive oral anticoagulants at discharge. In comparison, 51.3% of the consistent cardioembolism group and 42.0% of the centrally reassigned cardioembolism group with anticoagulation indications were prescribed oral anticoagulants. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial inconsistency exists between centralised and non-centralised subtyping in China. Inaccurate aetiological subtyping could lead to inadequate secondary prevention, especially in patients with cardioembolic stroke.

15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 4037639, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163533

RESUMO

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies with poor prognosis. There are many selectable treatments with good prognosis in Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer- (BCLC-) 0, A, and B HCC patients, but the most crucial factor affecting survival is the high recurrence rate after treatments. Therefore, it is of great significance to predict the recurrence of BCLC-0, BCLC-A, and BCLC-B HCC patients. Aim: To develop a gene signature to enhance the prediction of recurrence among HCC patients. Materials and Methods: The RNA expression data and clinical data of HCC patients were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Univariate Cox regression analysis and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression analysis were conducted to screen primarily prognostic biomarkers in GSE14520. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was introduced to verify the prognostic role of these genes. Ultimately, 5 genes were demonstrated to be related with the recurrence of HCC patients and a gene signature was established. GSE76427 was adopted to further verify the accuracy of gene signature. Subsequently, a nomogram based on gene signature was performed to predict recurrence. Gene functional enrichment analysis was conducted to investigate the potential biological processes and pathways. Results: We identified a five-gene signature which performs a powerful predictive ability in HCC patients. In the training set of GSE14520, area under the curve (AUC) for the five-gene predictive signature of 1, 2, and 3 years were 0.813, 0.786, and 0.766. Then, the relative operating characteristic (ROC) curves of five-gene predictive signature were verified in the GSE14520 validation set, the whole GSE14520, and GSE76427, showed good performance. A nomogram comprising the five-gene signature was built so as to show a good accuracy for predicting recurrence-free survival of HCC patients. Conclusion: The novel five-gene signature showed potential feasibility of recurrence prediction for early-stage HCC.

16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(41): e22673, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031334

RESUMO

Hyperprolactinemia is a prevalent endocrine disorder presented in patients with non-functional pituitary adenomas (NFPAs). However, the mechanism involved in hyperprolactinemia in NFPA is not fully illustrated. The current study aims to investigate predictors for hyperprolactinemia in NFPA via analyzing relevant clinical features. Thus, in this study, a cohort of 214 cases with integrated medical records was retrospectively analyzed concerning clinical, pathological, and endocrinological studies before and after surgery.Hyperprolactinemia happened in 93 cases (43.5%). Women (adjust odds ratio [OR] = 3.093; P < .01), age of patients (adjust OR = 0.951; P < .01), and serum free tetraiodothyronine (FT4) level (adjust OR = 0.882; P = .02) were independent predictors for developing preoperative hyperprolactinemia. Tumor size and hypopituitarism had no impact on hyperprolactinemia. During a median follow-up of 43.5 (range, 22-80) months, 83.9% patients with preoperative hyperprolactinemia experienced prolactin (PRL) normalization. Preoperative PRL level (adjusted OR = 1.741, P = .03) was the exclusive predictor for PRL normalization after adjusting for tumor volume, preoperative serum FT4 concentration, and postoperative residual. The PRL normalization rate of patients with lower PRL level (<2.35-fold upper limit of normal range) was 95.2% and decreased to 65.5% for patients with higher PRL level.In conclusion, our results suggest existence of potentially alternative mechanisms underlying hyperprolactinemia in NFPAs, like the discrepancy of sex and age and the negative feedback of FT4. Preoperative PRL is a predictor for postoperative PRL normalization, which is of clinically relevant for postoperative management of NFPAs.


Assuntos
Adenoma/complicações , Hiperprolactinemia/etiologia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/complicações , Adenoma/cirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125076

RESUMO

Accessible chromatin is a highly informative structural feature for identifying regulatory elements, which provides a large amount of information about transcriptional activity and gene regulatory mechanisms. Human ATAC-seq datasets are accumulating rapidly, prompting an urgent need to comprehensively collect and effectively process these data. We developed a comprehensive human chromatin accessibility database (ATACdb, http://www.licpathway.net/ATACdb), with the aim of providing a large amount of publicly available resources on human chromatin accessibility data, and to annotate and illustrate potential roles in a tissue/cell type-specific manner. The current version of ATACdb documented a total of 52 078 883 regions from over 1400 ATAC-seq samples. These samples have been manually curated from over 2200 chromatin accessibility samples from NCBI GEO/SRA. To make these datasets more accessible to the research community, ATACdb provides a quality assurance process including four quality control (QC) metrics. ATACdb provides detailed (epi)genetic annotations in chromatin accessibility regions, including super-enhancers, typical enhancers, transcription factors (TFs), common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), risk SNPs, eQTLs, LD SNPs, methylations, chromatin interactions and TADs. Especially, ATACdb provides accurate inference of TF footprints within chromatin accessibility regions. ATACdb is a powerful platform that provides the most comprehensive accessible chromatin data, QC, TF footprint and various other annotations.

18.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although stroke management, primary and secondary preventions have been improved in China last decades, the trends and predictors of major vascular events after ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) at national scale are less known. METHODS: Data were obtained from the three phases of China National Stroke Registry (CNSR), including CNSR-Ⅰ (years 2007-2008), CNSR-Ⅱ (years 2012-2013) and CNSR-III (years 2015-2018). For comparison, patients who were diagnosed as ischaemic stroke or TIA were included. Kaplan-Meier estimates of myocardial infarction (MI) or vascular death were calculated at 1 year. Independent predictors were further assessed with a Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: From 2007 to 2018, a total of 50 284 patients with ischaemic stroke or TIA were enrolled in this study. A declining trend was found in 1-year MI or vascular death (p for trend <0.001), while recurrent stroke depicted a U-shape curve with a nadir in 2012-2013 cohort. A similar trend was also observed in patients who were admitted to 26 hospitals in all three CNSRs. In 2015-2018 cohort, only 251 (1.7%; 95% CI 1.5% to 1.9%) MI or vascular death had occurred at 1 year. Older age, previous stroke or TIA, history of coronary artery disease and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale >6 were associated with both an increased risk of MI or vascular death and recurrent stroke. While early antiplatelet therapy and lipid-lowering agents at discharge predicted a reduced risk. CONCLUSION: A declining trend and current low incidence of MI or vascular death, rather than recurrent stroke, after ischaemic stroke or TIA were observed in China. Traditional factors were found as independent predictors. These findings suggested there is still much room to improve for stroke management.

19.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(9): 4253-4261, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124307

RESUMO

To investigate the long-term effects of irrigation with treated domestic and industrial wastewater on the microbial community structure of the soil, Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing technology was applied. Groundwater irrigated soil was used as a control. The effects of soil environmental factors and their interactions on the microbial community structure were investigated. Compared with the groundwater irrigation, irrigation with treated domestic wastewater can significantly increase the contents of TOC, DOC, Eh, NH4+-N, and TP, whereas irrigation with treated industrial wastewater can increase the contents of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the soil. Irrigation with treated wastewater also increases the relative abundance of Acidobacteria and Planctomycetes, and reduces the relative abundance of Firmicutes and Tectomicrobia. The effects of treated wastewater from different sources on functional microorganisms in soil are also different; irrigation with treated domestic wastewater can increase the relative abundance of Chloroflexi and Nitrospirae, whereas irrigation with treated industrial wastewater has negative effects on the abundance of Actinobacteria. The results of db-RDA analysis show that TN, TP, DOC, and Eh are the main factors that impact the microbial communities in soils irrigated with treated domestic wastewater (P<0.05), and heavy metals are the main factors that impact the microbial communities in soils irrigated with treated industrial wastewater (P<0.05). Compared with groundwater irrigation, treated wastewater irrigation can change the correlations between soil environmental factors, which in turn affect the microbial community structure. The growth of microorganisms in soils irrigated with treated domestic wastewater is mainly controlled by the increase in the nutrients such as DOC, TN, and TP and changes in soil redox conditions. The abundance of microorganisms in soil irrigated with treated industrial wastewater is significantly correlated with the accumulation of heavy metals.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Microbiota , Poluentes do Solo , Irrigação Agrícola , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Águas Residuárias/análise
20.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(8): 3637-3645, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124337

RESUMO

Due to the vulnerability of karst hydrological systems, nitrate pollution in karst groundwater has become a global common and serious environmental problem. In order to ensure drinking water safety, it is very important to accurately identify groundwater nitrate sources. The groundwater hydrochemistry and δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3- isotopes were analyzed in samples taken from a suburb of Chongqing:the Longfeng karst trough-valley, which is mainly affected by agricultural activities, and the Longche karst trough-valley, which is primarily affected by urbanization. The IsoSource model was then used to quantify the groundwater nitrate sources. The results showed that:① The NO3- concentration in groundwater ranged from 19.31 mg·L-1 to 37.01 mg·L-1(mean of 28.21 mg·L-1) in the Longfeng karst trough-valley, and from 2.15 mg·L-1 to 27.69 mg·L-1(mean of 10.31 mg·L-1) in the Longche karst trough-valley. The groundwater NO3- concentration exhibited an obvious seasonal variation in both valleys. ② The δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3- isotopes in groundwater in the Longfeng karst trough-valley ranged from 3.29‰ to 11.03‰ (mean of 6.74‰) and 0.88‰ to 7.51‰ (mean of 3.18‰), respectively. In contrast, groundwater in the Longche karst trough-valley presented higher δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3- values that ranged from 5.25‰ to 11.40‰ (mean of 7.95‰) and 2.90‰ to 19.94‰ (mean of 11.18‰), respectively. The lower values of δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3- in groundwater in the Longfeng karst trough-valley suggest that groundwater NO3- was mainly sourced from agricultural N fertilizer, while the higher values of δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3- in groundwater in the Longche karst trough-valley indicate that groundwater NO3- was primarily sourced from domestic sewage. Moreover, such δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3- values in groundwater indicate that nitrification was the primary process for nitrogen conversion in both valleys. Meanwhile, significant seasonal differences in groundwater δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3- were observed in both valleys; the δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3- values were higher during the dry season (means of 8.83‰ and 2.79‰, respectively) than during the rainy season (means of 4.64‰ and 3.58‰, respectively) in the Longfeng karst trough-valley, whereas the δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3- values were lower during the dry season (means of 9.79‰ and 14.56‰, respectively) than during the rainy season (means of 5.12‰ and 7.8‰, respectively) in the Longche trough-valley. This suggests that there were differences in the seasonal NO3- sources to groundwater in both valleys. During the rainy season, the groundwater NO3- concentration in the Longfeng karst trough-valley was mainly due to the nitrification of NH4+ in precipitation and fertilizer as well as organic nitrogen in soil, whereas during the dry season, the groundwater NO3- concentration primarily originated from domestic sewage. In contrast, the groundwater NO3- concentration in the Longche karst trough-valley primarily originated from domestic sewage in both seasons. ③ The results of the IsoSource model indicated that the nitrification of NH4+ from fertilizer and rainwater was the primary NO3- source to groundwater (44.63% of the total) in the Longfeng trough valley, and was followed by domestic sewage (29.5%), soil organic nitrogen (22.38%), and NO3- from rainwater and fertilizer (<10%). During the rainy season, the groundwater NO3- concentration was mainly due to the nitrification of NH4+ from fertilizer and rainwater (52.25% of the total) in Longfeng trough-valley, while groundwater NO3- concentration primarily originated from domestic sewage during the dry season (41% of the total). In contrast, the groundwater NO3- concentration was mainly from domestic sewage (36.17%) in Longche karst trough-valley, and was followed by the nitrification of NH4+ from fertilizer and rainwater (23.5%), soil organic nitrogen (22.5%), and NO3- from rainwater and fertilizer (<10%). The groundwater NO3- concentration in the Longche karst trough-valley primarily originated from domestic sewage in both seasons, and accounted for 47% and 25% during the rainy season and dry season, respectively.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitratos/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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