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1.
BMC Med Educ ; 23(1): 968, 2023 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38110914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regardless of a proliferation of interest in reducing unsafe practices in healthcare, threats to patient safety (PS) remain high. Moreover, little attention has been paid towards the role of interprofessional education (IPE) in enhancing PS. This qualitative study was conducted to unfold the insights of the senior medical, dental and health sciences students at the University of Sharjah (UoS) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) about PS in an online IPE-based workshop. METHODS: This inductive thematic analysis study was conducted on senior medical and health students at the Colleges of Medicine, Dental Medicine, Health Sciences, and Pharmacy of UoS. During an online workshop, students discussed plausible solutions for four real practice-based clinical scenarios with elements of unsafe healthcare practices. During the breakout rooms, the students exhibited high level of articulation and proactively participated in discussions. The data from the online workshop were transcribed and then coding, categorizing, and labelling of recurrent themes were carried out. Multiple individual deliberations, consolidation, incorporation of the identified preliminary themes, and merging and reorganizing sub-themes led to a final thematic framework. RESULTS: This work delved into the perspectives of 248 students regarding teamwork, communication, problem-solving, and other aspects concerning PS in interprofessional settings in an online workshop. The iterative process of data transcription, curating and qualitative analysis surfaced 32 codes. Later, the inductive themaric analysis yielded five themes with distinct yet interconnected nested subthemes in the context of PS in IPE settings. These themes of information sharing and grounding (problem-solving, social skills), maintaining communication (clinical reasoning, shared mental model), executing interprofessional activities (collaborative practice, collaboration scripts), professional cognitive abilities (cognitive maturity, metacognition), and negotiating professional identities (systematic change, socio-economic scaffolding) emerged as fundamental pillars for enhancing PS in healthcare. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated the outcome of an innovative and team-based workshop which embedded PS within a scaffold of IPE environment. This research calls for incorporation of the emerging areas of clinical reasoning, problem solving, collaborative practice, and shared mental model into medical curricula for structured IPE in improving PS domains in medical education. These findings underscore the need for multifaceted dimensions of IPE imperatives for cultivating collaborative competence.


Assuntos
Relações Interprofissionais , Segurança do Paciente , Humanos , Educação Interprofissional , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Currículo
2.
Tob Induc Dis ; 21: 143, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37901882

RESUMO

The majority of the Arab countries have high records of daily tobacco smoking. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use has exponentially increased in the past decade in Arab countries. Consumers' willingness to quit smoking traditional cigarettes and their perception of e-cigarettes as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes have increased the demand for these devices. This narrative review aimed to gather and discuss the available literature on the awareness, prevalence, and sales regulations of e-cigarettes in Arab countries. A search was conducted on electronic databases such as PubMed, Medline, Scopus, and Google Scholar with no time limits until the end of 2021. Some of the recent studies (2019-2021) considered in this review have reported that more than 25% of participants were e-cigarettes users. The prevalence of e-cigarettes has increased drastically with raised awareness of e-cigarettes among the population in these Arab countries. Most of the users of e-cigarettes are young males. In addition, an increase in e-cigarettes use has been reported in females. The policies which regulate trade and sale of e-cigarettes and related products were issued in only three Arab countries. In contrast, regulations for the trade and sale of traditional cigarette products are also applied in some countries to e-cigarette products, banning the sale of e-cigarettes to minors and/or amend smoke-free laws to restrict public use of e-cigarettes. There is a need for a concerted effort to assess the prevalence and significant rise of e-cigarettes consumption in Arab societies to help implement and improve harm reduction policies.

3.
F1000Res ; 12: 1112, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37868297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to assess stroke knowledge among the general population in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and determine the factors associated with stroke awareness among people. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the UAE between September and November 2021. The general population has self-administered an online bilingual survey (Arabic and English) distributed via social media platforms. The questionnaire covered general knowledge about stroke risk factors, consequences of stroke, and responding to somebody with acute stroke attack. RESULTS: A total of 545 surveys were completed, with more than half of the participants being female (58.5%), married (55.4%) and employed (59.4%). The majority were less than 50 years old (90.5%) and had a university degree (71.0%). Many of the participants (70.8%) had a good general knowledge of stroke; however, around 20% of the participants were able to recognize all symptoms and risk factors of stroke. The most common sources of stroke-related information were the internet/social media (53.6%). Females were better able to correctly identify at least one stroke symptom and outcome than males (p=0.008). University education has significantly affected participants' ability to identify early stroke symptoms (p=0.001) correctly. In addition, diabetic people were more likely to recognize at least one stroke outcome than non-diabetic people (p=0.039). CONCLUSIONS: The knowledge of stroke was good among highly educated people and females. However, the awareness of all stroke risk factors, symptoms, consequences and risk factors was inadequate among the general population of the UAE. Thus, there is still a gap between recognition of the relevant stroke and taking action among people.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Transversais , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(10)2023 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37897000

RESUMO

This study addresses the crucial aspect of childhood COVID-19 vaccination and its impact on parental decisions concerning learning modalities during the pandemic. This study aimed to gauge parental hesitancy towards vaccinating their children and its influence on choosing between distance and face-to-face learning options. Following STROBE guidelines for cross-sectional studies, this study surveyed 1973 parents in the United Arab Emirates using Google Forms during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results revealed that while more than half of the parents (51.6%) were willing to vaccinate their children if the COVID-19 vaccine was accessible and affordable, a significant majority (91.2%) expressed concerns about the rapid vaccine development process, which was the primary reason for vaccine rejection. Interestingly, a sizable portion (55.3%) had experienced online learning in the previous academic term, and, of those, 59.6% believed it negatively influenced their children's academic performance. Consequently, 66.4% expressed intent to shift their children back to face-to-face learning once feasible. Significantly, parents with medical backgrounds were more inclined (91.6%) to opt for face-to-face schooling compared to those without such backgrounds. Logistic regression analysis indicated associations between sociodemographic characteristics, educational level and background, and the decision to return children to face-to-face learning. Interestingly, when it comes to vaccine hesitancy, a noteworthy connection exists between the parents' reluctance to vaccinate their children and their preference for distance learning. In fact, parents who responded negatively to vaccinating their children against COVID-19, if the vaccine was available, showed a clear preference for the distance learning modality (p-value < 0.0001). This study underscores the complex interplay of factors and community perspectives shaping parental acceptance of childhood COVID-19 vaccination. The development pace of vaccines significantly influences parents' attitudes and beliefs about vaccination programs. Parents' medical backgrounds exhibit a clear correlation with their perceptions of sending children back to school safely. This highlights the potential impact of parental medical knowledge on decision making, emphasizing the need to consider parents' professional backgrounds when devising education- and vaccination-related policies.

5.
Front Neurol ; 14: 1225980, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37808501

RESUMO

Introduction: Stroke is a major cause of death and disability globally and in Saudi Arabia as well. Prevention and management of stroke depend highly on raising knowledge and awareness about the disease. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate Saudi adult's knowledge and awareness about stroke and determine the associated factors. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in May-July 2022 among Saudi citizens. Assessments of stroke knowledge about risk factors, symptoms, and response to stroke symptoms were evaluated. Logistic regression was conducted to assess the association between the socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge. Results: A total of 389 participants were enrolled with the majority (81.7%) being male participants. Less than half of the study subjects (43.3%) identified four out of five correct answers related to general knowledge about stroke. Almost all the participants were able to identify at least one risk factor associated with stroke. The majority of the participants (81.2%) believed that physical inactivity was the most common risk factor associated with stroke. Approximately three-quarters of participants considered difficulty speaking and understanding speech, followed by the sudden loss of consciousness as the most common stroke manifestation. Participants with a history of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity had significantly higher odds of identifying at least one early stroke symptom (OR 2.271 [95% CI 1.402 3.677], 2.059 [95% CI 1.273 3.328], and 2.665 [95% CI 1.431 4.963], respectively). Conclusion: Our study revealed that participants have good knowledge about stroke. Nonetheless, further efforts are required to raise awareness and educate the public to optimize and ensure better treatment outcomes.

6.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 21(10): 1125-1134, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37755320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to demonstrate the utility of a threshold logistic approach to identifying thresholds for specific antibiotic use associated with Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) in an English teaching hospital. METHODS: A combined approach of nonlinear modeling and logistic regression, named threshold logistic, was used to identify thresholds and risk scores in hospital-level antibiotic use associated with hospital-onset, healthcare-associated (HOHA) CDI cases. RESULTS: Using a threshold logistic regression approach, an incidence greater than 0.2645 cases/1000 occupied bed-days (OBD; 85th percentile) was determined as the cutoff rate to define a critical (high) incidence rate of HOHA CDI. Fluoroquinolones and piperacillin-tazobactam were found to have thresholds at 84.8 and 54 defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 OBD, respectively. Analysis of data allowed calculating risk scores for HOHA CDI incidence rates exceeding the 85th percentile, i.e. entering critical incidence level. The threshold-logistic model also facilitated performing 'what-if scenarios' on future values of fluoroquinolones and piperacillin-tazobactam use to understand how HOHA CDI incidence rates may be affected. CONCLUSION: Using threshold logistic analysis, critical incidence levels and antibiotic use targets to control HOHA CDI were determined. Threshold logistic models can be used to inform and enhance the effective design and implementation of antimicrobial stewardship programs.


Assuntos
Clostridioides difficile , Infecções por Clostridium , Infecção Hospitalar , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Modelos Logísticos , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia , Hospitais , Combinação Piperacilina e Tazobactam/farmacologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Front Neurol ; 14: 1144481, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37144007

RESUMO

Introduction: Stroke is a highly prevalent condition with high rates of death and disability in Iraq and around the world. Knowledge of stroke and its associated risk factors is essential for disease prevention and rapid response when confronted with a stroke patient. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess stroke knowledge and identify factors associated with awareness among the Iraqi public. Material and methods: A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted on the Iraqi population. The self-administered online questionnaire contained three sections. The study got ethical approval from the Research Ethics Committee at the University of Baghdad. Results: The results showed that 26.8% of the participants reported knowledge regarding identifying all risk factors. In addition, 18.4% and 34.8% of the participants recognized all symptoms and mentioned all possible consequences of stroke, respectively. Previous medical history with chronic diseases had essential relationships with the response when faced with a person having an acute stroke. In addition, there was a significant relationship between gender, smoking history, and identification of early stroke symptoms. Conclusion: There was a lack of knowledge about risk factors for stroke among the participants. There is a need for an awareness program among the Iraqi people to raise their understanding of stroke that can reduce stroke mortality and morbidity.

8.
BMC Med Educ ; 23(1): 307, 2023 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37131157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In healthcare practice, ethical challenges are inevitable and their optimal handling may potentialy improve patient care. Ethical development in medical education is critical for the transition from a medical and health sciences student to an ethical healthcare practitioner. Understanding the health professions students' approaches towards practice-driven ethical dilemmas could harness i the effective ethical development in their medical education. This study attempts to identify the health professions students' approaches towards practice-driven ethical dilemmas. METHODS: An inductive qualitative evaluation was conducted on six recorded videos of health professions students' case-based online group discussions, followed by a one-hour online ethics workshop. The online ethics workshop was organized with students from the College of Medicine, College of Dental Medicine and College of Pharmacy at the University of Sharjah, and the College of Medicine at the United Arab Emirates University. . The recorded videos were transcribed verbatim and imported to the qualitative data analysis software of MAXQDA 2022. Data were analyzed applying four stages of review, reflect, reduce and retrieve and two different coders triangulated the findings. RESULTS: Six themes emerged from the qualitative analysis of the health professions students' approaches to the practice-based ethical dilemmas; (1) emotions, (2) personal experiences, (3) law and legal system, (4) professional background, (5) knowledge of medical research and (6) inter-professional education. In addition, during the case-based group discussions in the ethics workshop, students efficiently applied the relevant ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice in their reasoning process to reach an ethical decision. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study explained how health professions students resolve ethical dilemmas in their ethical reasoning process. This work sheds light on ethical development in medical education by gaining students' perspectives in dealing with complex clinical scenarios. The findings from this qualitative evaluation will aid academic medical institutions in developing medical and research-based ethics curriculum to transform students to ethical leaders.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Resolução de Problemas , Ocupações em Saúde
9.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(11)2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36358214

RESUMO

The present study aimed to survey medical, nursing and pharmacy students' knowledge, attitude and practice regarding antimicrobial use and resistance. Additionally, the study assessed the teaching and assessment activities received regarding antibiotic use. A cross sectional online survey was distributed to undergraduate students currently in clinical studies in their degree program. A total of 716 medicine, nursing and pharmacy undergraduate students were included. Respondents scored more than 76% on knowledge on effective use, unnecessary use and associated side effects of antibiotics, and 65.2% regarding knowledge on the spread of antibiotic resistance. Some participants (21.0%) agreed or strongly agreed that there has been good promotion of prudent antimicrobial use. Students were aware (13.1%), unaware (29.1%), or unsure (57.8%) that there is a national action plan relating to antimicrobial resistance. A total of 62.8% of the respondents strongly agreed or agreed that they have a key role in helping control antibiotic resistance. Participants reported that they require more information about resistance to antibiotics (53.9%), medical conditions for which antibiotics are used (51.7%) and how to use antibiotics (51.0%). Discussion of clinical cases and vignettes and small group teaching were reported as very useful or useful teaching strategies (79.9% and 74.2%, respectively). The findings from this study determined the current situation in relation to education on prudent antimicrobial use for undergraduates and highlighted areas for informing better curriculum design.

10.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(10): 1108-1117, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36137360

RESUMO

BACKGROUP: the widespread COVID-19 infection worldwide has resulted in the inability of healthcare facilities to receive all infected patients; therefore, most are treated at home. In addition, factors such as high mortality, types and severity of symptoms, and the prevalence of unreliable information have prompted patients to resort to self-treatment. OBJECTIVES: To assess prevention, treatment, degree of symptoms, and sources of information among patients with COVID-19 in Arab countries METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted in seven Arab countries: Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Libya, Tunisia, and the United Arab of Emirates. People who have recovered from COVID-19 completed the study questionnaire. Score of symptoms during and after COVID-19 infection has been calculated by giving the participants a list of 13 symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 3519 participants completed the survey. Mostly females (68.3%), and aged between 18 and 40 years old (59.4%). Prophylaxis treatments, including vaccines and antibiotics, have been used in around 40% of the participants. The total average score of symptoms during the infection period was found 7.31 ± 3.66 out of 13. However, the symptoms score upon recovery was low (0.48 ± 1.11 score). The significant associations with increased incidence of symptoms during infection were reported with older people, married, divorced or widowed, people with chronic diseases, and obese. Moreover, significant associations with decreased symptoms were reported with those who worked in the health sector, non- or ex-smokers, and vaccinated people. CONCLUSION: The use of medication and other treatments to prevent infection with COVID-19 was common among the participants in the seven countries. Taking the vaccine was the only effect on the number of symptoms experienced by patients. Although nearly two years have passed since the onset of the disease, there is still a need to raise treatment awareness among patients at home.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Idoso , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Masculino , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Árabes , Egito/epidemiologia , Líbano/epidemiologia
11.
Front Public Health ; 10: 883784, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117601

RESUMO

Background: Asthma is a prevalent hyperactive airway disease with physical and emotional impact. Severe asthma is associated with considerable health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study is to assess the quality of life through physical, emotional, social and occupational aspects and evaluate the factors affecting HRQoL in patients with asthma. Methods: This is a cross-sectional multicenter study conducted on adult asthmatic patients enrolled from community pharmacies across different Lebanese geographic areas. Results: Having wheezing sometimes and most of the time (Beta = -0.144 and -0.552), experiencing anxiety sometimes and most of the time (Beta = -0.205 and -0.573), encountering sleep problems sometimes and most of the time (Beta = -0.270 and -0.553), having previous chest discomfort sometimes and most of the time (Beta = -0.421 and -0.713), and having depression most of the times (Beta = -0.415) were associated with higher lower quality of life scores. On the other side, holding a secondary level of education was associated with a higher quality of life score (Beta = 0.192). Conclusion: This study highlights that asthma affects adults' quality of life through social, emotional, physical, and occupational impacts. Improved follow-up and patient education may be essential in the future to stop disease progression and achieve ideal therapeutic outcomes.


Assuntos
Asma , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Ansiedade , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia
12.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(9)2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36146512

RESUMO

Introduction: COVID-19 is considered the greatest health disaster affecting humans during the 21st century, which urged the need to develop an effective vaccine to acquire enough immunity against the virus. The main challenge faced during the development of such vaccines was the insufficiency of time, which raised the question about the vaccine safety and efficacy, especially among children. Parents' and caregivers' thoughts and acceptance of administering the vaccine to their children are still debatable topics and are yet to be explored in the UAE. Aims: The study aims to exploit parent acceptance, perception, and hesitancy toward the COVID-19 vaccine administration for their children and the link with their choice of distance learning instead of face-to-face education in the UAE. Methodology: This study utilized a cross-sectional descriptive design. A sample of 1049 parents across all emirates were conveniently approached and surveyed using Google forms from June to September 2021. The participants responded to a semi-structured questionnaire pertaining to socio-demographic, educational, and other questions related to COVID-19 and its link with their beliefs in whether the vaccination of their children will help with resuming face-to-face learning. Results: Approximately 74% of the parents confirmed that their children who are 16 years old and above have received the vaccine, and 71% were willing to give the vaccine to their children aged above 5 years. Parents with children receiving online education and those with children where the online modality of learning negatively affected their academic achievement are more prone to administer the COVID-19 vaccine to their children above five years old. The results show a significant association between vaccination of children and the parental desire for resuming physical attendance in schools (p value < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that the highest acceptance rate was from parents with children of low academic achievement due to online learning modality during the pandemic. Conclusion: In the UAE, parents of young children have shown a positive attitude towards COVID-19 vaccination in belief that vaccines will reduce the risk of infection and assist in resuming normal lifestyles, such as going back physically to schools. The results reflect the public awareness and the hypervigilance regarding the COVID-19 pandemic in the UAE.

13.
Pharm Pract (Granada) ; 20(2): 2634, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35919806

RESUMO

Objective: The study aimed to explore changes in community pharmacies' processes in response to the pandemic in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and factors affecting the adoption of these changes. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire that was distributed to licensed community pharmacists in the UAE. The survey used to collect information on the type of telepharmacy services and related topics such as constraints and supports. The evaluation of services was done for three periods: before, during and after lockdown. Results: The number of completed surveys was 391. The majority of the participants were under 35 years old (79.5%), female (65.0%), with a bachelor's degree (82.6%), and working in a pharmacy group (70.6%). Pharmacies provided the services by phone (95.6%) and/or messaging applications (80.0%) such as WhatsApp and Messenger. The community pharmacies provided a variety of services using telepharmacy tools such as managing of mild diseases, dispensing and delivering prescribed and OTC medications, general health information, and services for patients with chronic disease. The main factors that had significant effects on several telepharmacy services were pharmacies' type (group/chain vs. individual) and the number of pharmacists in the pharmacy (p < 0.05). Lack of time, training and financial support were the main barriers associated with telepharmacy services among individual pharmacies. Conclusion: Telepharmacy supported the work of community pharmacies during the COVID-19 pandemic by facilitating the provision of pharmaceutical services. Although the occurrence of several financial and technical problems, it appeared less frequently in pharmacy chains with a large number of pharmacists.

14.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(6)2022 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35740140

RESUMO

Self-treatment with medicines including treatment with antibiotics is a growing global concern, as it can cause public health problems, such as antibiotic resistance and drug toxicity. Therefore, the significance of the self-medication impact of COVID-19 in any region can have an influence on the prevalence of such problems. The review aimed to investigate the self-treatment with antibiotics among the general population in Eastern Mediterranean region countries during COVID-19 pandemic. A comprehensive review of literature in four databases was conducted for the pandemic period from January 2020 to the end of March 2022. Nine studies related to self-treatment with antibiotics were found. The studies were homogeneous in terms of assessing the antibiotic self-treatment usage during the COVID-19 pandemic among the general population and among community pharmacies. The prevalence of self-treatment with antibiotics ranged from 20.8% to 45.8% between the studies. The main reasons for that were cost-saving, fear of COVID-19 infection, quarantine, and ease of accessibility without time limits. Antibiotic self-treatment has been high during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, it was less reported during the study period than before the time of the pandemic. There is a need for more restrictions on dispensing antibiotics from community pharmacies. In addition, there is a need to raise awareness among the population regarding self-treatment with antibiotics.

15.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(8): 496-502, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35724688

RESUMO

Obesity is an increasing health problem all over the world. In combination with the current COVID-19 pandemic, this has turned into a massive challenge as individuals with overweight and obesity at all ages show a significant increase in their risk of getting severe COVID-19. Around 20% of all patients that were hospitalized for COVID-19 suffered from obesity alone, whereas obesity in combination with other metabolic comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension, account for up to 60% of all hospitalizations in relation to COVID-19. Therefore, it is of immense importance to put the spotlight on the high incidence of obesity present already in childhood both by changing the individual minds and by encouraging politicians and the whole society to commence preventive interventions for achieving a better nutrition for all social classes all over the world. In the current review, we aim to explain the different pathways and mechanisms that are responsible for the increased risk of severe COVID-19 in people with overweight and obesity. Furthermore, we discuss how the pandemic has led to weight gains in many people during lockdown. At the end, we discuss the importance of preventing such an interface between a non-communicable disease like obesity and a communicable disease like COVID-19 in the future.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Humanos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
16.
JMIR Form Res ; 6(5): e22899, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35639448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telecare is a health service that involves the home installation of a number of information technology support systems for individuals with complex needs, such as people with reduced mobility or disabilities and the elderly. It involves the use of sensors in patients' homes to detect events, such as smoke in the kitchen, a front door left open, or a patient fall. In Northern Ireland (NI), outputs from these sensors are monitored remotely by the telecare team, who can provide assistance as required by telephone or through the emergency services. The facilitation of such rapid responses has the aim of promoting early intervention and therefore maintaining patient well-being. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to construct a descriptive summary of the telecare program in NI and evaluate hospital-based service use by telecare patients before and after the installation of telecare equipment. METHODS: An exploratory retrospective cohort study was conducted involving more than 2000 patients. Data analysis included the evaluation of health care use before and after the telecare service was initiated for individual participants. Individuals with data for a minimum of 6 months before and after the installation of the telecare service were included in this analysis. RESULTS: A total of 2387 patients were enrolled in the telecare service during the observation period (February 26, 2010-February 22, 2016). The mean age was 78 years (median 81 years). More women (1623/2387, 68%) were enrolled in the service. Falls detectors were the most commonly deployed detectors in the study cohort (824/1883, 43.8% of cases). The average number of communications (calls and/or alarms) between participants and the coordinating center was the highest for patients aged ≥85 years (mean 86 calls per year). These contacts were similarly distributed by gender. The mortality rate over the study period was higher in men than women (98/770, 14.4% in men compared to 107/1617, 6.6% in women). The number of nonelective hospital admissions, emergency room visits, and outpatient clinic visits and the length of hospital stays per year were significantly higher (P<.001) after the installation of the telecare equipment than during the period before installation. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the likely benefits of the telecare service in providing peace of mind for patients and their relatives, hospital-based health care use significantly increased after enrollment in the service. This likely reflects the increasing health care needs over time in an aging population.

17.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 20(2): 1-11, Apr.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-210410

RESUMO

Objective: The study aimed to explore changes in community pharmacies’ processes in response to the pandemic in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and factors affecting the adoption of these changes. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire that was distributed to licensed community pharmacists in the UAE. The survey used to collect information on the type of telepharmacy services and related topics such as constraints and supports. The evaluation of services was done for three periods: before, during and after lockdown. Results: The number of completed surveys was 391. The majority of the participants were under 35 years old (79.5%), female (65.0%), with a bachelor’s degree (82.6%), and working in a pharmacy group (70.6%). Pharmacies provided the services by phone (95.6%) and/or messaging applications (80.0%) such as WhatsApp and Messenger. The community pharmacies provided a variety of services using telepharmacy tools such as managing of mild diseases, dispensing and delivering prescribed and OTC medications, general health information, and services for patients with chronic disease. The main factors that had significant effects on several telepharmacy services were pharmacies’ type (group/chain vs. individual) and the number of pharmacists in the pharmacy (p < 0.05). Lack of time, training and financial support were the main barriers associated with telepharmacy services among individual pharmacies.Conclusion: Telepharmacy supported the work of community pharmacies during the COVID-19 pandemic by facilitating the provision of pharmaceutical services. Although the occurrence of several financial and technical problems, it appeared less frequently in pharmacy chains with a large number of pharmacists. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pandemias , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Telemedicina , Farmácias , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Emirados Árabes Unidos
18.
Saudi Pharm J ; 30(12): 1773-1780, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36601509

RESUMO

Objective: The study aimed to identify the current practice carried out by community pharmacists to dispose of expired medications in their workplace and assess any practical steps utilized to reduce medication waste. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among community pharmacists in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The participants were asked about their routine practice in disposing of different expired medications and the current actions taken to reduce the number of disposed medicines. Results: The study included (n = 418) community pharmacists. More than a third of expired liquid, solid, and semi-solid dosage forms were collected by licensed contractors. In addition, more than a third of the pharmacists disposed of different dosage forms via unauthorized methods (general garbage, sink and toilet). Most expired drugs were skin and hair products, antibiotics and analgesics. The majority of pharmacists (68.4 %, n = 286) agreed that expired pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical products, other than those disposed of via contractor, should be done through a specialized centre. This opinion was found to be strongly associated with years of practice as community pharmacists (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Part of the existing disposal practices for expired pharmaceutical products in the UAE is carried out by contractors licensed by health authorities. However, concern remains regarding some pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical products that have not been disposed of correctly. Additionally, there is a need for a specialized center for medication disposal (p < 0.05). A stock limitation is the best practice for managing medication quantities in stock (p < 0.05).

19.
Int J Pharm Pract ; 29(6): 633-641, 2021 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609503

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore pharmacy colleges' experiences and challenges worldwide with the transition to online teaching during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: From the six World Health Organization regions, 28 countries with the highest number of COVID-19 cases were identified, and 111 pharmacy colleges were randomly selected from these countries. Two online surveys were sent to faculty members and senior administrators. They assessed changes in teaching and learning, experiential training, assessment, readiness for and challenges with distance e-learning and work-related stress. KEY FINDINGS: Data were collected from 46 colleges. The majority (80.4%) of colleges transitioned to distance e-learning. On-site experiential training was discontinued in 55.5% of colleges and 25.0% redesigned on-site training into remote learning experiences. Assessments were modified in 75.9% of colleges. Assuring the integrity of assessments and delivering practical classes were the most prominent faculty challenges. The majority of faculty (75.0%) and administrators (61.9%) reported moderate work-related stress. Nevertheless, most academics felt that they received adequate support from their institutions and had positive perceptions of the transition to distance e-learning during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic required drastic changes for most programs' teaching methods. Our results showed that educational institutions were somewhat able to support faculty and the needs of educational programs were largely met. However, academic rigour and provision of experiential training can be improved. Faculty emotional support and training needs were not fully addressed in these difficult times. These results shed light on how the global pharmacy academy has addressed the COVID-19 pandemic and help rethink crisis response models.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação em Farmácia , Farmácia , Estudantes de Farmácia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Ensino
20.
Infect Dis Rep ; 13(2): 259-284, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915690

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) has been changing the world since December 2019. A comprehensive search into many COVID-19 treatment guidelines was conducted and reported in this article. This is a review paper to probe differences in COVID-19 managing strategies and explore the most common treatment plans among countries. Published guidelines from 23 countries and three references guidelines-until the end of 2020-were included in this article. The majority of COVID-19 treatment options were reported in this review and it includes antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, antibiotics, corticosteroids, immunotherapy, anticoagulants, and other pharmacological treatment. The presence of such information from different countries in a single comprehensive review article could help in understanding and speculation of variation in the recommended treatment in each country. This might be related to the cost of medications, the access to the medications, availability of medication that could potentially be useful in managing COVID-19 cases, and the availability/capacity of healthcare facilities. Finally, although there are various treatment groups listed in the published therapeutic guidelines worldwide, unfortunately, there is no evidence for effectiveness of most of these medications in reducing the COVID-19 mortality curve over more than one year of this global pandemic.

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