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1.
Health Expect ; 27(2): e14026, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38618991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Awareness and understanding of dementia remain limited in ethnically diverse populations in multicultural societies due to culturally inappropriate and inaccessible information. OBJECTIVE: To establish the impact, helpers and hinderers of an online multilingual dementia awareness initiative co-created with and for English, Arabic and Vietnamese speaking people. DESIGN: A case study using mixed methods to assess the impact and implementation of an information session on dementia knowledge. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The study was conducted with English, Arabic and Vietnamese speaking individuals in Canterbury-Bankstown, Australia. INTERVENTION STUDIED: A dementia alliance co-created an online multilingual dementia information session, which was delivered synchronously in English, Arabic and Vietnamese by trained facilitators. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In-session group discussions, quizzes and a postsession survey assessed the impact on dementia knowledge. A postimplementation focus group explored the factors that helped and hindered the initiative. RESULTS: The online dementia information session successfully supported participants understanding of dementia causes, impacts and care strategies. The initiative was hindered by competing priorities and limited accessibility to target audiences, while it was helped by the support of an established organisation and feedback mechanisms. DISCUSSION: Ongoing dementia education and awareness-raising campaigns that are culturally sensitive are needed in communities to promote dementia literacy and help-seeking. CONCLUSIONS: An online multilingual dementia information session can be an effective way to improve dementia literacy and advocate for change in multicultural communities. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: English, Arabic and Vietnamese speaking members of the Canterbury Bankstown Dementia Alliance participated in the co-creation and evaluation of this initiative.


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Demência , Humanos , Vietnã , Austrália , Educação Continuada
2.
Syst Rev ; 12(1): 200, 2023 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37891692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dementia is associated with cognitive and functional decline that significantly impacts quality of life. There is currently no cure for dementia, thus, it is important to manage dementia in the early stages and delay deterioration. Previous studies have documented a range of health benefits of Tai Chi in people with early-stage dementia, however, none have systematically integrated these effects with their underlying mechanisms. The aims of this study were to (1) identify the neurocognitive, psychological, and physical health benefits of Tai Chi oi people with early-stage dementia, and (2) explore the underlying mechanisms of these effects. METHODS: We searched systematic reviews (SRs) and randomised control trials (RCTs) on Tai Chi for adults aged 50 years and older with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or early-stage dementia in MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and major Chinese databases. No language or publication restrictions were applied. Risk of bias was assessed. RESULTS: Eight SRs with meta-analyses and 6 additional published RCTs revealed inconsistent findings of Tai Chi on improving global cognitive function, attention and executive function, memory and language, and perceptual-motor function. There was no significant between-group difference in depressive symptoms. The results from the RCTs showed that Tai Chi can reduce arthritis pain and slow the progress of dementia. No studies on MCI or early-stage dementia investigating the underlying mechanisms of Tai Chi were identified. Instead, nine mechanistic studies on healthy adults were included. These suggested that Tai Chi may improve memory and cognition via increased regional brain activity, large-scale network functional connectivity, and regional grey matter volume. CONCLUSION: The effects of Tai Chi on neurocognitive outcomes in people with MCI and early-stage dementia are still inconclusive. Further high-quality clinical trials and mechanistic studies are needed to understand if and how Tai Chi may be applied as a successful intervention to delay deterioration and improve the quality of life in people with an increased risk of cognitive decline.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência , Tai Chi Chuan , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Tai Chi Chuan/métodos , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Cognição , Função Executiva , Demência/terapia
3.
Dementia (London) ; 22(8): 2024-2046, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37871120

RESUMO

People with dementia from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds often face poor health and social outcomes such as stigma, depression, and reduced help seeking behaviours. Dementia friendly communities have been shown to reduce stigma, and the gap in health and social outcomes for people impacted by dementia. Despite the large presence of established dementia friendly communities, their functioning in multicultural communities remains underexplored. The aim of this review was to identify the barriers and facilitators of cultural inclusivity to inform the development of a multicultural dementia friendly community. We systematically searched for academic and grey literature regarding existing and prospective age or dementia-friendly communities that engaged with culturally and linguistically diverse communities. Using the matrix method, data on the barriers and facilitators to engagement were extracted. Papers were analysed for common themes and findings were integrated in a narrative format. A total of 3,164 papers were identified, 11 of which met inclusion criteria. There were 6 dementia friendly communities in North America, 3 in Europe, 1 in Australia and 1 in Asia. Analyses revealed that barriers to cultural inclusivity were centered around the accessibility of services, sociocultural factors, and the environment, including issues such as low awareness of dementia and stigma, language barriers, isolation, and the inaccessibility of transport and buildings. Leveraging existing cultural leaders and social structures to target culturally and linguistically diverse populations and develop tailored dementia friendly initiatives were key facilitators. To foster cultural inclusivity in dementia friendly communities, a culturally specific lens that addresses these barriers and utilises facilitators must be applied from the design stage through to implementation and evaluation.


Assuntos
Demência , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Idioma , Diversidade Cultural , Austrália
4.
Alzheimers Dement (N Y) ; 9(4): e12420, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37830013

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study primarily aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SaiLuoTong (SLT) on cognition in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: Community-dwelling people with MCI aged ≥60 years were randomly assigned to 180 mg/day SLT or placebo for 12 weeks. RESULTS: Thirty-nine participants were randomized to each group (N = 78); 65 were included in the final analysis. After 12 weeks, the between-groups difference in Logical Memory delayed recall scores was 1.40 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22 to 2.58; P = 0.010); Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Trail Making Test Condition 4 switching and contrast scaled scores were 1.42 (95% CI: -0.15 to 2.99; P = 0.038) and 1.56 (95% CI: -0.09 to 3.20; P = 0.032), respectively; Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test delayed recall was 1.37 (95% CI: -0.10 to 2.84; P = 0.034); and Functional Activities Questionnaire was 1.21 (95% CI: -0.21 to 2.63; P = 0.047; P < 0.001 after controlling for baseline scores). DISCUSSION: SLT is well tolerated and may be useful in supporting aspects of memory retrieval and executive function in people with MCI. Highlights: SaiLuoTong (SLT) improves delayed memory retrieval and executive function in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).SLT is well tolerated in people ≥ 60 years.The sample of community dwellers with MCI was well characterized and homogeneous.

5.
Int J Integr Care ; 23(3): 14, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37745199

RESUMO

Introduction: Well-integrated community aged care services empower and enable older people to live and thrive in the community by supporting activities of daily living. To inform integrated community aged care service planning and delivery in South Western Sydney Australia, a needs assessment with consumers (i.e., older people), their caregivers, and healthcare providers was conducted. This study details the comprehensive and inclusive needs assessment process undertaken, with a focus on translating the findings into practice to improve integrated care. Description: Qualitative interviews and community forum-style focus groups engaged 160 stakeholders including GPs, older people, and aged care workers. Transcribed data were thematically coded using an inductive approach. Data were organised into four themes: 1) access to community aged care services; (2) healthcare and medical needs; (3) social concerns and needs; and (4) education and information needs. Discussion: The needs assessment undertaken identified unmet needs, gaps in service provision, and recommendations for improving integrated community aged care services. Conclusion: Findings are novel in the context of South Western Sydney, Australia. The study design, methods employed, and lessons learned can be adapted internationally for future needs assessments to inform policy, strategies, and integrated aged care service delivery.

6.
Front Neurosci ; 17: 1127065, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37260849

RESUMO

Introduction: Exercise is recognized as a modifiable lifestyle factor that can mitigate cognitive decline and dementia risk. While the benefits of exercise on cognitive aging have been reported on extensively, neuronal effects in adults experiencing cognitive decline have not been systematically synthesized. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effects of exercise on cognition and brain function in people with cognitive decline associated with dementia risk. Method: A systematic search was conducted for randomized controlled trials of ≥ 4 weeks exercise (aerobic, resistance, or mind-body) that assessed cognition and brain function using neuroimaging and neurophysiological measures in people with subjective or objective cognitive decline. Study characteristics and brain function effects were narratively synthesized, while domain-specific cognitive performance was subjected to meta-analysis. Study quality was also assessed. Results: 5,204 records were identified and 12 unique trials met the eligibility criteria, representing 646 adults classified with cognitive frailty, mild or vascular cognitive impairment. Most interventions involved 40-minute sessions conducted 3 times/week. Exercise improved global cognition (g = -0.417, 95% CI, -0.694 to -0.140, p = 0.003, I2 = 43.56%), executive function (g = -0.391, 95% CI, -0.651 to -0.131, p = 0.003, I2 = 13.28%), but not processing speed or general short-term memory (both p >0.05). Across fMRI and ERP studies, significant neuronal adaptations were found with exercise cf. control throughout the brain and were linked with improved global cognition, memory, and executive function. Cerebral blood flow was also found to improve with 24 weeks of exercise, but was not linked with cognitive changes. Discussion: The cognitive improvements associated with exercise are likely driven by increased metabolic activity, cerebrovascular mechanisms, and neuroplasticity throughout the brain. Our paper shows the promise in, and need for, high-quality trials integrating cognitive and brain function measures to elucidate the functional relationship between exercise and brain health in populations with a high risk of dementia. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO, identifier: CRD42022291843.

7.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0265285, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36920949

RESUMO

Vascular dementia (VaD) accounts for 15-20% of all dementia cases. It is a syndrome of acquired cognitive impairment with a complex pathophysiological basis. A novel herbal formulation (Sailuotong; SLT) consisting of Panax ginseng C.A Mey, Ginkgo biloba L and Crocus sativus L extracts was developed to treat VaD. Preclinical animal studies found significant improvements in memory and in pathogenic biochemical parameters. Appropriate safety of SLT was shown in acute and chronic toxicity studies, and early clinical trials of SLT demonstrated enhancements in cognition in VaD patients. A fully powered study with a long intervention period is needed to confirm the efficacy and safety of this novel intervention. A rigorous phase III clinical trial was developed with the aim of recruiting 238 patients diagnosed with mild to moderate probable VaD, or VaD mixed with Alzheimer's disease (where cerebrovascular disease is the clinical dominant contributor to dementia, abbreviated as CVD+AD). Using a permuted block strategy, participants will be randomly allocated to receive SLT (120 mg bd) or placebo capsules for an intervention period of 52 weeks and will be followed-up for an additional 13 weeks. The primary outcome measures are the Vascular Dementia Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale and Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living scale. Secondary outcome measures include the Clinician's Interview Based Impression of Change-Plus, CLOX, EXIT-25, Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Clinician rating scale, and Dementia Quality of Life questionnaire. Safety is assessed through adverse event reports and liver, renal, and coagulation studies. Primary and secondary outcome measures will be compared between treatment and placebo groups, using intention to treat and per protocol analyses. We hypothesise that a 52-week treatment of SLT will be clinically effective and well tolerated in participants with VaD or AD+CVD. This project will provide vital efficacy and safety data for this novel treatment approach to VaD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares , Demência Vascular , Humanos , Animais , Demência Vascular/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Atividades Cotidianas , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/complicações , Método Duplo-Cego , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto
8.
BMC Geriatr ; 23(1): 37, 2023 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36670348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Yoga is a mind-body practice that can elicit robust health and wellbeing effects for older adults. As a result, there is increased public and academic interest into the potential benefits of yoga for older people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. METHODS: Literature searches in five databases (CENTRAL, PubMed and EBSCOHost indexing CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection) were conducted from the databases' date of inception through to 4 September 2020 to identify pre-post single and multigroup studies of yoga-based interventions involving people with MCI or dementia. Effects on cognitive, mental, and physical health were evaluated, as was safety and study quality. RESULTS: Database searches identified 1431 articles. Of these, 10 unique studies met inclusion criteria (total 421 participants). Four studies each implemented Kundalini yoga and chair yoga, while two employed Hatha yoga. Most programs ran for 12 weeks (n = 5) and compared yoga to a control group (n = 5). Most studies reported improved cognition, mood, and balance. However, these effects were marred by the high risk of bias identified in all articles. Four studies assessed safety, with one instance of dizziness reported. CONCLUSIONS: In this emerging field, these studies show that yoga may be safe and beneficial for the wellbeing of people with MCI or dementia. More high quality randomised controlled trials are needed to improve the evidence-base and overcome the limitations of existing studies.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência , Yoga , Humanos , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Cognição , Demência/terapia
9.
Australas J Ageing ; 41(4): 579-584, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920101

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Dementia is a global public health concern, with approximately 487,500 Australians living with this condition. As an incurable disease, collaborative public health approaches are at the forefront for risk reduction of dementia. In Australia, nearly one in three individuals older than 65 years belong to culturally and linguistically diverse populations (CALD), yet dementia prevention approaches within CALD communities remain limited. Current health services and education require a targeted multidimensional and multicultural approach for dementia prevention interventions. METHODS: Recent recognition of gaps in CALD dementia awareness and accessibility has instigated a range of initiatives that address language disparities and dementia literacy within Australia's older population. While these have created pockets of dementia awareness and health promotion, a 'whole of community' and government approach is needed to decrease the recognised modifiable risk factors of dementia. RESULTS: This work serves to identify effective methods to promote dementia risk factor reduction using behaviour change techniques through five key recommendations specific for CALD communities. These suggestions are covered by the need for federal funds to be allocated to specific culturally inclusive initiatives highlighted under primary care, public health, research and community sectors. CONCLUSIONS: Key recommendations are created to address language disparities and dementia literacy in Australia's older population to aid healthy brain ageing for CALD older adults.


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Demência , Humanos , Idoso , Austrália , Idioma , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/prevenção & controle , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
10.
Health Soc Care Community ; 30(6): e5010-e5016, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35855618

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the geriatric post-surgical population, and its prevention is a public health priority. The aim of this study was to assess the use of VTE risk screening and training protocols, and VTE awareness in the Australian residential aged care sector. A cross-sectional survey was conducted that was directed at facility and policy managers of community aged care facilities with ≥10 residents in two Australian states and territories. Forty-nine of 301 (16.3%) providers responded, representing 249/871 (28.6%) aged care facilities and 20,958/66,121 (31.7%) residents. VTE risk screening protocols were used by 1.2% of facilities (3/249), and 79.5% (198/249) were unaware that VTE is an issue in this population. Only 0.8% (2/249) were aware that risk screening and prophylaxis is required to prevent VTE; none were acting upon this. No facility had specific VTE risk assessment or prevention processes in place. Most residential aged care facilities surveyed do not have VTE risk screening protocols and were unaware of the risk that may be associated with this omission. These results have implications for development and implementation of national and international VTE risk screening guidelines in community care.


Assuntos
Tromboembolia Venosa , Trombose Venosa , Humanos , Idoso , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/etiologia , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Austrália , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35304155

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Preliminary evidence has suggested that adjunctive N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant precursor to glutathione, may reduce symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We conducted a 20-week, multi-site, randomized controlled trial to investigate the safety and efficacy of the adjunctive use of NAC in OCD. METHODS: The study was a phase III, 20-week, double-blind, randomized controlled trial across multiple sites in Australia investigating 2 g to 4 g per day of NAC (titrated according to response) in 98 participants with DSM-5 diagnosed OCD. Data were analysed using linear mixed effects models for the 89 participants who attended at least one follow-up visit. RESULTS: A modified intention-to-treat analysis of the primary outcome found no evidence that NAC reduced symptoms of OCD measured on the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, relative to placebo (mean difference at week 20 = 0.53, 95% compatibility interval = -2.18, 3.23; p = 0.70; favouring placebo). There was also no evidence that NAC, compared to placebo, improved outcomes on the secondary measures including anxiety, depression, quality of life, functioning, or clinician/participant impression. NAC was well-tolerated with only mild gastrointestinal adverse events associated with the treatment. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence supporting the efficacy of the adjunctive use of NAC in OCD.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 22(1): 3, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychological risk factors have been recognised as potential, modifiable risk factors in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Tai Chi, a mind-body exercise, has the potential to improve psychological well-being and quality of life. We aim to assess the effects and safety of Tai Chi on psychological well-being and quality of life in people with CVD and/or cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: We searched for randomised controlled trials evaluating Tai Chi for psychological well-being and quality of life in people with CVD and cardiovascular risk factors, from major English and Chinese databases until 30 July 2021. Two authors independently conducted study selection and data extraction. Methodological quality was evaluated using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Review Manager software was used for meta-analysis. RESULTS: We included 37 studies (38 reports) involving 3525 participants in this review. The methodological quality of the included studies was generally poor. Positive effects of Tai Chi on stress, self-efficacy, and mood were found in several individual studies. Meta-analyses demonstrated favourable effects of Tai Chi plus usual care in reducing anxiety (SMD - 2.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): - 2.55, - 1.70, 3 studies, I2 = 60%) and depression (SMD -0.86, 95% CI: - 1.35, - 0.37, 6 studies, I2 = 88%), and improving mental health (MD 7.86, 95% CI: 5.20, 10.52, 11 studies, I2 = 71%) and bodily pain (MD 6.76, 95% CI: 4.13, 9.39, 11 studies, I2 = 75%) domains of the 36-Item Short Form Survey (scale from 0 to 100), compared with usual care alone. Tai Chi did not increase adverse events (RR 0.50, 95% CI: 0.21, 1.20, 5 RCTs, I2 = 0%), compared with control group. However, less than 30% of included studies reported safety information. CONCLUSIONS: Tai Chi seems to be beneficial in the management of anxiety, depression, and quality of life, and safe to practice in people with CVD and/or cardiovascular risk factors. Monitoring and reporting of safety information are highly recommended for future research. More well-designed studies are warranted to determine the effects and safety of Tai Chi on psychological well-being and quality of life in this population. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO), CRD42016042905. Registered on 26 August 2016.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Satisfação Pessoal , Qualidade de Vida , Tai Chi Chuan , Humanos , Tai Chi Chuan/psicologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484384

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Chinese patent medicine for mild-to-moderate active ulcerative colitis (UC) using network meta-analysis (NMA). METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Cochrane library, Embase, Sino-Med, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, and Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP) databases to October, 2020. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on Chinese patent medicine for mild-to-moderate active UC. The main analysis was complemented by network subanalyses and standard pairwise comparisons. Statistical heterogeneity, inconsistencies, and ranking probability were also evaluated. RESULTS: The databases search identified 3222 citations, of which 33 RCTs involving 2971 patients met the inclusion criteria. A total of 15 Chinese patent medicines were analyzed. The overall quality of the included studies was low. Pairwise meta-analysis showed that Chinese patent medicine was superior to Mesalazine in improving disappearances of clinical symptoms, recurrence rate, and Mayo score. Based on decreases in adverse events, results from NMA showed that Xilei powder plus Mesalazine was more effective than other drugs. Other NMA results indicated that Danshen freeze-dried powder plus Mesalazine (RR: 0.13; 95% CI, 0.02-0.78) and Kangfuxin lotion plus Mesalazine (RR: 0.24; 95% CI, 0.07-0.57) were superior to Mesalazine in decreasing recurrence rate. Another NMA result indicated that Kangfuxin lotion plus Mesalazine (RR: 0.00; 95% CI, 0.00-0.02) and Zhi Kang capsule plus Mesalazine (RR: 0.00; 95% CI, 0.00-0.02) were superior to Mesalazine in increasing the disappearance of tenesmus. CONCLUSION: In the probability sorting, Xilei powder combined with Mesalazine ranked first for having the fewest adverse events, Maintaining Intestines Antidiarrheal Pills combined with Mesalazine ranked first for having the lowest recurrence rate, Xilei powder combined with Mesalazine ranked first for improving disappearance rate of mucopurulent bloody stool/abdominal pain, and Kangfuxin lotion combined with Mesalazine ranked first for improving the disappearance rate of diarrhea/tenesmus. However, there is a lack of direct comparisons among Chinese patent medicines for UC. More multiarm RCTs are needed in the future to provide direct comparative evidence.

14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17915, 2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087740

RESUMO

The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein is essential for neuronal development. Val66Met (rs6265) is a functional polymorphism at codon 66 of the BDNF gene that affects neuroplasticity and has been associated with cognition, brain structure and function. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and neuronal oscillatory activity, using the electroencephalogram (EEG), in a normative cohort. Neurotypical (N = 92) young adults were genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and had eyes open resting-state EEG recorded for four minutes. Focal increases in right fronto-parietal delta, and decreases in alpha-1 and right hemispheric alpha-2 amplitudes were observed for the Met/Met genotype group compared to Val/Val and Val/Met groups. Stronger frontal topographies were demonstrated for beta-1 and beta-2 in the Val/Met group versus the Val/Val group. Findings highlight BDNF Val66Met genotypic differences in EEG spectral amplitudes, with increased cortical excitability implications for Met allele carriers.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Polimorfismo Genético , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Códon/genética , Cognição , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Plasticidade Neuronal/genética , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Geriatr ; 20(1): 49, 2020 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Timely diagnosis of dementia has a wide range of benefits including reduced hospital emergency department presentations, admissions and inpatient length of stay, and improved quality of life for patients and their carers by facilitating access to treatments that reduce symptoms, and allow time to plan for the future. Memory clinics can provide such services, however there is no 'gold standard' model of care. This study involved the co-creation of a model of care for a new multidisciplinary memory clinic with local community members, General Practitioners (GPs), policy-makers, community aged care workers, and service providers. METHODS: Data collection comprised semi-structured interviews (N = 98) with 20 GPs, and three 2-h community forums involving 53 seniors and community/local government representatives, and 25 community healthcare workers. Interviews and community forums were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded by thematic analysis using Quirkos. RESULTS: GPs' attitudes towards their role in assessing people with dementia varied. Many GPs reported that they found it useful for patients to have a diagnosis of dementia, but required support from secondary care to make the diagnosis and assist with subsequent management. Community forum participants felt they had a good knowledge of available dementia resources and services, but noted that these were highly fragmented and needed to be easier to navigate for the patient/carer via a 'one-stop-shop' and the provision of a dementia key worker. Expectations for the services and features of a new memory clinic included diagnostic services, rapid referrals, case management, education, legal services, culturally sensitive and appropriate services, allied health, research participation opportunities, and clear communication with GPs. Participants described several barriers to memory clinic utilisation including transportation access, funding, awareness, and costs. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the importance of working with stakeholders to co-design models of care for people with dementia that take into account the local communities' needs. Findings pave the way for the development of a potential new "gold standard" memory clinic model of care and operationalise new national clinical guidelines.


Assuntos
Clínicos Gerais , Idoso , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Cuidadores , Humanos , Políticas , Qualidade de Vida
16.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 24, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medicinal cannabis has received increased research attention over recent years due to loosening global regulatory changes. Medicinal cannabis has been reported to have potential efficacy in reducing pain, muscle spasticity, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, and intractable childhood epilepsy. Yet its potential application in the field of psychiatry is lesser known. METHODS: The first clinically-focused systematic review on the emerging medical application of cannabis across all major psychiatric disorders was conducted. Current evidence regarding whole plant formulations and plant-derived cannabinoid isolates in mood, anxiety, sleep, psychotic disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is discussed; while also detailing clinical prescription considerations (including pharmacogenomics), occupational and public health elements, and future research recommendations. The systematic review of the literature was conducted during 2019, assessing the data from all case studies and clinical trials involving medicinal cannabis or plant-derived isolates for all major psychiatric disorders (neurological conditions and pain were omitted). RESULTS: The present evidence in the emerging field of cannabinoid therapeutics in psychiatry is nascent, and thereby it is currently premature to recommend cannabinoid-based interventions. Isolated positive studies have, however, revealed tentative support for cannabinoids (namely cannabidiol; CBD) for reducing social anxiety; with mixed (mainly positive) evidence for adjunctive use in schizophrenia. Case studies suggest that medicinal cannabis may be beneficial for improving sleep and post-traumatic stress disorder, however evidence is currently weak. Preliminary research findings indicate no benefit for depression from high delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) therapeutics, or for CBD in mania. One isolated study indicates some potential efficacy for an oral cannabinoid/terpene combination in ADHD. Clinical prescriptive consideration involves caution in the use of high-THC formulations (avoidance in youth, and in people with anxiety or psychotic disorders), gradual titration, regular assessment, and caution in cardiovascular and respiratory disorders, pregnancy and breast-feeding. CONCLUSIONS: There is currently encouraging, albeit embryonic, evidence for medicinal cannabis in the treatment of a range of psychiatric disorders. Supportive findings are emerging for some key isolates, however, clinicians need to be mindful of a range of prescriptive and occupational safety considerations, especially if initiating higher dose THC formulas.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Cannabis , Maconha Medicinal , Adolescente , Ansiedade , Canabidiol/uso terapêutico , Criança , Humanos , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico
17.
Psychophysiology ; 57(7): e13371, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920012

RESUMO

This study investigated stimulus-response patterns of temporal principal components analysis (PCA)-derived event-related potential (ERP) components in a classical auditory habituation paradigm with long interstimulus intervals. The skin conductance response (SCR) was included as the "gold standard" model of the Orienting Reflex. Thirty participants were presented with a single series of 10 identical 60 dB tones, followed by a change trial at a different frequency. Single-trial, electrooculography-corrected ERPs were submitted to temporal PCA. The main focus was on the components expected in the P300/Late Positive Complex (LPC), and their electromagnetic tomography-derived cortical sources. Nine components were identified between 90 and 470 ms poststimulus (in temporal order): three N1 subcomponents, P2, four LPC components, and a negative Slow Wave (SW). The expected order of P3a, P3b, Novelty P3 (nP3), and positive Slow Wave (+SW) in the LPC was confirmed. SCR demonstrated strong exponential decay and recovery. P3b and nP3 each showed exponential decrement over trials, but only nP3 showed recovery at the change trial. Novelty effects failed to reach significance for the other LPC components, and were not apparent in non-LPC components. Frontal lobe activity in Brodmann areas 6, 8, and 9 was common to P3a, P3b, nP3, and +SW, consistent with the functional integration of these components in the LPC. Individual components had specific sources, although some sources overlapped between components or were reactivated later in the LPC. These data provide a fresh perspective on the components of the LPC and their cortical sources, and offer a processing model for the P300 in a habituation task, potentially generalizable to other paradigms.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados P300/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Habituação Psicofisiológica/fisiologia , Reflexo/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 146: 249-260, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648022

RESUMO

Brain dynamics research has highlighted the contributions of the ongoing EEG to ERP and behavioural responses. This study examined the effects of state-related EEG changes, from rest to the task and within the task, on stimulus-response efforts in a visual Continuous Performance Test (CPT). EEG was recorded from fifty-six adults at rest with eyes-closed (EC) then eyes-open (EO), and during the CPT. Principal Components Analyses decomposed the EEG obtained from EC, EO and the task-based periods immediately pre-cue (PC) and pre-imperative (PI), and the ERPs to the cued Go/NoGo imperatives. EC amplitudes were correlated with Go/NoGo ERP amplitudes and behavioural outcomes. EEG amplitude changes from EO to PC, and from PC to PI, were assessed as predictors of these response measures. Longer mean reaction time (RT) was associated with greater RT variability (RTV) and reduced Go P2. The two EC alpha components correlated positively with RTV, and NoGo P1 and P2 positivity. Delta/theta amplitude reductions from PC to PI predicted Go N1-1 and NoGo N2b enhancements. Alpha-1 decreases from PC to PI predicted larger P2 and poorer NoGo accuracy rates, while alpha-3 decrements positively predicted NoGo P1. These findings highlight the ongoing alpha arousal effects on stimulus-response efforts, and the low frequency shifts in the cue to imperative interval associated with stimulus anticipation and response preparation. These relationships offer novel insights into the effects of pretask EEG activity, and within-task EEG changes, on attention and cognitive control processes.


Assuntos
Ritmo alfa/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Componente Principal , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Neurosci Methods ; 321: 1-11, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of electroencephalographic (EEG) investigations in normal ageing have determined EEG spectra from epochs recorded in the eyes-closed (EC) and/or eyes-open (EO) resting states, and summed amplitudes or power estimates within somewhat-arbitrary and/or inconsistently defined traditional frequency band limits. NEW METHOD: Natural frequency components were sought using a data-driven frequency Principal Components Analysis (f-PCA) approach, optimised to reduce between-condition and between-group misallocation of variance. Frequency component correspondence was screened using the Congruence Coefficient and topographic correlations for potential matches on Condition and/or Group. The amplitudes of corresponding natural components were then explored as a function of these independent variables. RESULTS: Separate f-PCAs with Young and Older adults' EC and EO data each yielded between six and nine components that peaked across the traditional delta to beta band ranges. Across these, two components were matched on Group and Condition, while a further six were matched on Condition (within-groups), and four on Group (within-conditions). COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: Multiple frequency components were found within the traditional bands, and provided a wider perspective in terms of additional natural component details. In addition to novel insights, the well-documented age-related spectral reductions were seen in the common delta component, and in one EC (but no EO) alpha component. CONCLUSIONS: This combination of optimised f-PCA approach and component screening procedure has wide potential in the EEG field beyond the ageing topic explored here, being applicable across an extensive range of studies using EEG oscillations to explore aspects of cognitive processing and individual differences.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Idoso , Ondas Encefálicas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Componente Principal
20.
Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback ; 44(2): 123-129, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604100

RESUMO

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) is the most common psychiatric disorder of childhood and has been extensively researched using EEG technology. Within this literature, one of the most widely examined measures has been the theta/beta ratio. The theta/beta ratio was initially hypothesised to represent the arousal mechanism. However, subsequent research has shown this to be inaccurate and it was hypothesised that the ratio represents cognitive processing capacity. To examine that hypothesis, this study aimed to test the relationship between the P300 and the theta/beta ratio. The P300, absolute alpha and the theta/beta ratio were measured at Fz, Cz and Pz, and correlated in a group of 47 normal adults. A significant positive correlation was found between P300 latency and the theta/beta ratio. No relationship was found between P300 amplitude and the theta/beta ratio. P300 amplitude, but not latency, significantly correlated with alpha power. These results support the hypothesis that the theta/beta ratio is a marker of cognitive processing capacity.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Ritmo beta , Eletroencefalografia , Ritmo Teta , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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