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1.
Stroke ; : STROKEAHA119026545, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558144

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Coagulation factor XI (FXI) is a novel target for antithrombotic therapy addressed by various therapeutic modalities currently in clinical development. The expected magnitude of thrombotic event reduction mediated by targeting FXI is unclear. Methods- We analyzed the association of 2 common genetic variants, which alter levels of FXI, with a range of human phenotypes. We combined variants into a genetic score standardized to a 30% increase in relative activated partial thromboplastin time, equivalent to what can be achieved with pharmacological FXI reduction. Using data from 371 695 participants in the United Kingdom Biobank and 2 large-scale genome-wide association studies, we examined the effect of this FXI score on thrombotic and bleeding end points. Results- Genetic disposition to lower FXI levels was associated with reduced risks of venous thrombosis (odds ratio, 95% CI; P value; odds ratio=0.1, 0.07-0.14; P=3×10-43) and ischemic stroke (odds ratio=0.47, 0.36-0.61; P=2×10-8) but not with major bleeding (odds ratio=0.7, 0.45-1.04; P=0.0739). The observed relative risk reductions were consistent within a range of subgroups that were at high risk for thrombosis. Consistently, we observed higher absolute risk reductions conferred by genetically lower FXI levels in high-risk subgroups, such as patients with atrial fibrillation. Conclusions- Human genetic data suggest that pharmacological inhibition of FXI may achieve considerable reductions in ischemic stroke risk without clear evidence for an associated risk of major bleeding. The quantitative framework developed can be used to support the estimation of achievable risk reductions with pharmacological modulation of FXI.

3.
Nat Med ; 25(8): 1274-1279, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285632

RESUMO

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; however, the extent to which genetic factors increase risk for PAD is largely unknown. Using electronic health record data, we performed a genome-wide association study in the Million Veteran Program testing ~32 million DNA sequence variants with PAD (31,307 cases and 211,753 controls) across veterans of European, African and Hispanic ancestry. The results were replicated in an independent sample of 5,117 PAD cases and 389,291 controls from the UK Biobank. We identified 19 PAD loci, 18 of which have not been previously reported. Eleven of the 19 loci were associated with disease in three vascular beds (coronary, cerebral, peripheral), including LDLR, LPL and LPA, suggesting that therapeutic modulation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the lipoprotein lipase pathway or circulating lipoprotein(a) may be efficacious for multiple atherosclerotic disease phenotypes. Conversely, four of the variants appeared to be specific for PAD, including F5 p.R506Q, highlighting the pathogenic role of thrombosis in the peripheral vascular bed and providing genetic support for Factor Xa inhibition as a therapeutic strategy for PAD. Our results highlight mechanistic similarities and differences among coronary, cerebral and peripheral atherosclerosis and provide therapeutic insights.

4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(4): 578-586, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345433

RESUMO

The incidence of cardiovascular diseases increases with age and is also correlated with increased inflammatory burden. Recently, human genetics provided a new paradigm linking aging, inflammation, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Next-generation genetic sequencing of whole blood-derived DNA in humans showed that clonal expansion of hematopoietic cells with somatic mutations in leukemogenic genes was associated with age and correlated with increased mortality. This phenomenon, termed clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP), was associated with hematologic malignancy as well as ASCVD independently of age and other traditional risk factors. Because the implication of CHIP with ASCVD, genetic loss-of-function studies of Tet2 and Dnmt3a in murine models have supported a mechanistic role for CHIP in promoting vascular disease. Despite the potential contribution of CHIP to myriad cardiovascular and aging-related diseases, the epidemiology and biology surrounding this phenomenon remains incompletely appreciated and understood, especially as applied to clinical practice and prognostication. Here, the authors review this emerging key risk factor, defining its discovery, relationship to cardiovascular diseases, preclinical evidence for causality, and implications for risk prediction and mitigation.

5.
Circulation ; 140(12): 1031-1040, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 13% of black individuals carry 2 copies of the apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) risk alleles G1 or G2, which are associated with 1.5- to 2.5-fold increased risk of chronic kidney disease. There have been conflicting reports as to whether an association exists between APOL1 risk alleles and cardiovascular disease (CVD) that is independent of the effects of APOL1 on kidney disease. We sought to test the association of APOL1 G1/G2 alleles with coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and stroke among black individuals in the Million Veteran Program. METHODS: We performed a time-to-event analysis of retrospective electronic health record data using Cox proportional hazard and competing-risks Fine and Gray subdistribution hazard models. The primary exposure was APOL1 risk allele status. The primary outcome was incident coronary artery disease among individuals without chronic kidney disease during the 12.5-year follow-up period. We separately analyzed the cross-sectional association of APOL1 risk allele status with lipid traits and 115 cardiovascular diseases using phenome-wide association. RESULTS: Among 30 903 black Million Veteran Program participants, 3941 (13%) carried the 2 APOL1 risk allele high-risk genotype. Individuals with normal kidney function at baseline with 2 risk alleles had slightly higher risk of developing coronary artery disease compared with those with no risk alleles (hazard ratio, 1.11 [95% CI, 1.01-1.21]; P=0.039). Similarly, modest associations were identified with incident stroke (hazard ratio, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.05-1.36; P=0.007) and peripheral artery disease (hazard ratio, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.01-1.29l; P=0.031). When both cardiovascular and renal outcomes were modeled, APOL1 was strongly associated with incident renal disease, whereas no significant association with the CVD end points could be detected. Cardiovascular phenome-wide association analyses did not identify additional significant associations with CVD subsets. CONCLUSIONS: APOL1 risk variants display a modest association with CVD, and this association is likely mediated by the known APOL1 association with chronic kidney disease.

6.
Circulation ; 140(2): 147-163, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cells that form the arterial wall contribute to multiple vascular diseases. The extent of cellular heterogeneity within these populations has not been fully characterized. Recent advances in single-cell RNA-sequencing make it possible to identify and characterize cellular subpopulations. METHODS: We validate a method for generating a droplet-based single-cell atlas of gene expression in a normal blood vessel. Enzymatic dissociation of 4 whole mouse aortas was followed by single-cell sequencing of >10 000 cells. RESULTS: Clustering analysis of gene expression from aortic cells identified 10 populations of cells representing each of the main arterial cell types: fibroblasts, vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells (ECs), and immune cells, including monocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes. The most significant cellular heterogeneity was seen in the 3 distinct EC populations. Gene set enrichment analysis of these EC subpopulations identified a lymphatic EC cluster and 2 other populations more specialized in lipoprotein handling, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix production. These subpopulations persist and exhibit similar changes in gene expression in response to a Western diet. Immunofluorescence for Vcam1 and Cd36 demonstrates regional heterogeneity in EC populations throughout the aorta. CONCLUSIONS: We present a comprehensive single-cell atlas of all cells in the aorta. By integrating expression from >1900 genes per cell, we are better able to characterize cellular heterogeneity compared with conventional approaches. Gene expression signatures identify cell subpopulations with vascular disease-relevant functions.

7.
Cell ; 177(3): 587-596.e9, 2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002795

RESUMO

Severe obesity is a rapidly growing global health threat. Although often attributed to unhealthy lifestyle choices or environmental factors, obesity is known to be heritable and highly polygenic; the majority of inherited susceptibility is related to the cumulative effect of many common DNA variants. Here we derive and validate a new polygenic predictor comprised of 2.1 million common variants to quantify this susceptibility and test this predictor in more than 300,000 individuals ranging from middle age to birth. Among middle-aged adults, we observe a 13-kg gradient in weight and a 25-fold gradient in risk of severe obesity across polygenic score deciles. In a longitudinal birth cohort, we note minimal differences in birthweight across score deciles, but a significant gradient emerged in early childhood and reached 12 kg by 18 years of age. This new approach to quantify inherited susceptibility to obesity affords new opportunities for clinical prevention and mechanistic assessment.

8.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 12(5): e002376, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939045

RESUMO

Background Familial hypobetalipoproteinemia is a genetic disorder caused by rare protein-truncating variants (PTV) in the gene encoding APOB (apolipoprotein B), the major protein component of LDL (low-density lipoprotein) and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles. Whether heterozygous APOB deficiency is associated with decreased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) is uncertain. We combined family-based and large scale gene-sequencing to characterize the association of rare PTVs in APOB with circulating LDL-C (LDL cholesterol), triglycerides, and risk for CHD. Methods We sequenced the APOB gene in 29 Japanese hypobetalipoproteinemia families, as well as 57 973 individuals derived from 12 CHD case-control studies-18 442 with early-onset CHD and 39 531 controls. We defined PTVs as variants that lead to a premature stop, disrupt canonical splice-sites, or lead to insertions/deletions that shift reading frame. We tested the association of rare APOB PTV carrier status with blood lipid levels and CHD. Results Among 29 familial hypobetalipoproteinemia families, 8 families harbored APOB PTVs. Carrying 1 APOB PTV was associated with 55 mg/dL lower LDL-C ( P=3×10-5) and 53% lower triglyceride level ( P=2×10-4). Among 12 case-control studies, an APOB PTV was present in 0.038% of CHD cases as compared to 0.092% of controls. APOB PTV carrier status was associated with a 43 mg/dL lower LDL-C ( P=2×10-7), a 30% decrease in triglycerides ( P=5×10-4), and a 72% lower risk for CHD (odds ratio, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.12-0.64; P=0.002). Conclusions Rare PTV mutations in APOB which are associated with lower LDL-C and reduced triglycerides also confer protection against CHD.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(3): 384-388, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849324

RESUMO

This article is based on the address given by the author at the meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) on October 18, 2018, in San Diego, California. The audio of the original address can be found at the ASHG website.

10.
Cell ; 177(1): 132-145, 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901535

RESUMO

Coronary artery disease represents the leading cause of death worldwide, sparing no nation, ethnicity, or economic stratum. Coronary artery disease is partly heritable. While enormous effort has been devoted to understanding the genetic basis of coronary artery disease and other common, complex cardiovascular diseases, key challenges have emerged in gene discovery, in understanding how DNA variants connect to function, and in translation of genetics to the clinic. We discuss these challenges as well as promising opportunities to bring the work closer to fruition.

11.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 387-393, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804566

RESUMO

Insomnia is a common disorder linked with adverse long-term medical and psychiatric outcomes. The underlying pathophysiological processes and causal relationships of insomnia with disease are poorly understood. Here we identified 57 loci for self-reported insomnia symptoms in the UK Biobank (n = 453,379) and confirmed their effects on self-reported insomnia symptoms in the HUNT Study (n = 14,923 cases and 47,610 controls), physician-diagnosed insomnia in the Partners Biobank (n = 2,217 cases and 14,240 controls), and accelerometer-derived measures of sleep efficiency and sleep duration in the UK Biobank (n = 83,726). Our results suggest enrichment of genes involved in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and of genes expressed in multiple brain regions, skeletal muscle, and adrenal glands. Evidence of shared genetic factors was found between frequent insomnia symptoms and restless legs syndrome, aging, and cardiometabolic, behavioral, psychiatric, and reproductive traits. Evidence was found for a possible causal link between insomnia symptoms and coronary artery disease, depressive symptoms, and subjective well-being.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/genética , Sono/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteólise , Autorrelato , Ubiquitina/genética
12.
Circulation ; 139(13): 1593-1602, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relative prevalence and clinical importance of monogenic mutations related to familial hypercholesterolemia and of high polygenic score (cumulative impact of many common variants) pathways for early-onset myocardial infarction remain uncertain. Whole-genome sequencing enables simultaneous ascertainment of both monogenic mutations and polygenic score for each individual. METHODS: We performed deep-coverage whole-genome sequencing of 2081 patients from 4 racial subgroups hospitalized in the United States with early-onset myocardial infarction (age ≤55 years) recruited with a 2:1 female-to-male enrollment design. We compared these genomes with those of 3761 population-based control subjects. We first identified individuals with a rare, monogenic mutation related to familial hypercholesterolemia. Second, we calculated a recently developed polygenic score of 6.6 million common DNA variants to quantify the cumulative susceptibility conferred by common variants. We defined high polygenic score as the top 5% of the control distribution because this cutoff has previously been shown to confer similar risk to that of familial hypercholesterolemia mutations. RESULTS: The mean age of the 2081 patients presenting with early-onset myocardial infarction was 48 years, and 66% were female. A familial hypercholesterolemia mutation was present in 36 of these patients (1.7%) and was associated with a 3.8-fold (95% CI, 2.1-6.8; P<0.001) increased odds of myocardial infarction. Of the patients with early-onset myocardial infarction, 359 (17.3%) carried a high polygenic score, associated with a 3.7-fold (95% CI, 3.1-4.6; P<0.001) increased odds. Mean estimated untreated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 206 mg/dL in those with a familial hypercholesterolemia mutation, 132 mg/dL in those with high polygenic score, and 122 mg/dL in those in the remainder of the population. Although associated with increased risk in all racial groups, high polygenic score demonstrated the strongest association in white participants ( P for heterogeneity=0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Both familial hypercholesterolemia mutations and high polygenic score are associated with a >3-fold increased odds of early-onset myocardial infarction. However, high polygenic score has a 10-fold higher prevalence among patients presents with early-onset myocardial infarction. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00597922.

13.
JAMA ; 320(22): 2354-2364, 2018 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535219

RESUMO

Importance: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia affecting 1% of the population. Young individuals with AF have a strong genetic association with the disease, but the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Objective: To perform large-scale whole-genome sequencing to identify genetic variants related to AF. Design, Setting, and Participants: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine Program includes longitudinal and cohort studies that underwent high-depth whole-genome sequencing between 2014 and 2017 in 18 526 individuals from the United States, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, Barbados, and Samoa. This case-control study included 2781 patients with early-onset AF from 9 studies and identified 4959 controls of European ancestry from the remaining participants. Results were replicated in the UK Biobank (346 546 participants) and the MyCode Study (42 782 participants). Exposures: Loss-of-function (LOF) variants in genes at AF loci and common genetic variation across the whole genome. Main Outcomes and Measures: Early-onset AF (defined as AF onset in persons <66 years of age). Due to multiple testing, the significance threshold for the rare variant analysis was P = 4.55 × 10-3. Results: Among 2781 participants with early-onset AF (the case group), 72.1% were men, and the mean (SD) age of AF onset was 48.7 (10.2) years. Participants underwent whole-genome sequencing at a mean depth of 37.8 fold and mean genome coverage of 99.1%. At least 1 LOF variant in TTN, the gene encoding the sarcomeric protein titin, was present in 2.1% of case participants compared with 1.1% in control participants (odds ratio [OR], 1.76 [95% CI, 1.04-2.97]). The proportion of individuals with early-onset AF who carried a LOF variant in TTN increased with an earlier age of AF onset (P value for trend, 4.92 × 10-4), and 6.5% of individuals with AF onset prior to age 30 carried a TTN LOF variant (OR, 5.94 [95% CI, 2.64-13.35]; P = 1.65 × 10-5). The association between TTN LOF variants and AF was replicated in an independent study of 1582 patients with early-onset AF (cases) and 41 200 control participants (OR, 2.16 [95% CI, 1.19-3.92]; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance: In a case-control study, there was a statistically significant association between an LOF variant in the TTN gene and early-onset AF, with the variant present in a small percentage of participants with early-onset AF (the case group). Further research is necessary to understand whether this is a causal relationship.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Conectina/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Adulto , Idade de Início , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Controle de Qualidade
14.
Circulation ; 2018 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a morbid and heritable disorder for which the biological mechanisms are incompletely understood. We therefore examined genetic associations with HF in a large national biobank, and assessed whether refined phenotypic classification would facilitate genetic discovery. METHODS: We defined all-cause HF among 488010 participants from the UK Biobank and performed a genome-wide association analysis. We refined the HF phenotype by classifying individuals with left ventricular dysfunction and without coronary artery disease as having nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM), and repeated a genetic association analysis. We then pursued replication of lead HF and NICM variants in independent cohorts, and performed adjusted association analyses to assess whether identified genetic associations were mediated through clinical HF risk factors. In addition, we tested rare, loss-of-function mutations in 24 known dilated cardiomyopathy genes for association with HF and NICM. Finally, we examined associations between lead variants and left ventricular structure and function among individuals without HF using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (n=4158) and echocardiographic data (n=30201). RESULTS: We identified 7382 participants with all-cause HF in the UK Biobank. Genome-wide association analysis of all-cause HF identified several suggestive loci ( P<1×10-6), the majority linked to upstream HF risk factors, ie, coronary artery disease ( CDKN2B-AS1 and MAP3K7CL) and atrial fibrillation ( PITX2). Refining the HF phenotype yielded a subset of 2038 NICM cases. In contrast to all-cause HF, genetic analysis of NICM revealed suggestive loci that have been implicated in dilated cardiomyopathy ( BAG3, CLCNKA-ZBTB17). Dilated cardiomyopathy signals arising from our NICM analysis replicated in independent cohorts, persisted after HF risk factor adjustment, and were associated with indices of left ventricular dysfunction in individuals without clinical HF. In addition, analyses of loss-of-function variants implicated BAG3 as a disease susceptibility gene for NICM (loss-offunction variant carrier frequency=0.01%; odds ratio,12.03; P=3.62×10-5). CONCLUSIONS: We found several distinct genetic mechanisms of all-cause HF in a national biobank that reflect well-known HF risk factors. Phenotypic refinement to a NICM subtype appeared to facilitate the discovery of genetic signals that act independently of clinical HF risk factors and that are associated with subclinical left ventricular dysfunction.

15.
Diabetes ; 2018 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389748

RESUMO

A genetic predisposition to higher waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI), a measure of body fat distribution, associates with increased risk for type 2 diabetes. We conducted an exome-wide association study of coding variation in UK Biobank (405569 individuals) to identify variants that lower WHRadjBMI and protect against type 2 diabetes. We identified four variants in the gene ACVR1C, encoding the activin-receptor like kinase 7 receptor expressed on adipocytes and pancreatic beta cells, which independently associated with reduced WHRadjBMI: Asn150His (-0.09 standard deviations, p=3.4*10-17), Ile195Thr (-0.15 SD, p=1.0*10-9), Ile482Val (-0.019 SD, p=1.6*10-5) and rs72927479 (-0.035 SD, p=2.6*10-12). Carriers of these variants exhibited reduced percent abdominal fat in dual energy X-ray imaging. Pooling across all four variants, a 0.2 SD decrease in WHRadjBMI through ACVR1C was associated with a 30% lower risk of type 2 diabetes (OR 0.70, CI 0.63, 0.77; p = 5.6*10-13). In an analysis of exome sequences from 55516 individuals, carriers of predicted damaging variants in ACVR1C were at 54% lower risk of type 2 diabetes (OR 0.46 CI 0.27, 0.81; p=0.006). These findings indicate that variants predicted to lead to loss of ACVR1C gene function influence body fat distribution and protect from type 2 diabetes.

16.
Genet Med ; 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30270359

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Large-scale, population-based biobanks integrating health records and genomic profiles may provide a platform to identify individuals with disease-predisposing genetic variants. Here, we recall probands carrying familial hypercholesterolemia (FH)-associated variants, perform cascade screening of family members, and describe health outcomes affected by such a strategy. METHODS: The Estonian Biobank of Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, comprises 52,274 individuals. Among 4776 participants with exome or genome sequences, we identified 27 individuals who carried FH-associated variants in the LDLR, APOB, or PCSK9 genes. Cascade screening of 64 family members identified an additional 20 carriers of FH-associated variants. RESULTS: Via genetic counseling and clinical management of carriers, we were able to reclassify 51% of the study participants from having previously established nonspecific hypercholesterolemia to having FH and identify 32% who were completely unaware of harboring a high-risk disease-associated genetic variant. Imaging-based risk stratification targeted 86% of the variant carriers for statin treatment recommendations. CONCLUSION: Genotype-guided recall of probands and subsequent cascade screening for familial hypercholesterolemia is feasible within a population-based biobank and may facilitate more appropriate clinical management.

17.
Nat Genet ; 50(11): 1514-1523, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30275531

RESUMO

The Million Veteran Program (MVP) was established in 2011 as a national research initiative to determine how genetic variation influences the health of US military veterans. Here we genotyped 312,571 MVP participants using a custom biobank array and linked the genetic data to laboratory and clinical phenotypes extracted from electronic health records covering a median of 10.0 years of follow-up. Among 297,626 veterans with at least one blood lipid measurement, including 57,332 black and 24,743 Hispanic participants, we tested up to around 32 million variants for association with lipid levels and identified 118 novel genome-wide significant loci after meta-analysis with data from the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium (total n > 600,000). Through a focus on mutations predicted to result in a loss of gene function and a phenome-wide association study, we propose novel indications for pharmaceutical inhibitors targeting PCSK9 (abdominal aortic aneurysm), ANGPTL4 (type 2 diabetes) and PDE3B (triglycerides and coronary disease).

18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(4): 461-473, 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30220432

RESUMO

Excretion of albumin in urine, or albuminuria, is associated with the development of multiple cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. However, whether pathways leading to albuminuria are causal for cardiometabolic diseases is unclear. We addressed this question using a Mendelian randomization framework in the UK Biobank, a large population-based cohort. We first performed a genome-wide association study for albuminuria in 382,500 individuals and identified 32 new albuminuria loci. We constructed albuminuria genetic risk scores and tested for association with cardiometabolic diseases. Genetically elevated albuminuria was strongly associated with increased risk of hypertension (1.38 OR; 95% CI, 1.27-1.50 per 1 SD predicted increase in albuminuria, p = 7.01 × 10-14). We then examined bidirectional associations of albuminuria with blood pressure which suggested that genetically elevated albuminuria led to higher blood pressure (2.16 mmHg systolic blood pressure; 95% CI, 1.51-2.82 per 1 SD predicted increase in albuminuria, p = 1.22 × 10-10) and that genetically elevated blood pressure led to more albuminuria (0.005 SD; 95% CI 0.004-0.006 per 1 mmHg predicted increase in systolic blood pressure, p = 2.45 × 10-13). These results support the existence of a feed-forward loop between albuminuria and blood pressure and imply that albuminuria could increase risk of cardiovascular disease through blood pressure. Moreover, they suggest therapies that target albuminuria-increasing processes could have antihypertensive effects that are amplified through inhibition of this feed-forward loop.

19.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3391, 2018 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30140000

RESUMO

Large-scale deep-coverage whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is now feasible and offers potential advantages for locus discovery. We perform WGS in 16,324 participants from four ancestries at mean depth >29X and analyze genotypes with four quantitative traits-plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. Common variant association yields known loci except for few variants previously poorly imputed. Rare coding variant association yields known Mendelian dyslipidemia genes but rare non-coding variant association detects no signals. A high 2M-SNP LDL-C polygenic score (top 5th percentile) confers similar effect size to a monogenic mutation (~30 mg/dl higher for each); however, among those with severe hypercholesterolemia, 23% have a high polygenic score and only 2% carry a monogenic mutation. At these sample sizes and for these phenotypes, the incremental value of WGS for discovery is limited but WGS permits simultaneous assessment of monogenic and polygenic models to severe hypercholesterolemia.

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