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1.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc ; 29(10): 994-1001, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37989559

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and how much cognitive decline impacts one's ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (iADLs) are necessary elements of neuropsychological assessment when diagnosing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Though limited, the literature suggests that culture and self-appraisal of cognitive abilities are related. However, it is unclear if differences exist in the subjective elements of neuropsychological assessments between patients born in Anglosphere countries (Canada, the USA, and the UK) versus immigrants born elsewhere (International Group). METHOD: We conducted a retrospective chart review of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients (n = 764). Reports of SCD and iADL difficulties were extracted from neuropsychological reports and coded by two independent raters. We also examined responses on self- and family-rated questionnaires of executive functioning and iADL difficulties. RESULTS: Anglosphere and International patients did not differ on overall, memory, or attention SCD, or overall iADL difficulties based on interviews. Anglosphere patients reported more executive and language SCD during the interview but International care-partners reported more current executive dysfunction on a questionnaire. International patients and care-partners reported more iADL difficulties on a questionnaire, which they ascribed to motor (not cognitive) symptoms. The effects on questionnaires were small and persisted after accounting for depression severity ratings. CONCLUSION: There were no consistent group differences in the number or pervasiveness of SCD or iADL difficulties reported by Anglosphere versus International groups. Immigration status has limited effect on these subjective elements and they should be given significant weight when diagnosing cognitive dysfunction in PD.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Doença de Parkinson , Humanos , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Cognição , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Diversidade Cultural
2.
Cereb Cortex ; 33(17): 9787-9801, 2023 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37429832

RESUMO

The insula and the cingulate are key brain regions with many heterogenous functions. Both regions are consistently shown to play integral roles in the processing of affective, cognitive, and interoceptive stimuli. The anterior insula (aINS) and the anterior mid-cingulate cortex (aMCC) are two key hubs of the salience network (SN). Beyond the aINS and aMCC, previous 3 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging studies have suggested both structural connectivity (SC) and functional connectivity (FC) between other insular and cingulate subregions. Here, we investigate the SC and FC between insula and cingulate subregions using ultra-high field 7T diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). DTI revealed strong SC between posterior INS (pINS) and posterior MCC (pMCC), and rs-fMRI revealed strong FC between the aINS and aMCC that was not supported by SC, indicating the likelihood of a mediating structure. Finally, the insular pole had the strongest SC to all cingulate subregions, with a slight preference for the pMCC, indicative of a potential relay node of the insula. Together these finding shed new light on the understanding of insula-cingulate functioning, both within the SN and other cortical processes, through a lens of its SC and FC.


Assuntos
Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo , Córtex Insular , Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem
3.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 44(4): 1309-1319, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36217737

RESUMO

The neuroanatomical circuitry of jaw muscles has been mostly explored in non-human animals. A recent rodent study revealed a novel circuit from the central amygdala (CeA) to the trigeminal motor nucleus (5M), which controls biting attacks. This circuit has yet to be delineated in humans. Ultra-high diffusion-weighted imaging data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) allow in vivo delineation of circuits identified in other species-for example, the CeA-5M pathway-in humans. We hypothesized that the CeA-5M circuit could be resolved in humans at both 7 and 3 T. We performed probabilistic tractography between the CeA and 5M in 30 healthy young adults from the HCP database. As a negative control, we performed tractography between the basolateral amygdala (BLAT) and 5M, as CeA is the only amygdalar nucleus with extensive projections to the brainstem. Connectivity strength was operationalized as the number of streamlines between each region of interest. Connectivity strength between CeA-5M and BLAT-5M within each hemisphere was compared, and CeA-5M circuit had significantly stronger connectivity than the BLAT-5M circuit, bilaterally at both 7 T (all p < .001) and 3 T (all p < .001). This study is the first to delineate the CeA-5M circuit in humans.


Assuntos
Núcleo Central da Amígdala , Núcleo Motor do Nervo Trigêmeo , Animais , Humanos , Núcleo Central da Amígdala/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Tronco Encefálico
4.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249950, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852633

RESUMO

Although it is understood that episodic memories of everyday events involve encoding a wide array of perceptual and non-perceptual information, it is unclear how these distinct types of information are recalled. To address this knowledge gap, we examine how perceptual (visual versus auditory) and non-perceptual details described within a narrative, a proxy for everyday event memories, were retrieved. Based on previous work indicating a bias for visual content, we hypothesized that participants would be most accurate at recalling visually described details and would tend to falsely recall non-visual details with visual descriptors. In Study 1, participants watched videos of a protagonist telling narratives of everyday events under three conditions: with visual, auditory, or audiovisual details. All narratives contained the same non-perceptual content. Participants' free recall of these narratives under each condition were scored for the type of details recalled (perceptual, non-perceptual) and whether the detail was recalled with gist or verbatim memory. We found that participants were more accurate at gist and verbatim recall for visual perceptual details. This visual bias was also evident when we examined the errors made during recall such that participants tended to incorrectly recall details with visual information, but not with auditory information. Study 2 tested for this pattern of results when the narratives were presented in auditory only format. Results conceptually replicated Study 1 in that there was still a persistent visual bias in what was recollected from the complex narratives. Together, these findings indicate a bias for recruiting visualizable content to construct complex multi-detail memories.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental , Narração , Estimulação Acústica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória Episódica , Estimulação Luminosa , Adulto Jovem
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