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1.
J Multidiscip Healthc ; 17: 701-710, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38375526

RESUMO

Background: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a common respiratory disorder that causes intermittent upper airway collapse during sleep and can lead to various acute cardiovascular complications. Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular hospitalization and all-cause mortality. Our study aimed to investigate the prevalence of individuals with AF and those considered at high risk for OSA. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a population comprising patients who had visited KAUH cardiology clinics between 2017-2019; subjects were categorized into AF patients and general cardiology patients. Patients were surveyed for OSA using the Berlin Questionnaire to assess the degree of OSA symptoms and to classify patients into high- or low-risk groups based on their responses. Results: Of the 656 patients, 545 met our inclusion criteria, of whom 192 were diagnosed with AF. Comparable demographic characteristics were observed between the AF and non-AF groups, barring higher rates of obesity (p=0.001) and smoking (p=0.042) in the AF group. The prevalence of high-risk OSA was significantly higher in AF patients (68.2%) compared to non-AF patients (29.4%), with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.473 times (95% CI: 1.434 -4.266, p=0.001) greater for AF. The age, gender, and BMI categories did not differ significantly between the two groups. Binary logistic regression revealed significant associations between OSA and risk factors such as asthma (OR=4.408, 95% CI: 2.634-7.376, p=0.001). Conclusion: These results serve to display a statistically significant increase in high-risk OSA in existing AF patients, irrespective of the presence of conventional OSA risk factors; this could imply a more immediate and direct relationship between both diseases and calls to include routine screening for OSA in patients diagnosed, newly or otherwise, with AF.

2.
J Esthet Restor Dent ; 36(2): 263-269, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37606174

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the trueness of digital measurements using direct and indirect scanning approaches compared to the actual clinical measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The crown length, width, and width/length ratio were measured in 36 anterior maxillary teeth using three different methods. The first was clinically using a digital caliper, the second was by scanning the teeth using a digital scanner and the third was by making an impression of the teeth, constructing a stone cast in the lab, and scanning it to obtain digital measurements. Bland-Altman test and intraclass correlation were used to assess the data and make comparisons. RESULTS: Measurements taken using both approaches were highly reliable, with intraclass correlations ranging from 0.934 to 0.977 (p ≤ 0.000). Bland-Altman plot reflected a minimal mean difference between measurements especially in crown width measurements. Crown width/crown length measurement displayed the highest mean difference. CONCLUSIONS: Both direct and indirect optical surface scans showed similar high trueness in linear measurements of teeth. A higher discrepancy was detected in the crown width/length ratio. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Digital dentistry is the new era in patient management. The use of conventional impression techniques and physical dental casts is associated with several disadvantages. Scanning dental casts to convert physical records into digital ones has multiple advantages. Optical surface scans (digital models) of the dentition are currently being more broadly used and advocated in the different dental disciplines including the construction of surgical guides for esthetic crown lengthening procedures. The trueness and reliability of linear measurements are of paramount importance to allow for proper fit and predictable outcomes. In this study, the trueness of these linear measurements obtained using direct and indirect methods was compared to the actual clinical measurements.


Assuntos
Técnica de Moldagem Odontológica , Imageamento Tridimensional , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Modelos Dentários , Desenho Assistido por Computador
3.
Front Oral Health ; 4: 1211242, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38024146

RESUMO

Background: Child neglect is a public health, human rights, and social problem, with potentially devastating and costly consequences. The aim of this study was to: (1) summarize the oral health profile of children across the globe; (2) provide a brief overview of legal instruments that can offer children protection from dental neglect; and (3) discuss the effectiveness of these legal instruments. Methods: We summarized and highlighted the caries profile and status of implementation of legislation on child dental neglect for 26 countries representing the World Health Organization regions: five countries in Africa (Nigeria, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Zimbabwe), eight in the Americas (Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Mexico, Peru, Unites States of America, Uruguay), six in the Eastern Mediterranean (Egypt, Iran, Libya, Jordan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia), four in Europe (Italy, Latvia, Serbia, United Kingdom), two in South-East Asia (India and Indonesia) and one country (China) with its special administrative region (Hong Kong) in the Western Pacific. Results: Twenty-five of the 26 countries have legal instruments to address child neglect. Only two (8.0%) of these 25 countries had specific legal instruments on child dental neglect. Although child neglect laws can be interpreted to establish a case of child dental neglect, the latter may be difficult to establish in countries where governments have not addressed barriers that limit children's access to oral healthcare. Where there are specific legal instruments to address child dental neglect, a supportive social ecosystem has also been built to facilitate children's access to oral healthcare. A supportive legal environment, however, does not seem to confer extra protection against risks for untreated dental caries. Conclusions: The institution of specific country-level legislation on child dental neglect may not significantly reduce the national prevalence of untreated caries in children. It, however, increases the prospect for building a social ecosystem that may reduce the risk of untreated caries at the individual level. Social ecosystems to mitigate child dental neglect can be built when there is specific legislation against child dental neglect. It may be more effective to combine public health and human rights-based approaches, inclusive of an efficient criminal justice system to deal with child dental neglect.

4.
BMJ Glob Health ; 8(Suppl 8)2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37813447

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Waterpipe tobacco is taxed at half the rate of cigarettes in Egypt and, unlike cigarettes, does not have a specific excise component. We aimed to simulate the introduction of a specific excise tax on waterpipe tobacco consumption, premature deaths and government waterpipe tobacco revenue in Egypt. METHODS: We took model inputs from the latest available data on consumption, market shares and market share prices, price elasticities of demand, tax structure and from discussions with government officials. We modelled increases to specific excise to produce a 45%, 55%, 65% and 75% tax burden and compared a simple (specific only) structure with a mixed (specific and ad valorem) structure. RESULTS: Under the simple approach, introducing a US$2.1 specific tax would result in a 75% tax burden with 67% fewer waterpipe tobacco units smoked, 1 004 604 averted premature deaths and a 236% increase in government revenue relative to the current tax structure. At the 75% tax burden, the simple approach resulted in 1.5% fewer waterpipe tobacco units consumed, 9000 more averted premature deaths and 12.7% more government revenue compared with the mixed approach. Results for other tax burdens are presented and remained robust to sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Introducing a specific excise tax on waterpipe tobacco in Egypt can yield considerable government revenue and public health gains. We recommend the simple approach, in line with the WHO recommendations, which produces greater economic and public health gains than the mixed approach and is easier to administer for the Egyptian government.


Assuntos
Indústria do Tabaco , Tabaco para Cachimbos de Água , Humanos , Fumar , Egito , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Impostos
5.
Tob Induc Dis ; 21: 136, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37869614

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Continued smoking by patients with tuberculosis (TB) and people living with HIV (PLHIV) leads to adverse treatment outcomes. Estimates of tobacco use among the population are scarce in the Eastern Mediterranean region, where the burden of TB and HIV is also low but highly variable. This study determined the prevalence of current smoking and assessed factors associated with current smoking among patients with TB and PLHIV in Jordan. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Jordan Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices survey in 2021. Information on current tobacco use, including products and frequency of smoking, was collected from 452 patients with TB and 152 PLHIV. We performed multivariable logistic regression to assess the sociodemographic characteristics independently associated with current smoking. RESULTS: Prevalence of current smoking was 43.8% among TB patients and 67.8 % among PLHIV, and conventional cigarettes were the most used tobacco products. The prevalence of current smoking among patients with TB was higher among males (AOR=8.20; 95% CI: 5.05-13.32), Jordanians (AOR=5.37; 95% CI: 2.66-10.86) and Syrians (AOR=4.13; 95% CI: 1.60-10.67), and those experiencing financial difficulties (AOR=2.83; 95% CI: 1.69-4.74). The prevalence of current smoking among PLHIV was higher in those with financial difficulties (AOR=3.13; 95% CI: 1.19-8.27). CONCLUSIONS: Nearly half of the patients with TB and PLHIV were current tobacco smokers, higher than the general population. There is an urgent need to investigate the reasons for such a high smoking prevalence and introduce and strengthen smoking cessation services under the TB and HIV control programs.

6.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 19: 495-504, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37547281

RESUMO

Purpose: Chronic limb-threatening ischemia in patients with diabetes is associated with a high risk of adverse outcomes. The associated co-morbidities, the heterogeneity of foot presentation and the distribution of atherosclerotic lesions led to the emergence of multiple revascularization strategies and scoring systems to improve management outcomes. This study aimed to introduce a new index, the revascularization index (RI), and to assess its predictive value for the outcomes of primary endovascular intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes presenting with chronic limb-threatening ischemia. Patients and Methods: A retrospective electronic medical records review was conducted for patients with type 2 diabetes presenting with chronic limb-threatening ischemia managed at King Abdullah University Hospital by primary endovascular interventions between January 2014 and August 2019. The RI was analyzed for its predictive value for the treatment outcomes. Results: A total of 187 patients were included in this study, with a major lower limb amputation rate of 19.3%. The performance of the RI was excellent in predicting secondary revascularization (AUC = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.73-0.86, p-value < 0.001), good to predict major amputation (AUC = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.67-0.85, p-value = 0.047), and poor in predicting death (AUC = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.40-0.55, p-value = 0.398). RI of <1.21 was significantly associated with a higher risk of major lower limb amputation (HR = 5.8, 95% CI: 1.25-26.97, p-value < 0.025), and RI of < 1.3 was associated with a higher risk for secondary revascularization. Conclusion: The RI can be used to predict major adverse lower limb events (MALE). It might be used as a guide for the extent of endovascular interventions for diabetic chronic limb-threatening ischemia with multi-level outflow atherosclerotic disease.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Doença Arterial Periférica , Humanos , Isquemia Crônica Crítica de Membro , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Salvamento de Membro , Isquemia/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Front Digit Health ; 5: 1165692, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37304178

RESUMO

Introduction: There is a rapid increase in using digital technology for strengthening delivery of reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH) services. Although digital health has potentially many benefits, utilizing it without taking into consideration the possible risks related to the security and privacy of patients' data, and consequently their rights, would yield negative consequences for potential beneficiaries. Mitigating these risks requires effective governance, especially in humanitarian and low-resourced settings. The issue of governing digital personal data in RMNCH services has to date been inadequately considered in the context of low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs). This paper aimed to understand the ecosystem of digital technology for RMNCH services in Palestine and Jordan, the levels of maturity of them, and the implementation challenges experienced, particularly concerning data governance and human rights. Methods: A mapping exercise was conducted to identify digital RMNCH initiatives in Palestine and Jordan and mapping relevant information from identified initiatives. Information was collected from several resources, including relevant available documents and personal communications with stakeholders. Results: A total of 11 digital health initiatives in Palestine and 9 in Jordan were identified, including: 6 health information systems, 4 registries, 4 health surveillance systems, 3 websites, and 3 mobile-based applications. Most of these initiatives were fully developed and implemented. The initiatives collect patients' personal data, which are managed and controlled by the main owner of the initiative. Privacy policy was not available for many of the initiatives. Discussion: Digital health is becoming a part of the health system in Palestine and Jordan, and there is an increasing use of digital technology in the field of RMNCH services in both countries, particularly expanding in recent years. This increase, however, is not accompanied by clear regulatory policies especially when it comes to privacy and security of personal data, and how this data is governed. Digital RMNCH initiatives have the potential to promote effective and equitable access to services, but stronger regulatory mechanisms are required to ensure the effective realization of this potential in practice.

8.
Int J Risk Saf Med ; 34(2): 101-119, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37154188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many healthcare organizations place a high value on quality of work-life (QoWL). The healthcare system's long-term sustainability and capability to offer high-quality services to patients depend on improving QoWL for their healthcare workers. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to explore the impact of Jordanian hospitals' workplace policies and measures in three main domains: (I) Infection prevention and control (IPC) measures, (II) Supply of personal protective equipment (PPE), and (III) COVID-19 precautionary measures on the QoWL among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from May to June 2021 through an online self-reported questionnaire (Google Form) targeting hospital healthcare professionals working at Jordanian hospitals (public, private, military, and university). The study used a valid work-related quality of life (WRQoL) scale to study the QoWL. RESULTS: A total of 484 HCWs in Jordanian hospitals participated in the study with a mean age of (34.8 ± 8.28 years). 57.6% of the respondents were females. 66.1% were married, with 61.6% having children at home. An average QoWL among healthcare workers in Jordanian hospitals during the pandemic was observed. The study results also showed a significant positive correlation between workplace policies (IPC measures, supply of PPE, and COVID-19 preventive measures) and the WRQoL among healthcare workers. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlighted the vital need for QoWL and psychological well-being support services for healthcare staff during pandemics. Improved IPC systems and other precautionary measures at the national and hospital management levels are required to help minimize the stress and fear that healthcare workers experience and lower the risk of COVID-19 and future pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Feminino , Criança , Humanos , Adulto , Masculino , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Transversais , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Local de Trabalho , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Hospitais
9.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 11(9)2023 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37174856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Favorable attitudes toward modern family planning methods (MFPMs) among Jordanian and Syrian women do not always translate into behavioral changes, and the availability and cost of MFPMs do not appear to be related to either prior stalls in fertility rates in Jordan or to the current and likely temporary decline in fertility rates. This study aimed to determine whether behavioral economics (BE)-based family planning interventions influence the use of any family planning method, MFPMs use, continuation of MFPMs use, and pregnancy rates among women in Jordan. The BE-based family planning interventions included personalized text messaging and augmented counseling based on framing and identity-priming BE principles, with their effects tested over a 9-month period in the postpartum period following the birth of a child. METHODS: A parallel-group cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare two interventions, augmented counseling based on framing and identity-priming BE principles and personalized mobile phone text messages reminders, aiming to improve the utilization of MFPMs among postpartum women over status quo family planning services in comprehensive health centers in the north of Jordan. RESULTS: In total, 1032 participated in the study: 295 women in the control group; 326 women in Intervention Group 1, which received only augmented counseling; and 411 women in intervention Group 2, which received augmented counseling and monthly text messages. The rates of using MFPMs in the counseling group and the counseling and messages group 3 months (54.7% and 57.1%, respectively), 6 months (50.0% and 51.7%, respectively), and 9 months (49.5% and 52.0%, respectively) were significantly higher than the rates among women in the control group (40.6% at 3 months, 37.6% at 6 months, and 34.3% at 9 months). Overall, 26.8% of women in the control group, 42.1% of women in the counseling-only group, and 45.2% of women in the counseling and messages group used MFPMs continuously for all 9 months. At 9 months, the pregnancy rate was significantly much higher in the control group (13.7%) compared to women in the counseling-only group (7.0%) and to women in the counseling and messages group (7.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Simple BE-based interventions can be effective methods for enhancing the use of MFPMs and maintaining the anticipated decline in Jordan's total fertility rate.

10.
JMIR Form Res ; 7: e42590, 2023 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37213171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social support is one of the interpersonal stimuli that define an individual's predisposition to engage in health-promoting behaviors and is considered a facilitator in improving health habits. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can benefit from educating supportive families and friends on self-care management including exercise behavior. Multimedia messaging service (MMS) could also be an effective method for delivering targeted educational interventions that focus on physical activity (PA). OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of MMS educational interventions and perceived social support for exercise on level of PA of patients with T2DM. METHODS: A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design was conducted to recruit 98 patients with T2DM. The intervention group received MMS education aiming to improve exercise social support and PA level for 2 months, and their counterparts in the control group received the usual routine care. We sent 2 to 3 messages daily for 2 weeks from Saturday to Thursday (12 days total). These messages were a combination of videos and texts, and the evidence-based content of these messages was reviewed and approved by the advisory committee. We randomly assigned eligible patients in a 1:1 ratio into the intervention or the control groups. Participants completed a survey in 3 periods. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in friends' support, family verbal, practical, or emotional support over time in the intervention group (P>.05). Yet, there was a small effect size (Cohen d) in friends' social support (0.389), family practical support (0.271), and moderate activities (0.386). A medium effect size was found in family verbal (0.463) and emotional (0.468) support. Being married increased the likelihood of friends' support by 2.3 times after intervention (P=.04), whereas rarely doing exercise decreased the likelihood of friends' support by 28% (P=.03) and family practical support by 28% (P=.01). Being female and married increased the likelihood of doing moderate activities by 1.6 times (P=.002) and 1.5 times (P=.049) in the intervention group. Being a housewife decreased the likelihood of doing moderate activities by 20% (P=.001). Finally, being a female with a higher educational level decreased the likelihood of doing hard activities by 20% (P=.04) and 15% (P=.002), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A theoretically based MMS health education targeting PA levels and social support of family and friends to perform PA seems promising in promoting family and friends' social support and improving PA levels among patients with T2DM. Actively involving family and friends in educational interventions that target PA can have an impact on health-promoting behaviors in patients with diabetes.

11.
J Endod ; 49(6): 624-631.e2, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37080387

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Vital pulp therapy is increasingly practiced as an alternative treatment to root canal therapy (RCT) in teeth with carious pulp exposure. The aim of this study was to compare the outcome, quality of life (QOL), and patients' satisfaction after full pulpotomy and RCT in mature teeth with irreversible pulpitis. METHODS: Sixty mature permanent molar teeth with carious pulp exposure and a diagnosis of irreversible pulpitis were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 30). The first group was treated with full pulpotomy using Biodentine (Septodont, Saint Maur des Fosses, France), and the second group was treated with RCT. The pain level was recorded preoperatively and at 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 days. Clinical and radiographic assessments were performed at the 6- and 12-month follow-ups; 1 case in each group did not attend. Based on the Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaire and 7 semantic differential scales, QOL, and patients' satisfaction were evaluated and compared statistically. RESULTS: Pulpotomy and RCT had comparable success rates (27/29, 93%). Pain levels at day 1 after pulpotomy were significantly lower than after RCT (P = .037), less patients required analgesics (P = .028), and pulpotomy provided pain relief in a shorter time compared with RCT. Both treatments improved the Oral Health Impact Profile QOL of patients without significant differences (60.29, 64.1% at 1 year). Patients' satisfaction with pulpotomy was higher than RCT in terms of the time involved, intraoperative pain, pleasantness, and cost (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Full pulpotomy could be an alternative treatment to RCT in mature teeth with carious pulp exposure and symptomatic irreversible pulpitis based on the clinical and radiographic success rates and patients' satisfaction.


Assuntos
Pulpite , Pulpotomia , Humanos , Pulpite/cirurgia , Pulpite/tratamento farmacológico , Satisfação do Paciente , Tratamento do Canal Radicular , Compostos de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Silicatos/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Prev (2022) ; 44(2): 239-252, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36648568

RESUMO

Approximately 20 million children are not vaccinated, especially among refugees. There is a growing access to smartphones, among refugees, which can help in improving their vaccination. We assessed the impact of an app for the vaccination follow-up visit among refugees in Jordan. We developed an app and tested it through a non-randomized trial at the Zaatari refugees camp in Jordan. The study was conducted during March - December 2019 at three vaccination clinics inside the camp. The study included two study groups (intervention and control groups) for refugees living at the camp. The intervention group included parents who own an Android smartphone and have one newborn that require between one and four first vaccination doses and they accepted to participate in the study, during their regular visit to the vaccination clinics. The control group was for the usual care. We compared both study groups for returning back to one follow-up visit, using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. We recruited 936 babies (n = 471; 50.3% in the intervention group, both study groups were similar at baseline). The majority of mothers were literate (94.2%) with a median age of 24. The majority of the babies had a vaccination card (n = 878, 94%). One quarter (26%) of mother-babies pairs of the intervention group came back within one week (versus 22% for control group); When it comes to lost-follow-up, 22% and 28% did not have a history of returning back (intervention and control groups respectively, p = 0.06) (Relative risk reduction: 19%). The Kaplan-Meier Survival Analysis showed a statistically significant progressive reduction in the duration of coming back late for the follow-up vaccine visit. We tested a vaccination app for the first time, in a refugee population setting. The app can be used as a reminder for parents to come back on time for their children's vaccine follow-up visits.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Refugiados , Vacinas , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Jordânia , Síria , Vacinação , Imunização
13.
Tob Control ; 32(1): 86-92, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Waterpipe tobacco smoking rates in the Eastern Mediterranean region are among the highest worldwide, yet little evidence exists on its economics. Estimates of demand elasticities for tobacco products are largely limited to cigarettes. This study aimed to estimate own-price and cross-price elasticities of demand for cigarettes and waterpipe tobacco products in Lebanon, Jordan and Palestine. METHODS: A volumetric choice experiment was conducted using nationally representative household surveys. The choice experiment elicited respondents' stated purchases of eight cigarette and waterpipe tobacco product varieties by hypothetically varying prices. Data were analysed using zero-inflated Poisson models that yielded demand elasticity estimates of cigarette and waterpipe tobacco consumption. RESULTS: The study included 1680 participants in Lebanon (50% female), 1925 in Jordan (44.6% female) and 1679 in Palestine (50% female). We found the demand for premium cigarettes to be price elastic (range, -1.0 to -1.2) across all three countries, whereas the demand for discount cigarettes was less elastic than premium cigarettes in Lebanon (-0.6) and Jordan (-0.7) and more elastic in Palestine (-1.2). The demand for premium waterpipe tobacco was highly elastic in Lebanon (-1.9), moderately elastic in Jordan (-0.6) and inelastic in Palestine (0.2). The cross-price elasticity between cigarettes and waterpipe tobacco was near zero, suggesting that the two products are not considered to be close substitutes by consumers. CONCLUSIONS: These results serve as a strong evidence base for developing and implementing fiscal policies for tobacco control in the Eastern Mediterranean region that address cigarettes and waterpipe tobacco products.


Assuntos
Cachimbos de Água , Produtos do Tabaco , Tabaco para Cachimbos de Água , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comércio , Elasticidade , Impostos
14.
Am J Perinatol ; 40(7): 731-740, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058760

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study employed the "three-delay" model to investigate the types of critical delays and modifiable factors that contribute to the neonatal deaths and stillbirths in Jordan. STUDY DESIGN: A triangulation research method was followed in this study to present the findings of death review committees (DRCs), which were formally established in five major hospitals across Jordan. The DRCs used a specific death summary form to facilitate identifying the type of delay, if any, and to plan specific actions to prevent future similar deaths. A death case review form with key details was also filled immediately after each death. Moreover, data were collected from patient notes and medical records, and further information about a specific cause of death or the contributing factors, if needed, were collected. RESULTS: During the study period (August 1, 2019-February 1, 2020), 10,726 births, 156 neonatal deaths, and 108 stillbirths were registered. A delay in recognizing the need for care and in the decision to seek care (delay 1) was believed to be responsible for 118 (44.6%) deaths. Most common factors included were poor awareness of when to seek care, not recognizing the problem or the danger signs, no or late antenatal care, and financial constraints and concern about the cost of care. Delay 2 (delay in seeking care or reaching care) was responsible for nine (3.4%) cases. Delay 3 (delay in receiving care) was responsible for 81 (30.7%) deaths. The most common modifiable factors were the poor or lack of training that followed by heavy workload, insufficient staff members, and no antenatal documentation. Effective actions were initiated across all the five hospitals in response to the delays to reduce preventable deaths. CONCLUSION: The formation of the facility-based DRCs was vital in identifying critical delays and modifiable factors, as well as developing initiatives and actions to address modifiable factors. KEY POINTS: · Death review committees play key roles in identifying critical delays and modifiable factors.. · The "three-delay" model was successful in identifying preventable neonatal deaths and stillbirths.. · Death review committees are central in developing actions to reduce preventable deaths..


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal , Natimorto , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Jordânia , Hospitais , Parto , Mortalidade Infantil
15.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(10): 1607-1613, 2022 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332214

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The availability of evidence-based information sources for dentists is essential to influence antibiotic prescribing practices and we need to understand how dentists interact with such sources and how this influences their practice. The present study aimed to evaluate dentists' preferred sources of information and their awareness of available information and initiatives on prudent antibiotic prescribing practices in Jordan. METHODOLOGY: An online cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to dentists between July to September 2021. It was an adapted version of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) survey for antibiotic use and resistance. RESULTS: A total of 204 dentists responded to the survey. The main sources of information regarding avoiding unnecessary antibiotic prescribing were published guidelines (35.5%), the dental professional body (20.0%), colleagues or peers (18.6%), and scientific organizations (17.2%), with the influence of these sources on changing prescribers' views being 40.7%, 9.8%, 10.3%, and 14.2%, respectively. Of the surveyed dentists, 9.3%, 33.8%, and 56.9% were aware, unaware, and unsure of the presence of national action plans on antimicrobial resistance, respectively. Dentists reported their desire to receive more information about resistance to antibiotics (57.8%), medical conditions for which antibiotics are used (52.9%), how to use antibiotics (41.2%), prescribing of antibiotics (39.7%), and links between the health of humans, animals, and the environment (26.0%). CONCLUSIONS: The study provided insights into the information available to and used by dentists, which can inform effective antimicrobial stewardship strategies for improving antibiotic prescribing.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Padrões de Prática Odontológica , Humanos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Odontólogos , Jordânia
16.
Methods Inf Med ; 61(5-06): 139-154, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36379469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While there is a rapid increase in digital health initiatives focusing on the processing of personal data for strengthening the delivery of reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH) services in fragile settings, these are often unaccompanied at both the policy and operational levels with adequate legal and regulatory frameworks. OBJECTIVE: The main aim was to understand the maturity level of digital personal data initiatives for RMNCH services within fragile contexts. This aim was performed by choosing digital health initiatives from each country (two in Jordan and three in Palestine) based on RMNCH. METHODS: A qualitative study design was adopted. We developed a digital maturity assessment tool assessing two maturity levels: the information and communications technology digital infrastructure, and data governance and interoperability in place for the five selected RMNCH initiatives in Jordan and Palestine. RESULTS: Overall, the digital infrastructure and technological readiness components are more advanced and show higher maturity levels compared with data governance and interoperability components in Jordan and Palestine. In Jordan, the overall Jordan stillbirths and neonatal deaths surveillance initiative maturity indicators are somehow less advanced than those of the Electronic Maternal and Child Health Handbook-Jordan (EMCH-J) application. In Palestine, the Electronic Maternal and Child Health-registry initiative maturity indicators are more advanced than both Avicenna and EMCH-Palestine initiatives. CONCLUSION: The findings highlighted several challenges and opportunities around the application and implementation of selected digital health initiatives in the provision of RMNCH in Jordan and Palestine. Our findings shed lights on the maturity level of these initiatives within fragile contexts. The maturity level of the five RMNCH initiatives in both countries is inadequate and requires further advancement before they can be scaled up and scaled out. Taking the World Health Organization recommendations into account when developing, implementing, and scaling digital health initiatives in low- and middle-income countries can result in successful and sustainable initiatives, thus meeting health needs and improving the quality of health care received by individuals especially those living in fragile contexts.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Atenção à Saúde , Criança , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Jordânia , Saúde Global
17.
Int J Gen Med ; 15: 7669-7683, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36217367

RESUMO

Background: Dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are growing health problems, particularly in developing countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and pattern of dyslipidemia and its associated factors among patients with T2DM. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients with T2DM attending Family Medicine Clinics in Jordan between August 2017 and March 2019. The socio-demographics, clinical features, medications, and laboratory findings were collected. These laboratory findings included high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TGs). Results: A total of 870 patients with T2DM were included. The prevalence of dyslipidemia among patients with T2DM was 91.4%. The most common patterns of dyslipidemia were low HDL-C (66.2%), high LDL-C (62.1%), and hypertriglyceridemia (58.2%). Female gender, obesity, and hypertension were associated with diabetic dyslipidemia patterns. T2DM duration and poor glycemic control were associated with high LDL-C and hypercholesterolemia. Hypertriglyceridemia was associated with poor glycemic control and smoking. Conclusion: Dyslipidemia is highly prevalent among patients with T2DM. Evidence -based interventions are needed to prevent and control dyslipidemia among patients with T2DM in Jordan.

18.
Med Arch ; 76(4): 252-258, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36313947

RESUMO

Background: Streptococcus anginosus group (SAG) may be unrecognized or misidentified in the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory resulting in under-reporting. Consequently, their role as genuine pathogens remains underestimated. Objectives: The aim of this study is to suggest a reasonable identification approach that is suitable for laboratories of limited resources, to detect any possible emerging antimicrobial resistance, and to assess the genuine clinical spectrum of infections that are caused solely by SAG. Methods: Our research included 190 bacterial isolates from 190 patients. The isolates were examined by colonies' morphology, odor, hemolytic pattern on 5% sheep Blood agar and Gram staining. Lancefield serogrouping was determined by agglutination test. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was performed by disc diffusion method. The isolates were subjected to automated identification and AST by Vitek 2 compact instrument. The collected patients' data included age, gender, clinical condition and/or site of infection, and probable predisposing factor. Results: All isolates produced minute-sized colonies that consistently generated distinct odor. The isolates showed variable hemolytic patterns, and the majority (74.7%) were non-hemolytic. The isolates showed different Lancefield serogroups, and the commonest was group F (54.2%). A total of 188 (98.9%) isolates were identified by Vitek 2 compact instrument at ≥95% confidence. The isolates showed high rates of antimicrobial susceptibility, however the highest rate of antimicrobial resistance was detected to gentamicin (60.5%). A total of 98 (51.6%) strains were isolated from superficial non-invasive skin and soft tissue infections, 67 (35.3%) strains from deep invasive and sterile body fluids' infections, and 25 (13.1%) strains from upper respiratory tracts' infections. Conclusion: a combination of phenotypic characteristics could still represent a reasonable Laboratory identification battery. There was no significant emerging antimicrobial resistance detected. A broad genuine spectrum of clinical infections that are caused solely by SAG was reported in our institution.


Assuntos
Infecções Estreptocócicas , Streptococcus anginosus , Humanos , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Hospitais , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
19.
Int J Gen Med ; 15: 6611-6619, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35996596

RESUMO

Background: Previous studies showed variable estimate of the prevalence of hyperuricemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The prevalence of hyperuricemia and associated risk factors in Jordanian patients with T2DM is largely unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of hyperuricemia and its associated factors in Jordanian patients with T2DM. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 655 patients with T2DM. A structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data. In addition, records of the study subjects were reviewed to obtain other clinical data. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured, and body mass index was calculated. Lipid profile, serum uric acid and glycated haemoglobin were analysed. The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. An informed written consent was obtained from each participant. The confidentiality of the information was assured and only used for scientific purposes. Results: Overall, the prevalence of hyperuricemia was 28.1%. Female gender (OR: 2.37; 95%, CI: 1.63-3.45), intake of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin-II receptor blockers (ARBs) (OR: 1.68; 95%, CI: 1.12-2.50), intake of ß-blockers (OR: 2.20; 95%, CI: 1.51-3.22), increased waist circumference (OR: 3.17; 95%, CI: 1.39-7.22) and family history of hyperuricemia (OR: 2.56; 95%, CI: 1.57-4.16) were associated with increased odds of hyperuricemia. Conclusion: Hyperuricemia was high among type 2 diabetic patients, and screening test will be useful for those patients.

20.
Work ; 72(3): 1119-1128, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35634840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many cross-sectional studies have examined the predictors of neck pain among adolescents and working-age populations, but there are limited studies included undergraduate students. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the predictors of neck disability among undergraduate students. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using a self-administered online survey. Students completed the survey that included socio-demographic factors, academic-related factors, health and lifestyle factors, and standardized questionnaires including Neck Disability Index (NDI), 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12), Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Students who reported an NDI score higher than 15 were considered as having a neck disability. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify the significant predictors of neck disability. RESULTS: Of all students (n = 1292), 20.8% reported neck disability. Among all possible predictors, students' major satisfaction (OR 1.46 [95% CI 1.06-2.01]; p = 0.019), DASS-21 anxiety score (OR 1.06 [95% CI 1.03-1.09]; p < 0.001), SF-12 total score (OR 0.89 [95% CI 0.86-92]; p < 0.001), and PSQI score (OR 1.21 [95% CI 1.15-1.28]; p < 0.001) were the only significant predictors of neck disability. CONCLUSIONS: Increased levels of academic stressors and anxiety, and decreased levels of quality of life and sleep quality are associated with increased neck disability among undergraduate students.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Estudantes , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
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