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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243811, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249262

RESUMO

Abstract An ethnobotanical study was conducted to document indigenous medicinal plants and their usage from knowledgeable and elderly persons in Razzar and Gadoon valley of Swabi and Allai and Tanawal valley of Hazara region of Pakistan during 2016-2019. Several systematic field visits and questionnaire surveys were carried out in selected sites of the study area to gather relevant information from the local community. Rapid assessment method was adopted for data collection by interviewing the local people having enough knowledge of medicinal plants use for treatment of different ailments. UV (UV) formula was applied to calculate the relative importance of medicinal plant species in each site of the study area. In the present study, 221 medicinal plants belonging to 105 families have been reported through 580 respondents (385 males, 138 females and 57 local health healer) from the Swabi and Hazara region. The main sources of herbal medicines were leaves (21%) followed by fruits (21%), seeds (17%), whole plants (14%), roots (9%), bark (9%), flowers (7%) and gum (2%). Mentha spicata L. and Berberis lycium Royle were reported with highest UV (UV) i.e. 0.92 and 0.68 in Razzar tehsil and Gadoon valley of Swabi, whereas Mentha longifolia L and Geranium wallichianum D were reported with highest UV i.e. (0.65) and (0.88) in Allai and Tanawal valley of Hazara region, respectively. It was concluded that Swabi and Hazara region is rich in medicinal plants species and associated traditional knowledge. Moreover, ethno-medicines have played significant role in the indigenous healthcare system of the study area. However, uprooting the entire plant for ethno-medicine is a big threat to conservation of medicinal plants diversity in the study area.


Resumo Um estudo etnobotânico foi realizado para documentar as plantas medicinais indígenas e seu uso por pessoas experientes e idosas em Razzar e Gadoon, no vale de Swabi e no vale Allai e Tanawal da região de Hazara, no Paquistão, durante 2016 a 2019. Várias visitas sistemáticas de campo e pesquisas por questionário foram realizadas em locais selecionados da área de estudo para coletar informações relevantes da comunidade local. O método de avaliação rápida foi adotado para a coleta de dados por meio de entrevistas com a população local, com conhecimento suficiente do uso de plantas medicinais para o tratamento de diferentes enfermidades. A fórmula UV (UV) foi aplicada para calcular a importância relativa das espécies de plantas medicinais em cada local da área de estudo. No presente estudo, 221 plantas medicinais pertencentes a 105 famílias foram relatadas por 580 entrevistados (385 homens, 138 mulheres e 57 curandeiros locais) da região de Swabi e Hazara. As principais fontes de medicamentos fitoterápicos foram folhas (21%), seguidas de frutas (21%), sementes (17%), plantas inteiras (14%), raízes (9%), cascas (9%), flores (7%) e goma (2%). Mentha spicata L. e Berberis lycium Royle foram relatados com maior UV (UV), ou seja, 0,92 e 0,68 em Razzar tehsil e vale Gadoon de Swabi, enquanto Mentha longifolia L. e Geranium wallichianum D. foram relatados com maior UV, isto é, 0,65 e 0,88 no vale Allai e Tanawal da região de Hazara, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que a região de Swabi e Hazara é rica em espécies de plantas medicinais e conhecimentos tradicionais associados. Além disso, etnomedicamentos têm desempenhado um papel significativo no sistema de saúde indígena da área de estudo. No entanto, arrancar a planta inteira para etnomedicina é uma grande ameaça à conservação da diversidade de plantas medicinais na área de estudo.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244011, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468510

RESUMO

Climatic factors play an essential role in the growth of tree ring width. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the correlation between climatic variables and tree-ring growth characteristics of Pinus sibirica in Altai mountains, northwestern China. This study being is first of its kind on climate growth analysis of Pinus sibirica in northwestern China. The study showed great potential to understand the species growing under the specific climatic conditions. Total of 70 tree cores collected from three sites in the sampling area, out of which 63 tree cores considered for this study. The effect of climatic variables which was studied include precipitation, temperature and PDSI. Our results showed that Tree Ring Width chronology has a significantly positive correlation with the late winter (March) temperature and significant negative correlation with the July temperatures. A significant correlation was observed with the late summer precipitation whereas no significant relation found with the Palmer Drought Severity Index. These significant correlations with temperature and precipitation suggested that this tree species had the potential for the reconstruction of the past climate in the area.


Assuntos
Pinus , China , Secas , Temperatura , Árvores
3.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246727, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468521

RESUMO

Unavailability of probiotics in fish digestive system fingerlings is unable to digest and absorb their food properly. The current research was conducted to investigate the influence of probiotics added Linseed meal based (LMB) diet on hematology and carcass composition of Labeo rohita juveniles. Hematological parameters are essential diagnostics used to estimate the health status of fish. The usage of probiotics for fish health improvement is becoming common due to the higher demand for environment-friendly culture system in water. Linseed meal was used as a test ingredient to prepare six experimental test diets by adding probiotics (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 g/kg) and 1% indigestible chromic oxide for seventy days. According to their live wet weight, five percent feed was given to fingerlings twice a day. Fish blood and carcass samples (Whole body) were taken for hematological and carcass analysis at the end of the experiment. The highest carcass composition (crude protein; 18.72%, crude fat; 8.80% and gross energy; 2.31 kcal/g) was observed in fish fed with test diet II supplemented with probiotics (2 g/kg). Moreover, maximum RBCs number (2.62× 106mm-3), WBCs (7.84×103mm-3), PCV (24.61), platelets (63.85) and hemoglobin (7.87) had also been reported in the fish fingerlings fed on 2 g/kg of probiotics supplemented diet. Results indicated that probiotics supplementation has a critical role in improvement of fingerlings' body composition and hematological indices. Present findings showed that probiotics supplementation at 2 g/kg level in linseed by-product-based diet was very useful for enhancing the overall performance of L. rohita fingerlings.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Linho , Probióticos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária
4.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389857

RESUMO

AIMS : The aim of this study was to determine the contemporary use of reperfusion therapy in the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) member and affiliated countries and adherence to ESC clinical practice guidelines in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). METHODS AND RESULTS : Prospective cohort (EURObservational Research Programme STEMI Registry) of hospitalized STEMI patients with symptom onset <24 h in 196 centres across 29 countries. A total of 11 462 patients were enrolled, for whom primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (total cohort frequency: 72.2%, country frequency range 0-100%), fibrinolysis (18.8%; 0-100%), and no reperfusion therapy (9.0%; 0-75%) were performed. Corresponding in-hospital mortality rates from any cause were 3.1%, 4.4%, and 14.1% and overall mortality was 4.4% (country range 2.5-5.9%). Achievement of quality indicators for reperfusion was reported for 92.7% (region range 84.8-97.5%) for the performance of reperfusion therapy of all patients with STEMI <12 h and 54.4% (region range 37.1-70.1%) for timely reperfusion. CONCLUSIONS : The use of reperfusion therapy for STEMI in the ESC member and affiliated countries was high. Primary PCI was the most frequently used treatment and associated total in-hospital mortality was below 5%. However, there was geographic variation in the use of primary PCI, which was associated with differences in in-hospital mortality.

5.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 111914, 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437851

RESUMO

In this work, graphene oxide-p-Phenylenediamine nanocomposites of two different ratios of Graphene oxide: p-Phenylenediamine (1:1 and 1:5) were prepared and characterized by using analytical, spectroscopic and microscopic studies (GO-pPD 11 and GO-pPD 15). These nanocomposites were employed as fluorescent chemosensors for sensing potential cations. Remarkably, graphene oxide-p-Phenylenediamine nanocomposites of ratio 1:1 (GO-pPD 15) was selective and sensitive to Ag+ ions, whereas the graphene oxide-p-Phenylenediamine nanocomposites of ratio 1:5 (GO-pPD 15) was selective to Ce3+ions. A possible mechanism as switch "off-on" is proposed built on the inhibition of the photo induced electron transfer process in both the fluorescent probes in detecting the metal ions. In addition, interference studies were performed with the help of competitive complexation analysis and no significant interference were found by other potentially competing cations. The pH studies revealed that both the chemosensors can be used at the physiological pH for the ion detection and also the detection time was within 2-3 min. Both the chemosensors show good reversibility and hence the sensors can be used for multiple times. The newer nanocomposites were then utilized in the real water sample analysis as to check its real level application purpose.

6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): 2113775, June. 2021. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1283951

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Obesity is a growing public health threat leading to serious health consequences. Late bedtime and sleep loss are common in modern society, but their associations with specific obesity types are not well characterized. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether sleep timing and napping behavior are associated with increased obesity, independent of nocturnal sleep length. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This large, multinational, population-based cross-sectional study used data of participants from 60 study centers in 26 countries with varying income levels as part of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology study. Participants were aged 35 to 70 years and were mainly recruited during 2005 and 2009. Data analysis occurred from October 2020 through March 2021. EXPOSURES: Sleep timing (ie, bedtime and wake-up time), nocturnal sleep duration, daytime napping. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcomes were prevalence of obesity, specified as general obesity, defined as body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) of 30 or greater, and abdominal obesity, defined as waist circumference greater than 102 cm for men or greater than 88 cm for women. Multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for study centers were performed to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% CIs. RESULTS: Overall, 136 652 participants (81 652 [59.8%] women; mean [SD] age, 51.0 [9.8] years) were included in analysis. A total of 27 195 participants (19.9%) had general obesity, and 37 024 participants (27.1%) had abdominal obesity. The mean (SD) nocturnal sleep duration was 7.8 (1.4) hours, and the median (interquartile range) midsleep time was 2:15 AM (1:30 AM-3:00 AM). A total of 19 660 participants (14.4%) had late bedtime behavior (ie, midnight or later). Compared with bedtime between 8 PM and 10 PM, late bedtime was associated with general obesity (AOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.12-1.29) and abdominal obesity (AOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.12-1.28), particularly among participants who went to bed between 2 AM and 6 AM (general obesity: AOR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.18-1.54; abdominal obesity: AOR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.21-1.58). Short nocturnal sleep of less than 6 hours was associated with general obesity (eg, <5 hours: AOR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.13-1.43), but longer napping was associated with higher abdominal obesity prevalence (eg, ≥1 hours: AOR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.31-1.47). Neither going to bed during the day (ie, before 8PM) nor wake-up time was associated with obesity. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This cross-sectional study found that late nocturnal bedtime and short nocturnal sleep were associated with increased risk of obesity prevalence, while longer daytime napping did not reduce the risk but was associated with higher risk of abdominal obesity. Strategic weight control programs should also encourage earlier bedtime and avoid short nocturnal sleep to mitigate obesity epidemic.


Assuntos
Sono , Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade , Polissonografia
7.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0251560, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common autosomal dominant disorder that can result in premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Limited data are available worldwide about the prevalence and management of FH. Here, we aimed to estimate the prevalence and management of patients with FH in five Arabian Gulf countries (Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, and Bahrain). METHODS: The multicentre, multinational Gulf FH registry included adults (≥18 years old) recruited from outpatient clinics in 14 tertiary-care centres across five Arabian Gulf countries over the last five years. The Gulf FH registry had four phases: 1- screening, 2- classification based on the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network, 3- genetic testing, and 4- follow-up. RESULTS: Among 34,366 screened patient records, 3713 patients had suspected FH (mean age: 49±15 years; 52% women) and 306 patients had definite or probable FH. Thus, the estimated FH prevalence was 0.9% (1:112). Treatments included high-intensity statin therapy (34%), ezetimibe (10%), and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors (0.4%). Targets for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were achieved by 12% and 30%, respectively, of patients at high ASCVD risk, and by 3% and 6%, respectively, of patients at very high ASCVD risk (p <0.001; for both comparisons). CONCLUSIONS: This snap-shot study was the first to show the high estimated prevalence of FH in the Arabian Gulf region (about 3-fold the estimated prevalence worldwide), and is a "call-to-action" for further confirmation in future population studies. The small proportions of patients that achieved target LDL-C values implied that health care policies need to implement nation-wide screening, raise FH awareness, and improve management strategies for FH.

8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2113775, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190997

RESUMO

Importance: Obesity is a growing public health threat leading to serious health consequences. Late bedtime and sleep loss are common in modern society, but their associations with specific obesity types are not well characterized. Objective: To assess whether sleep timing and napping behavior are associated with increased obesity, independent of nocturnal sleep length. Design, Setting, and Participants: This large, multinational, population-based cross-sectional study used data of participants from 60 study centers in 26 countries with varying income levels as part of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology study. Participants were aged 35 to 70 years and were mainly recruited during 2005 and 2009. Data analysis occurred from October 2020 through March 2021. Exposures: Sleep timing (ie, bedtime and wake-up time), nocturnal sleep duration, daytime napping. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were prevalence of obesity, specified as general obesity, defined as body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) of 30 or greater, and abdominal obesity, defined as waist circumference greater than 102 cm for men or greater than 88 cm for women. Multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for study centers were performed to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% CIs. Results: Overall, 136 652 participants (81 652 [59.8%] women; mean [SD] age, 51.0 [9.8] years) were included in analysis. A total of 27 195 participants (19.9%) had general obesity, and 37 024 participants (27.1%) had abdominal obesity. The mean (SD) nocturnal sleep duration was 7.8 (1.4) hours, and the median (interquartile range) midsleep time was 2:15 am (1:30 am-3:00 am). A total of 19 660 participants (14.4%) had late bedtime behavior (ie, midnight or later). Compared with bedtime between 8 pm and 10 pm, late bedtime was associated with general obesity (AOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.12-1.29) and abdominal obesity (AOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.12-1.28), particularly among participants who went to bed between 2 am and 6 am (general obesity: AOR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.18-1.54; abdominal obesity: AOR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.21-1.58). Short nocturnal sleep of less than 6 hours was associated with general obesity (eg, <5 hours: AOR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.13-1.43), but longer napping was associated with higher abdominal obesity prevalence (eg, ≥1 hours: AOR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.31-1.47). Neither going to bed during the day (ie, before 8pm) nor wake-up time was associated with obesity. Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found that late nocturnal bedtime and short nocturnal sleep were associated with increased risk of obesity prevalence, while longer daytime napping did not reduce the risk but was associated with higher risk of abdominal obesity. Strategic weight control programs should also encourage earlier bedtime and avoid short nocturnal sleep to mitigate obesity epidemic.

9.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e243811, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076167

RESUMO

An ethnobotanical study was conducted to document indigenous medicinal plants and their usage from knowledgeable and elderly persons in Razzar and Gadoon valley of Swabi and Allai and Tanawal valley of Hazara region of Pakistan during 2016-2019. Several systematic field visits and questionnaire surveys were carried out in selected sites of the study area to gather relevant information from the local community. Rapid assessment method was adopted for data collection by interviewing the local people having enough knowledge of medicinal plants use for treatment of different ailments. UV (UV) formula was applied to calculate the relative importance of medicinal plant species in each site of the study area. In the present study, 221 medicinal plants belonging to 105 families have been reported through 580 respondents (385 males, 138 females and 57 local health healer) from the Swabi and Hazara region. The main sources of herbal medicines were leaves (21%) followed by fruits (21%), seeds (17%), whole plants (14%), roots (9%), bark (9%), flowers (7%) and gum (2%). Mentha spicata L. and Berberis lycium Royle were reported with highest UV (UV) i.e. 0.92 and 0.68 in Razzar tehsil and Gadoon valley of Swabi, whereas Mentha longifolia L and Geranium wallichianum D were reported with highest UV i.e. (0.65) and (0.88) in Allai and Tanawal valley of Hazara region, respectively. It was concluded that Swabi and Hazara region is rich in medicinal plants species and associated traditional knowledge. Moreover, ethno-medicines have played significant role in the indigenous healthcare system of the study area. However, uprooting the entire plant for ethno-medicine is a big threat to conservation of medicinal plants diversity in the study area.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Idoso , Etnobotânica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Paquistão , Fitoterapia
10.
Environ Res ; 199: 111322, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019895

RESUMO

Heavy metal pollution in the water bodies causes a serious threat to all living beings. Extended exposure of heavy metals such as nickel (Ni) ions causes cancer. Henceforth, the current study investigated the removal of Ni ions from the electroplating effluent using nanocomposites namely, Graphene Oxide (GO) and Reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO) in the presence of various factors such as contact time, pH, agitation speed and sorbent dosage. Further, it was determined the rate kinetic model and adsorption equilibrium isotherms. The study also focused on comparing the removal efficiency of two nanocomposites. The maximum sorption efficiency were found to be 90.8% and 84.4% at optimized pH (8), contact time (180-1440 m), RPM (250-300) and adsorbent dosage (0.2 mg/L) for GO and rGO respectively. Furthermore, toxicity of treated and untreated effluent were tested against Phosphobacter and Azospirillium using GO and rGO and found that the treated effluent was non-toxic. The contribution of this study to agriculture in using recycled effluent for crop cultivation was being verified by seed germination of Lablab purpureus seeds watered with treated and untreated effluent. Finally we concluded that the results of treated water can be used for cultivation as there was healthy growth of plants.


Assuntos
Níquel , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Galvanoplastia , Grafite , Íons , Cinética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
J Affect Disord ; 287: 316-326, 2021 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim is to examine whether biomarkers of the immune-inflammatory response (IRS) and endogenous opioid (EOS) systems are associated with affective symptoms in schizophrenia. METHODS: We recruited 115 schizophrenia patients and 43 healthy controls and assessed the Hamilton Depression (HDRS) and Anxiety (HAM-A) rating Scale scores as well as serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, eotaxin (CCL11), high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1), and mu (MOR) and kappa (KOR) opioid receptors. RESULTS: The HDRS and HAM-A scores are significantly and positively correlated with a) psychosis, hostility, excitation, mannerism, negative symptoms, psychomotor retardation, and formal thought disorders; and b) lowered scores on semantic and episodic memory, executive functions, and attention tests as measured with the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Psychiatry. Both HDRS and HAM-A are significantly increased in non-responders to treatment as compared with partial responders. Both affective scores are strongly associated with a latent vector extracted from all symptoms, reflecting overall severity of schizophrenia symptoms (OSOS), and neurocognitive test scores, reflecting a generalized cognitive decline (G-CoDe). The HDRS score was strongly and positively associated with IL-6, HMGB1, KOR, and MOR levels, and the HAM-A score with IL-6, IL-10, CCL11, HMGB1, KOR, and MOR levels. A single latent trait may be extracted from OSOS, G-CoDe, and the HDRS and HAMA scores, and this latent vector score is strongly predicted by HMGB1, MOR, and DKK1. CONCLUSION: Immune-inflammatory and EOS pathways contribute to the phenome of schizophrenia, which comprises OSOS, affective, and physiosomatic symptoms, and G-CoDe.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Função Executiva , Humanos
12.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(3)2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753400

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between social isolation and mortality and incident diseases in middle-aged adults in urban and rural communities from high-income, middle-income and low-income countries. DESIGN: Population-based prospective observational study. SETTING: Urban and rural communities in 20 high income, middle income and low income. PARTICIPANTS: 119 894 community-dwelling middle-aged adults. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Associations of social isolation with mortality, cardiovascular death, non-cardiovascular death and incident diseases. RESULTS: Social isolation was more common in middle-income and high-income countries compared with low-income countries, in urban areas than rural areas, in older individuals and among women, those with less education and the unemployed. It was more frequent among smokers and those with a poorer diet. Social isolation was associated with greater risk of mortality (HR of 1.26, 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.36), incident stroke (HR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.40), cardiovascular disease (HR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.25) and pneumonia (HR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.37), but not cancer. The associations between social isolation and mortality were observed in populations in high-income, middle-income and low-income countries (HR (95% CI): 1.69 (1.32 to 2.17), 1.27 (1.15 to 1.40) and 1.47 (1.25 to 1.73), respectively, interaction p=0.02). The HR associated with social isolation was greater in men than women and in younger than older individuals. Mediation analyses for the association between social isolation and mortality showed that unhealthy behaviours and comorbidities may account for about one-fifth of the association. CONCLUSION: Social isolation is associated with increased risk of mortality in countries at different economic levels. The increasing share of older people in populations in many countries argues for targeted strategies to mitigate its adverse effects.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Isolamento Social , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Pobreza
13.
JAMA Intern Med ; 181(5): 631-649, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683310

RESUMO

Importance: Cohort studies report inconsistent associations between fish consumption, a major source of long-chain ω-3 fatty acids, and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Whether the associations vary between those with and those without vascular disease is unknown. Objective: To examine whether the associations of fish consumption with risk of CVD or of mortality differ between individuals with and individuals without vascular disease. Design, Setting, and Participants: This pooled analysis of individual participant data involved 191 558 individuals from 4 cohort studies-147 645 individuals (139 827 without CVD and 7818 with CVD) from 21 countries in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study and 43 413 patients with vascular disease in 3 prospective studies from 40 countries. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated by multilevel Cox regression separately within each study and then pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. This analysis was conducted from January to June 2020. Exposures: Fish consumption was recorded using validated food frequency questionnaires. In 1 of the cohorts with vascular disease, a separate qualitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess intake of individual types of fish. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mortality and major CVD events (including myocardial infarction, stroke, congestive heart failure, or sudden death). Results: Overall, 191 558 participants with a mean (SD) age of 54.1 (8.0) years (91 666 [47.9%] male) were included in the present analysis. During 9.1 years of follow-up in PURE, compared with little or no fish intake (≤50 g/mo), an intake of 350 g/wk or more was not associated with risk of major CVD (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.86-1.04) or total mortality (HR, 0.96; 0.88-1.05). By contrast, in the 3 cohorts of patients with vascular disease, the HR for risk of major CVD (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73-0.96) and total mortality (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.74-0.91) was lowest with intakes of at least 175 g/wk (or approximately 2 servings/wk) compared with 50 g/mo or lower, with no further apparent decrease in HR with consumption of 350 g/wk or higher. Fish with higher amounts of ω-3 fatty acids were strongly associated with a lower risk of CVD (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97 per 5-g increment of intake), whereas other fish were neutral (collected in 1 cohort of patients with vascular disease). The association between fish intake and each outcome varied by CVD status, with a lower risk found among patients with vascular disease but not in general populations (for major CVD, I2 = 82.6 [P = .02]; for death, I2 = 90.8 [P = .001]). Conclusions and Relevance: Findings of this pooled analysis of 4 cohort studies indicated that a minimal fish intake of 175 g (approximately 2 servings) weekly is associated with lower risk of major CVD and mortality among patients with prior CVD but not in general populations. The consumption of fish (especially oily fish) should be evaluated in randomized trials of clinical outcomes among people with vascular disease.

14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(3): 1049-1058, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary guidelines recommend limiting red meat intake because it is a major source of medium- and long-chain SFAs and is presumed to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Evidence of an association between unprocessed red meat intake and CVD is inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to assess the association of unprocessed red meat, poultry, and processed meat intake with mortality and major CVD. METHODS: The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) Study is a cohort of 134,297 individuals enrolled from 21 low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Food intake was recorded using country-specific validated FFQs. The primary outcomes were total mortality and major CVD. HRs were estimated using multivariable Cox frailty models with random intercepts. RESULTS: In the PURE study, during 9.5 y of follow-up, we recorded 7789 deaths and 6976 CVD events. Higher unprocessed red meat intake (≥250 g/wk vs. <50 g/wk) was not significantly associated with total mortality (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.85, 1.02; P-trend = 0.14) or major CVD (HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.92, 1.11; P-trend = 0.72). Similarly, no association was observed between poultry intake and health outcomes. Higher intake of processed meat (≥150 g/wk vs. 0 g/wk) was associated with higher risk of total mortality (HR: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.10; P-trend = 0.009) and major CVD (HR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.98; P-trend = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: In a large multinational prospective study, we did not find significant associations between unprocessed red meat and poultry intake and mortality or major CVD. Conversely, a higher intake of processed meat was associated with a higher risk of mortality and major CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Manipulação de Alimentos , Carne , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , População Rural
15.
N Engl J Med ; 384(14): 1312-1322, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most data regarding the association between the glycemic index and cardiovascular disease come from high-income Western populations, with little information from non-Western countries with low or middle incomes. To fill this gap, data are needed from a large, geographically diverse population. METHODS: This analysis includes 137,851 participants between the ages of 35 and 70 years living on five continents, with a median follow-up of 9.5 years. We used country-specific food-frequency questionnaires to determine dietary intake and estimated the glycemic index and glycemic load on the basis of the consumption of seven categories of carbohydrate foods. We calculated hazard ratios using multivariable Cox frailty models. The primary outcome was a composite of a major cardiovascular event (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure) or death from any cause. RESULTS: In the study population, 8780 deaths and 8252 major cardiovascular events occurred during the follow-up period. After performing extensive adjustments comparing the lowest and highest glycemic-index quintiles, we found that a diet with a high glycemic index was associated with an increased risk of a major cardiovascular event or death, both among participants with preexisting cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25 to 1.82) and among those without such disease (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.34). Among the components of the primary outcome, a high glycemic index was also associated with an increased risk of death from cardiovascular causes. The results with respect to glycemic load were similar to the findings regarding the glycemic index among the participants with cardiovascular disease at baseline, but the association was not significant among those without preexisting cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, a diet with a high glycemic index was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. (Funded by the Population Health Research Institute and others.).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Índice Glicêmico , Carga Glicêmica , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(2): e1009276, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600501

RESUMO

Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) is a human prion disease resulting from zoonotic transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Documented cases of vCJD transmission by blood transfusion necessitate on-going risk reduction measures to protect blood supplies, such as leucodepletion (removal of white blood cells, WBCs). This study set out to determine the risks of prion transmission by transfusion of labile blood components (red blood cells, platelets, plasma) commonly used in human medicine, and the effectiveness of leucodepletion in preventing infection, using BSE-infected sheep as a model. All components were capable of transmitting prion disease when donors were in the preclinical phase of infection, with the highest rates of infection in recipients of whole blood and buffy coat, and the lowest in recipients of plasma. Leucodepletion of components (<106 WBCs/unit) resulted in significantly lower transmission rates, but did not completely prevent transmission by any component. Donor PRNP genotype at codon 141, which is associated with variation in incubation period, also had a significant effect on transfusion transmission rates. A sensitive protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) assay, applied to longitudinal series of blood samples, identified infected sheep from 4 months post infection. However, in donor sheep (orally infected), the onset of detection of PrPSc in blood was much more variable, and generally later, compared to recipients (intravenous infection). This shows that the route and method of infection may profoundly affect the period during which an individual is infectious, and the test sensitivity required for reliable preclinical diagnosis, both of which have important implications for disease control. Our results emphasize that blood transfusion can be a highly efficient route of transmission for prion diseases. Given current uncertainties over the prevalence of asymptomatic vCJD carriers, this argues for the maintenance and improvement of current measures to reduce the risk of transmission by blood products.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encefalopatia Espongiforme Bovina/genética , Encefalopatia Espongiforme Bovina/transmissão , Proteínas PrPSc/metabolismo , Príons/patogenicidade , Animais , Bovinos , Encefalopatia Espongiforme Bovina/sangue , Genótipo , Camundongos , Proteínas PrPSc/genética , Príons/genética , Ovinos
17.
BMJ ; 372: m4948, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536317

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between intakes of refined grains, whole grains, and white rice with cardiovascular disease, total mortality, blood lipids, and blood pressure in the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: PURE study in 21 countries. PARTICIPANTS: 148 858 participants with median follow-up of 9.5 years. EXPOSURES: Country specific validated food frequency questionnaires were used to assess intakes of refined grains, whole grains, and white rice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Composite of mortality or major cardiovascular events (defined as death from cardiovascular causes, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure). Hazard ratios were estimated for associations of grain intakes with mortality, major cardiovascular events, and their composite by using multivariable Cox frailty models with random intercepts to account for clustering by centre. RESULTS: Analyses were based on 137 130 participants after exclusion of those with baseline cardiovascular disease. During follow-up, 9.2% (n=12 668) of these participants had a composite outcome event. The highest category of intake of refined grains (≥350 g/day or about 7 servings/day) was associated with higher risk of total mortality (hazard ratio 1.27, 95% confidence interval 1.11 to 1.46; P for trend=0.004), major cardiovascular disease events (1.33, 1.16 to 1.52; P for trend<0.001), and their composite (1.28, 1.15 to 1.42; P for trend<0.001) compared with the lowest category of intake (<50 g/day). Higher intakes of refined grains were associated with higher systolic blood pressure. No significant associations were found between intakes of whole grains or white rice and health outcomes. CONCLUSION: High intake of refined grains was associated with higher risk of mortality and major cardiovascular disease events. Globally, lower consumption of refined grains should be considered.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Grãos Integrais , Adulto , Idoso , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oryza/efeitos adversos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Sleep Med ; 80: 265-272, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610073

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the association of bedtime with mortality and major cardiovascular events. METHODS: Bedtime was recorded based on self-reported habitual time of going to bed in 112,198 participants from 21 countries in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. Participants were prospectively followed for 9.2 years. We examined the association between bedtime and the composite outcome of all-cause mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke and heart failure. Participants with a usual bedtime earlier than 10PM were categorized as 'earlier' sleepers and those who reported a bedtime after midnight as 'later' sleepers. Cox frailty models were applied with random intercepts to account for the clustering within centers. RESULTS: A total of 5633 deaths and 5346 major cardiovascular events were reported. A U-shaped association was observed between bedtime and the composite outcome. Using those going to bed between 10PM and midnight as the reference group, after adjustment for age and sex, both earlier and later sleepers had a higher risk of the composite outcome (HR of 1.29 [1.22, 1.35] and 1.11 [1.03, 1.20], respectively). In the fully adjusted model where demographic factors, lifestyle behaviors (including total sleep duration) and history of diseases were included, results were greatly attenuated, but the estimates indicated modestly higher risks in both earlier (HR of 1.09 [1.03-1.16]) and later sleepers (HR of 1.10 [1.02-1.20]). CONCLUSION: Early (10 PM or earlier) or late (Midnight or later) bedtimes may be an indicator or risk factor of adverse health outcomes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Estilo de Vida , Humanos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
19.
Chemosphere ; 273: 129681, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517117

RESUMO

Silica nanoparticles are generally mesoporous that are predominant in the sand and rocks. Silica nanoparticles have a wide range of applications in various fields such as medicine, waste management, effluent treatment and electronics. The present work has explored the synthesis of silica nanoparticles through acid and alkaline leaching method from Pedalium murex which is a common weed that is found in southern parts of Tamil Nadu. Silica nanoparticles (SiNps) and its functional groups were confirmed by EDX and FTIR analysis with their respective energy dispersion levels and wavenumbers. Size, shape and morphological features of SiNps were analysed by PSA, TEM and SAED analysis. Synthesised and characterized nanosilica was crosslinked over nylon-66 and cellulose nitrate membranes and were confirmed by FTIR analysis for their crosslinking with SiNps. Water retention activity of the crosslinked and non crosslinked membranes was analysed by contact angle measurement to ensure the receptability of the membranes to remove contaminants by the adsorption. The decolourisation efficiency of the crosslinked nylon 66 membrane was found as a potential source for the treatment with 65.5% colour reduction when compared with other membranes. A slight reduction of solid profiles and COD ranges were achieved for crosslinked membranes than non crosslinked membranes.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Purificação da Água , Índia , Dióxido de Silício , Têxteis
20.
Cardiovasc Res ; 117(6): 1523-1531, 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777820

RESUMO

AIMS: To compare the prevalence of electrocardiogram (ECG)-documented atrial fibrillation (or flutter) (AF) across eight regions of the world, and to examine antithrombotic use and clinical outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Baseline ECGs were collected in 153 152 middle-aged participants (ages 35-70 years) to document AF in two community-based studies, spanning 20 countries. Medication use and clinical outcome data (mean follow-up of 7.4 years) were available in one cohort. Cross-sectional analyses were performed to document the prevalence of AF and medication use, and associations between AF and clinical events were examined prospectively. Mean age of participants was 52.1 years, and 57.7% were female. Age and sex-standardized prevalence of AF varied 12-fold between regions; with the highest in North America, Europe, China, and Southeast Asia (270-360 cases per 100 000 persons); and lowest in the Middle East, Africa, and South Asia (30-60 cases per 100 000 persons) (P < 0.001). Compared with low-income countries (LICs), AF prevalence was 7-fold higher in middle-income countries (MICs) and 11-fold higher in high-income countries (HICs) (P < 0.001). Differences in AF prevalence remained significant after adjusting for traditional AF risk factors. In LICs/MICs, 24% of participants with AF and a CHADS2 score ≥1 received antithrombotic therapy, compared with 85% in HICs. AF was associated with an increased risk of stroke [hazard ratio (HR) 2.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.49-3.52] and death (HR 2.97; 95% CI 2.25-3.93); with similar rates in different countries grouped by income level. CONCLUSIONS: Large variations in AF prevalence occur in different regions and countries grouped by income level, but this is only partially explained by traditional AF risk factors. Antithrombotic therapy is infrequently used in poorer countries despite the high risk of stroke associated with AF.

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