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1.
Cureus ; 16(2): e55119, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558642

RESUMO

The flu, often known as influenza, is a dangerous public health hazard for the pediatric population. Immunization is essential for decreasing the burden of the disease and avoiding complications related to influenza. However, the immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety of different influenza vaccines in children warrant careful evaluation. The purpose of this narrative review is to give a summary of the existing literature on the immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety of several vaccinations against influenza viruses in children. The review incorporates evidence from a range of studies focusing on the outcomes of interest. Immunogenicity studies have shown that influenza vaccines induce a robust immune response in children, primarily through neutralizing antibodies' formation. However, variations in vaccine composition influence the duration and magnitude of immune responses. Safety is a crucial consideration in pediatric vaccination. In children, influenza vaccinations have generally shown a high safety profile, with mild and temporary side effects being the most common. Vaccinations against influenza have shown a modest level of efficacy in avoiding hospitalizations linked to influenza, laboratory-confirmed influenza infections, and serious consequences in children. Live attenuated vaccines have shown higher effectiveness against matched strains compared to inactivated vaccines. In conclusion, this narrative review highlights that receiving influenza vaccination in children aged six to 47 months is very important. While different vaccines exhibit varying immunogenicity, safety profiles, and effectiveness, they all contribute to reducing the burden of influenza among children. Future research should focus on optimizing vaccine strategies, improving vaccine coverage, and evaluating long-term protection.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38588684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between the glycaemic index and the glycaemic load with type 2 diabetes incidence is controversial. We aimed to evaluate this association in an international cohort with diverse glycaemic index and glycaemic load diets. METHODS: The PURE study is a prospective cohort study of 127 594 adults aged 35-70 years from 20 high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries. Diet was assessed at baseline using country-specific validated food frequency questionnaires. The glycaemic index and the glycaemic load were estimated on the basis of the intake of seven categories of carbohydrate-containing foods. Participants were categorised into quintiles of glycaemic index and glycaemic load. The primary outcome was incident type 2 diabetes. Multivariable Cox Frailty models with random intercepts for study centre were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs). FINDINGS: During a median follow-up of 11·8 years (IQR 9·0-13·0), 7326 (5·7%) incident cases of type 2 diabetes occurred. In multivariable adjusted analyses, a diet with a higher glycaemic index was significantly associated with a higher risk of diabetes (quintile 5 vs quintile 1; HR 1·15 [95% CI 1·03-1·29]). Participants in the highest quintile of the glycaemic load had a higher risk of incident type 2 diabetes compared with those in the lowest quintile (HR 1·21, 95% CI 1·06-1·37). The glycaemic index was more strongly associated with diabetes among individuals with a higher BMI (quintile 5 vs quintile 1; HR 1·23 [95% CI 1·08-1·41]) than those with a lower BMI (quintile 5 vs quintile 1; 1·10 [0·87-1·39]; p interaction=0·030). INTERPRETATION: Diets with a high glycaemic index and a high glycaemic load were associated with a higher risk of incident type 2 diabetes in a multinational cohort spanning five continents. Our findings suggest that consuming low glycaemic index and low glycaemic load diets might prevent the development of type 2 diabetes. FUNDING: Full funding sources are listed at the end of the Article.

3.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 210: 108624, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38636254

RESUMO

Heavy metals are one of the most damaging environmental toxins that hamper growth of plants. These noxious chemicals include lead (Pb), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr). Chromium is one of the toxic metal which induces various oxidative processes in plants. The emerging role of nanoparticles as pesticides, fertilizers and growth regulators have attracted the attention of various scientists. Current study was conducted to explore the potential of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) alone and in combination with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) Klebsiella sp. SBP-8 in Cr stress alleviation in Brassica juncea (L.). Chromium stress reduced shoot fresh weight (40%), root fresh weight (28%), shoot dry weight (28%) and root dry weight (34%) in B. juncea seedlings. Chromium stressed B. juncea plants showed enhanced levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), electrolyte leakage (EL), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide ion (O2• -). However, co-supplementation of ZnONPs and Klebsiella sp. SBP-8 escalated the activity of antioxidant enzymes i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in B. juncea grown in normal and Cr-toxic soil. It is further proposed that combined treatment of ZnONPs and Klebsiella sp. SBP-8 may be useful for alleviation of other abiotic stresses in plants.

4.
Viruses ; 16(2)2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38400003

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 has caused the most devastating pandemic of all time in recent human history. However, there is a serious paucity of high-quality data on aggravating factors and mechanisms of co-infection. This study aimed to identify the trending patterns of bacterial co-infections and types and associated outcomes in three phases of the pandemic. Using quality hospital data, we have investigated the SARS-CoV-2 fatality rates, profiles, and types of bacterial co-infections before, during, and after COVID-19 vaccination. Out of 389 isolates used in different aspects, 298 were examined before and during the pandemic (n = 149 before, n = 149 during). In this group, death rates were 32% during compared to only 7.4% before the pandemic with significant association (p-value = 0.000000075). However, the death rate was 34% in co-infected (n = 170) compared to non-co-infected patients (n = 128), indicating a highly significant value (p-value = 0.00000000000088). However, analysis of patients without other serious respiratory problems (n = 28) indicated that among the remaining 270 patients, death occurred in 30% of co-infected patients (n = 150) and only 0.8% of non-co-infected (n = 120) with a high significant p-value = 0.00000000076. The trending patterns of co-infections before, during, and after vaccination showed a significant decline in Staphylococcus aureus with concomitant peaks in Gram negatives n = 149 before/n = 149 during, including Klebsiella pneumonian = 11/49 before/during, E. coli n = 10/24, A. baumannii n = 8/25, Ps. aeruginosa n = 5/16, and S. aureus 13/1. Nevertheless, in the post-vaccination phase (n = 91), gender-specific co-infections were examined for potential differences in susceptibility. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus dominated both genders followed by E. coli in males and females, with the latter gender showing higher rates of isolations in both species. Klebsiella pneumoniae declined to third place in male patients. The drastic decline in K. pneumoniae and Gram negatives post-vaccination strongly implied a potential co-protection in vaccines. Future analysis would gain more insights into molecular mimicry.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coinfecção , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Staphylococcus aureus , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Escherichia coli , SARS-CoV-2 , Bactérias , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Vacinação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
5.
Saudi Pharm J ; 32(3): 101958, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38322149

RESUMO

Introduction:  The universal increase in obesity and diabetes has increased the chronic kidney disease (CKD) rate. In 2017, almost 800 million individuals suffered from CKD worldwide. Kidney dialysis becomes necessary as the disease progresses. Dialysis negatively impacts CKD patients' quality of life (QoL). It causes several complications that affect patients' physical, social, psychological, and spiritual aspects of life. This systematic review aims to identify condition-specific tools used to assess CKD patients' quality of life on dialysis. Material and Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted to investigate studies using QoL tools among patients on dialysis from February 2000 to June 2023. The search was conducted in several databases and followed the PRISMA guidelines. The focus was to identify tools that capture intrinsic factors, such as spiritual subdomains, rather than extrinsic factors, such as environmental subdomains. Results: The review identified five studies and seven dialysis-specific tools for assessing the QoL of CKD patients on dialysis. The physical domain was the most assessed, followed by the psychological and social domains. Fatigue, muscle weakness, sleep disorders, and pain were identified as the most common concerns in the physical domain. Conclusion: Dialysis negatively impacts all aspects of QoL in CKD patients. This review can guide clinicians in understanding the disease and treatment burden by identifying the most appropriate tools for assessing the QoL of adult CKD patients undergoing dialysis. There is a need for further studies to explore the detrimental effects of CKD treatment and better understand its impact on patients' QoL.

6.
Cureus ; 16(1): e52508, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38371106

RESUMO

Background The most frequent gynecologic cancer in women is cervical cancer. The majority of incidents take place in less developed nations without access to reliable screening tools. Human papillomavirus (HPV) exposure, smoking, and immune system dysfunction are risk factors. As a result of effective screening, its incidence and death have significantly decreased in many nations. Hence, this study aims to assess the level of knowledge and awareness among parents regarding HPV, including its associated health risks and the benefits of vaccination. Methodology A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia from September to November 2023. The main tool used for gathering data was an online, self-administered survey via Google Forms. Collected data was analysed using SPSS v. 24 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY), where all applicable statistical tests were used. Results Females exhibited higher levels of confidence and agreement with COVID-19 and HPV vaccination recommendations compared to males. A substantial percentage of males expressed strong disagreement and reduced confidence in HPV vaccination, contributing to the gender-based divergence. Individuals with higher education levels, such as university degree graduates, showed greater support for compulsory vaccines and a preference for natural immunity development in their children. Marital status played a role in vaccine-related decisions, with variations in vaccine refusal rates and difficulty discussing the HPV vaccine noted among individuals based on their marital status. Conclusion The study highlights the value of medical experts and specifically created training programs to close knowledge gaps and boost HPV vaccination rates. Demographic factors have an impact on attitudes, which highlights the need for targeted interventions.

7.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 14(1)2024 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38201429

RESUMO

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is one of the major problems in COVID-19 that is not well understood. ARDS is usually complicated by co-infections in hospitals. Although ARDS is inherited by Europeans and Africans, this is not clear for those from the Middle East. There are severe limitations in correlations made between COVID-19, ARDS, co-infectome, and patient demographics. We investigated 298 patients for associations of ARDS, coinfections, and patient demographics on COVID-19 patients' outcomes. Of the 149 patients examined for ARDS during COVID-19, 16 had an incidence with a higher case fatality rate (CFR) of 75.0% compared to those without ARDS (27.0%) (p value = 0.0001). The co-infectome association showed a CFR of 31.3% in co-infected patients; meanwhile, only 4.8% of those without co-infections (p value = 0.01) died. The major bacteria were Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli, either alone or in a mixed infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of COVID-19 patients with and without ARDS revealed a significant difference in the survival time of patients with ARDS (58.8 +/- 2.7 days) and without ARDS (41.9 +/- 1.8 days) (p value = 0.0002). These findings prove that increased hospital time was risky for co-infectome-induced SDRS later on. This also explained that while empiric therapy and lethal ventilations delayed the mortality in 75% of patients, they potentially did not help those without co-infection or ARDS who stayed for shorter times. In addition, the age of patients (n = 298) was significantly associated with ARDS (72.9 +/- 8.9) compared to those without it (56.2 +/- 15.1) and was irrespective of gender. However, there were no significant differences neither in the age of admitted patients before COVID-19 (58.5 +/- 15.3) and during COVID-19 (57.2 +/- 15.5) nor in the gender and COVID-19 fatality (p value 0.546). Thus, Gram-negative co-infectome potentially induced fatal ARDS, aggravating the COVID-19 outcome. These findings are important for the specific differential diagnosis of patients with and without ARDS and co-infections. Future vertical investigations on mechanisms of Gram-negative-induced ARDS are imperative since hypervirulent strains are rapidly circulating. This study was limited as it was a single-center study confined to Ha'il hospitals; a large-scale investigation in major national hospitals would gain more insights.

8.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0296056, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38206951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Program for the Evaluation and Management of Cardiac Events in the Middle East and North Africa (PEACE MENA) is a prospective registry program in Arabian countries that involves in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or acute heart failure (AHF). METHODS: This prospective, multi-center, multi-country study is the first report of the baseline characteristics and outcomes of inpatients with AMI who were enrolled during the first 14-month recruitment phase. We report the clinical characteristics, socioeconomic, educational levels, and management, in-hospital, one month and one-year outcomes. RESULTS: Between April 2019 and June 2020, 1377 patients with AMI were enrolled (79.1% males) from 16 Arabian countries. The mean age (± SD) was 58 ± 12 years. Almost half of the population had a net income < $500/month, and 40% had limited education. Nearly half of the cohort had a history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or hypercholesterolemia; 53% had STEMI, and almost half (49.7%) underwent a primary percutaneous intervention (PCI) (lowest 4.5% and highest 100%). Thrombolytics were used by 36.2%. (Lowest 6.45% and highest (90.9%). No reperfusion occurred in 13.8% of patients (lowest was 0% and highest 72.7%).Primary PCI was performed less frequently in the lower income group vs. high income group (26.3% vs. 54.7%; P<0.001). Recurrent ischemia occurred more frequently in the low-income group (10.9% vs. 7%; P = 0.018). Re-admission occurred in 9% at 1 month and 30% at 1 year, whereas 1-month mortality was 0.7% and 1-year mortality 4.7%. CONCLUSION: In the MENA region, patients with AMI present at a young age and have a high burden of cardiac risk factors. Most of the patients in the registry have a low income and low educational status. There is heterogeneity among key performance indicators of AMI management among various Arabian countries.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Classe Social , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(1): 22, 2024 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38169010

RESUMO

The levels, spatial distribution, and sources of petroleum hydrocarbons and phthalates were assessed in surface sediment samples from the urban lagoon of Obhur near Jeddah, the largest city on the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. The lagoon was divided into the inner zone, middle zone, and outer zone based on its geomorphological features and developmental activities. n-Alkanes, hopane and sterane biomarkers, and unresolved complex mixture were the major petroleum hydrocarbon compounds of the total extractable organic matter. Phthalates were also measured in the sediment samples. In the three zones, n-alkanes ranged from 89.3 ± 88.5 to 103.2 ± 114.9 ng/g, whereas the hopane and sterane biomarkers varied from 69.4 ± 75.3 to 77.7 ± 69.9 ng/g and 72.5 ± 77.9-89.5 ± 82.2 ng/g, respectively. The UCM concentrations ranged from 821 ± 1119 to 1297 ± 1684 ng/g and phthalates from 37.4 ± 34.5 65 ± 68 ng/g. The primary origins of these anthropogenic hydrocarbons in the lagoon sediments were petroleum products (boat engine discharges, boat washing, lubricants, and wastewater flows) and plasticizers (plastic waste and litter). The proportions of anthropogenic hydrocarbons derived from petroleum products in the sediment's TEOM ranged from 43 ± 33 to 62 ± 15%, while the percentages for plasticizers varied from 2.9 ± 1.2 to 4.0 ± 1.6%. The presence and inputs of these contaminants from petroleum and plastic wastes in the lagoon's sediments will eventually have an impact on its habitats, including the benthic nursery and spawning areas.


Assuntos
Petróleo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Petróleo/análise , Oceano Índico , Arábia Saudita , Plastificantes , Sedimentos Geológicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Alcanos/análise , Biomarcadores , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise
10.
Ceska Slov Farm ; 73(1): 223-232, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38185645

RESUMO

Worldwide, hundreds of millions of people have been infected with COVID-19 since December 2019; however, about 20% or less developed severe symptoms. The main aim of the current study was to  assess  the  relationship  between  the  severity of Covid-19 and different clinical and laboratory parameters. A total number of 466 Arabs have willingly joined this prospective cohort. Out of the total number, 297 subjects (63.7%) had negative COVID-19 tests, and thus, they were recruited as controls, while 169 subjects (36.3%) who tested positive for COVID-19 were enrolled as cases. Out of the total number of COVID-19 patients, 127 (75.15%) presented with mild symptoms, and 42 (24.85%) had severe symptoms. The age range for the participants was 20 to 82 years. Compared with controls, the severity of the disease was associated with significantly high ferritin levels (P < 0.001). The severity of the disease was also associated with a significant increase in C-reactive protein (P < 0.001), D-dimer (P < 0.001), white blood cell count (WBC) (P < 0.01), IgM (P < 0.001), and Granulocytes (P < 0.01). In addition, severe COVID-19 symptoms in the current study were associated with a significant decrease in lymphocytes (P < 0.01). There was a four-fold increase in serum ferritin levels in COVID-19 patients presented with severe symptoms upon admission. The former was associated with significantly high levels of CRP and D-dimer. Thus, hyperferritinemia, together with high CRP and D-dimer concentrations, may serve as reliable predictors for disease severity and poor prognosis in Arabs with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hiperferritinemia , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Prospectivos , Ferritinas , Prognóstico
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256425, 2024. tab, graf, mapas
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364525

RESUMO

Using inventory data, this study evaluates the species composition, growing stock volume (GSV), and biomass carbon (BMC) of the five major timber species in the sub-tropical, and temperate/sub-alpine regions of Pakistan. It was found that the stem density varies between 50 and 221 trees ha -1, with a mean of 142 trees ha-1 (13.68 million trees for entire forest area). Among the species, Pinus wallichiana showed a high species composition (27.80%) followed by Picea smithiana (24.64%). The GSV was found in the range of 67.81 to 425.94 m3 ha-1, with a total GSV value of 20.68 million m3 for the entire region. Similarly, The BMC ranged from 27.04 to 169.86 Mg ha-1, with a mean BMC value of 86.80 Mg ha-1. The total amount of stored carbon was found at 8.69 million tons for a total of 95842 ha of commercially managed forest. Furthermore, the correlation analysis between the basal area (BA) and GSV and BMC showed that BA is the best predictor of GSV and BMC. The findings provide insights to the policy makers and forest managers regarding the sustainable commercial forest management as well as forest carbon management in the recent global carbon management for climate change mitigation.


Usando dados de inventário, este estudo avaliou a composição de espécies, volume de estoque crescente (GSV) e carbono de biomassa (BMC) das cinco principais espécies madeireiras nas regiões subtropicais e temperadas/subalpinas do Paquistão. Constatou-se que a densidade do caule variou entre 50 e 221 árvores ha-1, com média de 142 árvores ha-1 (13,68 milhões de árvores para toda a área florestal). Entre as espécies, Pinus wallichiana apresentou alta composição de espécies (27,80%), seguida de Picea smithiana (24,64%). O GSV foi encontrado na faixa de 67,81 a 425,94 m3 ha-1, com um valor total de 20,68 milhões de m3 para toda a região. Da mesma forma, o BMC variou de 27,04 a 169,86 mg ha-1, com valor médio de 86,80 mg ha-1. A quantidade total de carbono armazenado foi de 8,69 milhões de toneladas para um total de 95.842 ha de floresta manejada comercialmente. Além disso, a análise de correlação entre área basal (BA), GSV e BMC mostrou que BA é o melhor preditor de GSV e BMC. As descobertas fornecem insights para os formuladores de políticas e gestores florestais sobre o manejo florestal comercial sustentável, bem como o manejo florestal de carbono no recente gerenciamento global de carbono para a mitigação das mudanças climáticas.


Assuntos
Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carbono , Florestas , Biomassa
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469280

RESUMO

Abstract Land use and land cover change are affecting the global environment and ecosystems of the different biospheres. Monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of these changes is of utmost importance as they often results in several global environmental consequences such as land degradation, mass erosion, habitat deterioration as well as micro and macro climate of the regions. The advance technologies like remote sensing (RS) and geographical information system (GIS) are helpful in determining/ identifying these changes. In the current study area, changes in carbon stocks, notably in forest areas, are resulting in considerable dynamics of carbon stocks as a result of climate change and carbon sequestration. This study was carried out in the Diamer district of the Gilgit Baltistan (GB) Pakistan to investigate the change in cover change/land use change (particularly Forest Land use) as well as carbon sequestration potential of the forests in the district during almost last 25years. The land cover, temporal Landsat data (level 1, LIT) were downloaded from the USGS EROS (2016), for 1979-1989, 1990-2000 and 2001-2012. Change in land uses, particularly forest cover was investigated using GIS techniques. Forest inventory was carried out using random sampling techniques. A standard plot of size 0.1 ha (n=80) was laid out to determine the tree density, volume, biomass and C stocks. Simulation of C stocks was accomplished by application of the CO2FIX model with the data input from inventory. Results showed a decrease in both forest and snow cover in the region from 1979-2012. Similarly decrease was seen in tree volume, tree Biomass, dynamics of C Stocks and decrease was in occur tree density respectively. It is recommended we need further more like project such as BTAP (Billion Tree Afforestation Project) and green Pakistan project to increase the forest cover, to control on land use change, protect forest ecosystem and to protect snow cover.


Resumo O uso e as mudanças na cobertura da terra estão afetando o meio ambiente global e os ecossistemas das diferentes biosferas. O monitoramento, relatório e verificação (MRV) dessas mudanças são de extrema importância, pois muitas vezes resultam em várias consequências ambientais globais, como degradação da terra, erosão em massa, deterioração do hábitat, bem como micro e macroclima das regiões. As tecnologias avançadas, como sensoriamento remoto (RS) e sistema de informações geográficas (SIG), são úteis para determinar / identificar essas mudanças. Na área de estudo atual, as mudanças nos estoques de carbono, principalmente em áreas florestais, estão resultando em uma dinâmica considerável dos estoques de carbono como resultado das mudanças climáticas e do sequestro de carbono. Este estudo foi realizado no distrito de Diamer de Gilgit Baltistan (GB), Paquistão, para investigar a mudança na mudança de cobertura / mudança de uso da terra (particularmente uso de terras florestais), bem como o potencial de sequestro de carbono das florestas no distrito durante quase os últimos 25 anos. A cobertura da terra, os dados temporais do Landsat (nível 1, LIT), foram baixados do USGS EROS (2016), para 1979-1989, 1990-2000 e 2001-2012. Mudanças nos usos da terra, particularmente na cobertura florestal, foram investigadas usando técnicas de SIG. O inventário florestal foi realizado por meio de técnicas de amostragem aleatória. Um lote padrão de 0,1 ha (n = 80) foi estabelecido para determinar a densidade das árvores, volume, biomassa e estoques de C. A simulação dos estoques de C foi realizada pela aplicação do modelo CO2FIX com a entrada de dados do inventário. Os resultados mostraram uma diminuição na cobertura florestal e de neve na região de 1979 a 2012. Da mesma forma, diminuição foi observada no volume da árvore, biomassa das árvores, dinâmica dos estoques de C e diminuição na densidade das árvores, respectivamente. É recomendado que precisemos de mais projetos como o BTAP (Billion Tree Afforestation Project) e o projeto Green Pakistan para aumentar a cobertura florestal, controlar as mudanças no uso da terra, proteger o ecossistema florestal e proteger a cobertura de neve.

13.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469395

RESUMO

Abstract Using inventory data, this study evaluates the species composition, growing stock volume (GSV), and biomass carbon (BMC) of the five major timber species in the sub-tropical, and temperate/sub-alpine regions of Pakistan. It was found that the stem density varies between 50 and 221 trees ha -1, with a mean of 142 trees ha-1 (13.68 million trees for entire forest area). Among the species, Pinus wallichiana showed a high species composition (27.80%) followed by Picea smithiana (24.64%). The GSV was found in the range of 67.81 to 425.94 m3 ha-1, with a total GSV value of 20.68 million m3 for the entire region. Similarly, The BMC ranged from 27.04 to 169.86 Mg ha-1, with a mean BMC value of 86.80 Mg ha-1. The total amount of stored carbon was found at 8.69 million tons for a total of 95842 ha of commercially managed forest. Furthermore, the correlation analysis between the basal area (BA) and GSV and BMC showed that BA is the best predictor of GSV and BMC. The findings provide insights to the policy makers and forest managers regarding the sustainable commercial forest management as well as forest carbon management in the recent global carbon management for climate change mitigation.


Resumo Usando dados de inventário, este estudo avaliou a composição de espécies, volume de estoque crescente (GSV) e carbono de biomassa (BMC) das cinco principais espécies madeireiras nas regiões subtropicais e temperadas/subalpinas do Paquistão. Constatou-se que a densidade do caule variou entre 50 e 221 árvores ha-1, com média de 142 árvores ha-1 (13,68 milhões de árvores para toda a área florestal). Entre as espécies, Pinus wallichiana apresentou alta composição de espécies (27,80%), seguida de Picea smithiana (24,64%). O GSV foi encontrado na faixa de 67,81 a 425,94 m3 ha-1, com um valor total de 20,68 milhões de m3 para toda a região. Da mesma forma, o BMC variou de 27,04 a 169,86 mg ha-1, com valor médio de 86,80 mg ha-1. A quantidade total de carbono armazenado foi de 8,69 milhões de toneladas para um total de 95.842 ha de floresta manejada comercialmente. Além disso, a análise de correlação entre área basal (BA), GSV e BMC mostrou que BA é o melhor preditor de GSV e BMC. As descobertas fornecem insights para os formuladores de políticas e gestores florestais sobre o manejo florestal comercial sustentável, bem como o manejo florestal de carbono no recente gerenciamento global de carbono para a mitigação das mudanças climáticas.

14.
Heliyon ; 9(12): e22175, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38076138

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients with acute heart failure (AHF) stratified by mitral regurgitation (MR) in the Arabian Gulf. Patients from the Gulf CARE registry were identified from 47 hospitals in seven Arabian Gulf countries (Yemen, Oman, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates, and Saudi Arabia) from February to November 2012. The cohort was stratified into two groups based on the presence of MR. Univariable and multivariable statistical analyses were performed. The population cohort included 5005 consecutive patients presenting with AHF, of whom 1491 (29.8 %) had concomitant MR. The mean age of patients with AHF and concomitant MR was 59.2 ± 14.9 years, and 63.1 % (n = 2886) were male. A total of 58.6 % (n = 2683) had heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (EF) (HFrEF), 21.0 % (n = 961) had HF with mildly reduced EF (HFmrEF), and 20.4 % (n = 932) had HF with preserved EF (HFpEF). Patients with MR had a lower haemoglobin (Hb) level (12.4 vs. 12.7 g/dL; p < 0.001), and a higher prevalence of left atrial enlargement (80.2 % vs. 55.1 %; p < 0.001), cardiogenic shock (9.7 % vs. 7.3 %; p = 0.006) and atrial fibrillation (7.6 % vs. 5.6 %; p = 0.006), and HFrEF (71.0 % vs. 52.6 %; P < 0.001). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that MR was independently associated with increased all-cause mortality at 1-year and 3-month HF rehospitalization [1-year all-cause mortality, adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 1.40; 95 % confidence interval (Cl): 1.13-1.74; p = 0.002; 3-month HF rehospitalization, aOR, 1.26; 95 % Cl: 1.06-1.49; p = 0.009]. In an Arabian Gulf cohort with AHF, concomitant MR was associated with an increased risk of 1-year mortality and 3-months HF rehospitalization.

15.
Int J Phytoremediation ; : 1-10, 2023 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38143325

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is the most toxic element which may cause serious consequences to microbial communities, animals, and plants. The use of green technologies like phytoremediation employs plants with high biomass and metal tolerance to extract toxic metals from their rooting zones. In the present work, Hydrocotyle umbellata was exposed to five Cd concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 µmol) in triplicates to judge its phytoextraction ability. Effects of metal exposure on chlorophyll (Chl), bio-concentration factor (BCF), translocation factor (TF), and electrolyte leakage (EL) were analyzed after 10 days of treatment. Metal-responding genes were also observed through transcriptomic analysis. Roots were the primary organs for cadmium accumulation followed by stolon and leaves. There was an increase in EL. Plants showed various symptoms under increasing metal stress namely, chlorosis, browning of the leaf margins, burn-like areas on the leaves, and stunted growth, suggesting a positive relationship between EL, and programmed cell death (PCD). Metal-responsive genes, including glutathione, expansin, and cystatin were equally expressed. The phytoextraction capacity and adaptability of H. umbellata L. against Cd metal stress was also demonstrated by BCF more than 1 and TF less than 1.


The results of the current study demonstrated that Hydrocotyle umbellata is a good choice for environmental cleanup in areas with mild Cd contamination. According to TF and BCF, the plant demonstrated a considerable uptake of Cd. Additionally, H. umbellata's eligibility as a phytoremediation agent for Cd was supported by the transcription of numerous metal-responsive genes, including glutathione, expansin, cystatin, and other genes associated with growth.

16.
Cureus ; 15(10): e46442, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37927685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lack of awareness and information about PD may be a barrier to early diagnosis and the delivery of the best care to patients with the condition, given its rising prevalence. In order to determine the variables that are connected to these parameters, this study sought to ascertain the general public's knowledge and awareness of PD in Tabuk City. METHODS:  In Tabuk City, a cross-sectional demographic survey was carried out. A validated structured questionnaire was used to interview adult respondents by random sampling regarding specific knowledge, attitudes, and awareness related to Parkinson's disease. According to the density of the city, a total of 426 members of the general population were chosen at random and interviewed by skilled interviewers. RESULTS:  Age and educational attainment were independently linked to PD awareness. Bachelor's degree subjects and those between the ages of 18 and 45 displayed a greater awareness of PD. Those above 60 and those between the ages of 46 and 60 lacked sufficient knowledge. The majority of participants demonstrated adequate understanding and awareness of PD in their respective occupations. CONCLUSIONS:  Age, gender, occupation, and level of education were all adequately covered by knowledge and understanding of PD. To increase public knowledge, attitudes, and awareness of PD, however, suitable educational tactics and approaches targeting particular subgroups are required.

17.
PLoS One ; 18(11): e0293845, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37917783

RESUMO

Efforts to prevent human-to-human transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) by contaminated blood would be aided by the development of a sensitive diagnostic test that could be routinely used to screen blood donations. As blood samples from vCJD patients are extremely rare, here we describe the optimisation of real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) for detection of PrPSc (misfolded prion protein, a marker of prion infection) in blood samples from an established large animal model of vCJD, sheep experimentally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Comparative endpoint titration experiments with RT-QuIC, miniaturized bead protein misfolding cyclic amplification (mb-PMCA) and intracerebral inoculation of a transgenic mouse line expressing sheep PrP (tgOvARQ), demonstrated highly sensitive detection of PrPSc by RT-QuIC in a reference sheep brain homogenate. Upon addition of a capture step with iron oxide beads, the RT-QuIC assay was able to detect PrPSc in whole blood samples from BSE-infected sheep up to two years before disease onset. Both RT-QuIC and mb-PMCA also demonstrated sensitive detection of PrPSc in a reference vCJD-infected human brain homogenate, suggesting that either assay may be suitable for application to human blood samples. Our results support the further development and evaluation of RT-QuIC as a diagnostic or screening test for vCJD.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Creutzfeldt-Jakob , Encefalopatia Espongiforme Bovina , Príons , Bovinos , Camundongos , Humanos , Animais , Ovinos , Príons/metabolismo , Síndrome de Creutzfeldt-Jakob/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Creutzfeldt-Jakob/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteínas Priônicas/metabolismo , Encefalopatia Espongiforme Bovina/diagnóstico , Encefalopatia Espongiforme Bovina/metabolismo
18.
Plants (Basel) ; 12(20)2023 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37896022

RESUMO

Salinity is one of the major environmental stresses threatening crop production, the natural ecosystem, global food security, and the socioeconomic health of humans. Thus, the development of eco-friendly strategies to mitigate saline stress and/or enhance crop tolerance is an important issue worldwide. Therefore, this study was conducted during the summer of 2022 to investigate the potential of 24-Epibrassinolide (EBL) for mitigating saline stress and improving photosynthetic capacity, antioxidant defense systems, mineral uptake, and yield in maize (Zea mays L.) grown under a controlled hydroponic system. Three saline stress levels-S1 (control/no added NaCl), S2 (60 mM NaCl), and S3 (120 mM NaCl)-were continuously applied with nutrient solution, whereas exogenous EBL (i.e., control, 0.1 µM and 0.2 µM) was applied as exogenous application three times (i.e., 40, 55, 70 days after sowing). The experiment was designed as a split-plot in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) in which saline stress was the main factor and EBL treatment was the sub-factor. Results showed that saline stress significantly affected plant growth, physiological performance, biochemistry, antioxidant activity, and yield attributes. However, the exogenous application of EBL at 0.2 µM significantly mitigated the salt stress and thus improved plant performance even under 120 mM NaCl saline stress. For instance, as compared to untreated plants (control), 0.2 µM EBL application improved plant height (+18%), biomass (+19%), SPAD (+32%), Fv/Fm (+28%), rate of photosynthesis (+11%), carboxylation efficiency (+6%), superoxide dismutase (SOD +14%), catalase (CAT +18%), ascorbate peroxidase (APX +20%), K+ (+24%), 100-grain weight (+11%), and grain yield (+47%) of maize grown under salt stress. Additionally, it resulted in a 23% reduction in Na+ accumulation in leaves and a 25% reduction in for Na+/K+ ratio under saline stress as compared to control. Furthermore, the Pearson's correlation and principal component analysis (PCA) highlighted the significance of exogenous EBL as saline stress mitigator in maize. Overall, our results indicated the protective effects of EBL application to the alleviation of saline stress in crop plants. However, further exploration of its mechanism of action and crop-specific response is suggested prior to commercial use in agriculture.

19.
Cureus ; 15(10): e47136, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37854474

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought vaccination to the forefront of global attention. The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, an mRNA vaccine that encodes the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) glycoprotein spike, has emerged as a significant player in global vaccination efforts. It is generated from lipid nanoparticles and has been subject to various regulatory approvals and authorizations. The United Kingdom became the first country to approve the Pfizer vaccine on December 2, 2020. The World Health Organization (WHO) authorized the emergency use of the Pfizer vaccine on December 31, 2020, facilitating its production and distribution worldwide. In Saudi Arabia, as well as globally, concerns about the safety and effectiveness of vaccines have been raised. Several studies have reported side effects of the Pfizer vaccine, including rare conditions such as myocarditis. In our study, we aimed to systematically investigate the symptoms experienced after vaccination, considering the administration of three doses. We also explored the duration of these symptoms and whether they necessitated hospital visits, primary healthcare interventions, or resolved on their own. Our study employed an online cross-sectional design conducted in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, utilizing an online self-reported survey. A total of 332 participants who met the predefined criteria were recruited for the study. The rate of COVID-19 infection after 1st and 2nd doses of Pfizer and AstraZeneca vaccines was significantly lower in middle-age subgroups (31-45 years), in comparison to young (18-30 years) and upper middle-age subgroups (46-60 years). For the AstraZeneca vaccine, the infection rate in the middle-aged group was higher after 2nd dose as compared to its 1st dose. Overall, greater infection rates were observed in upper-middle-aged subgroups with all doses of Pfizer and AstraZeneca vaccines. Fatigue and fever were the most common generalized side effects while redness/swelling/pain at the injection site, muscle pain, and joint pain were the most important local side-effects. Fatigue, fever, muscle pain, and joint pain were significantly common after 1st dose of Pfizer and fever was a significant side effect after 2nd dose of Pfizer in comparison to AstraZeneca doses. Understanding the spectrum of side effects associated with the vaccine is crucial for healthcare professionals and individuals receiving the vaccine, as it enables informed decision-making and appropriate management of potential adverse reactions.

20.
Saudi Pharm J ; 31(10): 101759, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37705879

RESUMO

Background: Limited reports addressing physicians' understanding of the various low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets/statin intensity required for treating the various dyslipidemia patient populations in Saudi Arabia are available. Therefore, the current study assessed the perceptions and beliefs of practicing clinicians in Saudi Arabia regarding the current practice for management of dyslipidemia and potential perceived barriers to adherence to lipid guidelines encountered in their regular clinical practice. Knowledge of different clinical practices and beliefs could have a positive impact on improving the quality of future care provided by physicians. Methods: A survey questionnaire was designed to assess physicians' familiarity, usage, and adherence to seven different international guidelines and used to evaluate the management of dyslipidemia, practice of patient treatment, and perceived obstacles to adhering to lipid guidelines related to specific patients, doctors, and practice issues. Results: A total of 467 physicians were recruited for the study: (1) 57.2% were primary care physicians (PCPs) and (2) 42.8% were specialists. About 90.8% of them followed lipid guidelines of which the most common set were based on those by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association. The most utilized risk assessment tool was the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk calculator. About 60% of the physicians set an LDL-C target for their patients based on a combination of patients' risk factors and lipid profiles. In all, 42.1% of the physicians chose not to change existing therapy among patients with dyslipidemia to attain a non-high-density lipoprotein goal with controlled LDL-C level. Atorvastatin accounted for the greatest percentage of primary and secondary prevention choices (71.9% and 69.6%, respectively). Rosuvastatin was mostly preferred by physicians for patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. About two-thirds of the physicians (77.9%) prescribed statins to diabetic patients aged 40-75 years. Statin intolerance was encountered by 62.9% of the physicians in ≤ 10% of patients by 62.9%. Therapeutic strategies included switching to an alternative statin (40.1%) followed by reducing the statin dose (35.3%). Ezetimibe was prescribed by most physicians (77.9%) as an add-on to statin if the LDL-C target was not achieved. Fibrate was most preferred by physicians (62.7%) for hypertriglyceremia treatment followed by statins (28.7% of the physicians). Sixty-six percent reported not using proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 serine protease inhibitors in their clinical practice due to unavailability at their institute (51.8%), high costs (26.3%), and/or lack of knowledge (20.6%). Perceived barriers to guideline adherence identified by physicians were lack of familiarity and knowledge of the guidelines, patient non-adherence, medication costs, and lack of timely follow-up appointments and educational tools. Multiple similarities and differences were observed after comparisons were made between specialists and PCPs in terms of guideline preference, clinical practice, and perceived barriers. Conclusion: Different perceptions and attitudes among physicians in Saudi Arabia were found due to variable recommendations by international lipid guidelines. Perceived barriers that included the patient, physician, and practice were identified by physicians at multiple levels. Multiple challenges and different action gaps were observed when comparing specialists to PCPs. It is recommended that standardized practices be followed by clinicians in Saudi Arabia, and actions to address the outlined barriers are essential for optimizing health outcomes and ASCVD prevention.

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